Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Poland national football team
The Poland national football team represents Poland in association football and is controlled by the Polish Football Association, the governing body for football in Poland. At the FIFA World Cup, the current best result for Poland are two bronze medals won in 1974 and 1982, with this era being regarded as the golden era of Polish international association football. At the Euros, Poland's best result is reaching the quarter-finals in 2016, in Poland's third consecutive appearance at the competition. Poland's debut at the Euros was in 2008, they were co-hosts of the 2012 edition, along with Ukraine. Overall, Poland's best result in international football tournaments as a whole was the gold medal won at the 1972 Munich Olympics, along with winning the silver medal on two occasions; the first football federation was established on 25 June 1911 in Lwów as the Polish Football Union. After I World War members of PFU established on 20 December 1919 in Warsaw the Polish Football Federation. Poland would play its first official international match on 18 December 1921 in Budapest, where the side lost to Hungary 1–0.
Their first international win would come on 28 May 1922 where they took on Sweden in Stockholm and beat them 2–1. Poland qualified for their first World Cup in 1937 when they beat Yugoslavia 4–0 and lost 1–0 in the two qualifying matches and ensured their place in the 1938 World Cup in France. During their debut in the World Cup, Poland would play Brazil in a match which would become one of the most memorable matches in World Cup history. Despite Brazil not being regarded as the world's top team in the 1930s, it was still believed to be a hard-to-beat side, having participated in two first World Cups. Under these circumstances, the Polish team – which had never before participated on such a level – was expected to lose the game against the South Americans. Thus, the defeat was not a sensation. However, all fans were surprised at the style with which the Poles played their lone game of the tournament; the white and reds got to the extra time, only losing 5–6. Ernest Wilimowski, who played for Ruch Chorzów at the time, scored four of Poland's five goals, which to date is one of the most impressive individual performances in the history of the World Cup.
Poland played what would be their last international match before the outbreak of World War II against Hungary, the runners-up in the 1938 World Cup. The match stands out as an achievement as Poland defeated the favored Hungarian side 4–2. On 11 June 1946, following the aftermath of World War II, Poland played their first international friendly match, against Norway in Oslo, a 3–1 defeat; the biggest success in the early years after the war was the victory against one of Europe's best at the time, Czechoslovakia. Poland defeated their southern neighbors 3–1. Poland suffered the worst defeat in the team's history on 26 April 1948 with a 0–8 loss to the Danish side. Poland would erase that memory as they posted their second highest victory in Szczecin when they took down Norway 9–0 on 4 September 1963; the game marked the debut for Włodzimierz Lubański. He scored one of the goals in the game. Lubański became the all-time top scorer for Poland while playing from 1963 to 1980 scoring 48 goals in 75 appearances.
This victory was surpassed on 1 April 2009 in Kielce when Poland defeated San Marino 10–0. On 1 December 1970, Polish football history would change forever all due to one man. Kazimierz Górski was named head coach of the national team, his success with the team was evident from the start with a gold medal at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Górski would lead the team to another medal at the 1976 Olympics where they captured silver. However, nothing matched the two bronze medals at the 1982 World Cups. Poland being unknown on the international football scene before 1974 shook up the football world during the World Cup in Germany. However, this was no huge surprise as the core of the team achieved a gold medal place in the Munich Olympics in 1972; the Olympics were not considered a major tournament by most Western nations, but Eastern European countries bypassed the amateur rules by fielding their full national teams, as most players had employment with national industries or within the army. With their lightning speed and incredible team chemistry they were unstoppable.
In qualifying they surprised everyone by eliminating England, quarter-finalists in 1970 and Champions in 1966. In their opening match of Germany'74 Poland met Argentina, a team, appearing in their 6th World Cup. Within eight minutes Poland were up 2–0, Grzegorz Lato opened the scoring in the seventh minute and just a minute Andrzej Szarmach doubled the lead. In the 60th minute, Argentina cut the lead in half. Two minutes however, Lato scored his second, which turned out to be the winning goal as Carlos Babington gave Argentina their second in the 66th; the match finished 3–2 for Poland. Poland thrashed Haiti 7–0 in their second game; the goals included a hat-trick from two from Lato. In their final match of the first stage, Poland met Italy, who finished second at the previous World Cup in 1970. Poland were through to the Second Round but needed at least a draw to win the group. At half-time, Poland was leading 2 -- 0 on goals from Kazimierz Deyna, it was not until the 86th minute. This gave Poland their third consecutive win.
In the second round, Poland first won 1–0 against a Swedish side, which had not conceded any goals in their first three matches
Bartosz Bosacki is a former Polish footballer who played as a defender. On 22 May 2006, Paweł Janas called up Bosacki for the 2006 World Cup as a replacement for Damian Gorawski, after the latter failed medical tests upon being diagnosed with severe asthma. Bosacki scored both goals in Poland's group-stage 2–1 win against Costa Rica on 20 June 2006, which were in fact the only goals scored by the Polish national team during the games, he scored two goals. Bartosz Bosacki at 90minut.pl Bartosz Bosacki at National-Football-Teams.com
Solna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, a part of the Stockholm urban area; the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, unusual for Swedish municipalities, which are of mixed rural/urban character. Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area. Solna borders Stockholm Municipality to the south and northwest; the boundary with Danderyd Municipality is delineated by the Stocksundet sea strait. There are two parishes in Solna Municipality: Solna. Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions: Bergshamra, Hagalund, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda and Ulriksdal; the largest districts are Råsunda and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them. With few exceptions, Solna's built-up areas have a suburban character, but there are several large parks and Friends Arena, Sweden's new national football stadium adjacent to the Solna station of Stockholm commuter rail.
The final matches of both the 1958 FIFA World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012. Solna has low tax rates and has attracted a wide range of companies and authorities, making it a major place of work in Stockholm. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet and the Karolinska University Hospital; the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute are located in Solna. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 30 601, or 38.39% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 14 986, or 26.02% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 79 707 residents in Solna, of which 23 597 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
As with all 290 municipalities of Sweden, Solna has a municipal assembly, holding 61 members elected by proportional representation for a four-year term. An executive committee is appointed by its members. 1943-1956 CA Andersson 1956-1967 KA Larsson 1968-1976 CG Eklund 1977-1982 Sune Berglund 1983-1988 Gösta Fagerberg 1989-1991 Karl Gustav Svensson 1991-1994 Anders Gustâv 1994-1998 Karl Gustav Svensson 1998-2006 Anders Gustâv 2006 Anders Ekegren 2006-2011 Lars-Erik Salminen 2011 Anders Ekegren - 8 juni-24 juli 2011-2012 Lars-Erik Salminen 2012- Pehr Granfalk =Moderate Party =Social Democratic Party =Liberal Party Solna is centrally located in Stockholm and is well served by the Stockholm public transport system with two commuter train stations and six Metro stations as well as a dense bus network run by SL. It was served by trams until 1959. Trams returned after 54 years of absence. A further extension will be opened in 2014. Skanska, NextJet, Vattenfall have their head offices in Solna. Mall of Scandinavia is located in Solna.
The head office of Scandinavian Airlines and SAS Group is located in Solna. The airline head office was located on the property of Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sigtuna Municipality, but now it is back in Solna. Haga Park, part of the Royal National City Park, was initiated by king Gustav III, planned and carried out in the English landscaping style; the city features three of Sweden's royal palaces. Friends Arena, the Swedish national arena of association football, home of local football club AIK. Mall of Scandinavia, Scandinavia's biggest shopping mall The Solna Church was constructed in the 12th century. For defensive purposes, it was built as a round church, is one of few of that kind in Sweden; the following football clubs are located in Solna: AIK Blue Hill KF Råsunda IS Vasalunds IF Solna Gymnasium is the senior high school/sixth form college of Solna. Solna is twinned with: Gladsaxe, Denmark Ski, Norway Pirkkala, Finland Valmiera, Latvia Burbank, California, USAPartnershipsIn addition to this, Solna has two cooperating cities, Greece Bemowo, Poland Category:People from Solna Municipality Football World Cup 1958 1992 European Football Championship FIFA Women's World Cup 1995 Solna Municipality - Official site Solna Municipality - Tourist Guide in English
Ruda Śląska is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. It is a district in the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, a metropolis with a population of 2 million, it is located on the Kłodnica river. It has been part of the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999, it was in Katowice Voivodeship, before part of the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. Ruda Śląska is one of the cities in the Katowice urban area and within the greater Silesian metropolitan area; the population of the city is 143,583. A large village is known to have existed at the location of the present day city center in 1243; the city name appears to indicate the awareness and exploitation of ores from early times. The area underwent rapid industrialization in the beginning of 20th century. However, it remained a cluster of industrial settlements and villages until the 1950s, when it was administratively united. However, it never developed into a unified city. After the fall of communism in 1989, the significant heavy industry was scaled down or restructured.
The area has been transforming to a service-based economy. The well-known still operating coal mine is "Halemba". Since 2007, Ruda Śląska has been a member of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, the largest recognized urban area in Poland. Significant roadways are the Drogowa Trasa Średnicowa. There are several small railway stations on the line Katowice-Gliwice. Since 1950, Ruda Śląska is the site of a transmission facility, used from 1950 to 1988 for medium-wave radio broadcasting; the neighboring cities of Katowice and Gliwice are large academic centers. Ruda Śląska is a seat of the Higher Academy of Commerce. Zgoda Ruda Śląska - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League: Polish Cup winner 2004. Rugby Club IGLOO Ruda Śląska – men's rugby team playing in Polish Ekstraliga Rugby Seven's The city of Ruda Śląska is divided into the following subdivisions: Marcin Baszczynski Günter Bialas, composer Paweł Cyganek Wenanty Fuhl Karl Godulla Otylia Jędrzejczak - Olympic gold medalist and world record-holder in swimming Kasia Moś - represented Poland At the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 Ernest Pohl Artur Sobiech Erwin WilczekRuda Śląska is the largest population center in Poland never to have been visited by Lech Wałęsa.
This is shown on a brass plaque on the side of the ratusz. Ruda Śląska is twinned with: Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland
This article refers to the Moscow government team formed in 2004. For the predecessors in the Russian Premier League, see FC Torpedo-ZIL and FC Torpedo-Metallurg. FC Moscow was a Russian football club based in Moscow; the creation of the team was first announced by the Moscow government on 1 March 2004. FC Moscow was formed on the base of FC Torpedo-Metallurg; the team played in the Russian Cup final in 2007. Moscow's best result in Russian Premier League was a 4th position in 2007. In February 2010 the club withdrew from the Premier League after their owner and main sponsor, MMC Norilsk Nickel, withdrew funding, their place in the league was taken by Alania Vladikavkaz. Subsequently FC Moscow folded, they played in 2010 in the fourth level of the Russian football pyramid, the Amateur Football League, after that season the team was dissolved altogether on 28 December. Soon after the club was reestablished and continue to compete in the Amateur Football League. During the professional period, E. Streltsov Stadium, in Moscow was used as home ground.
As Torpedo-ZIL, Torpedo-Metallurg. Russia Fans and journalists call FC Moskva The Citizens; the colloquial nickname for the club is The Caps. FC Moscow in its first appearance on the European arena reached the third round of 2006 Intertoto Cup and was eliminated by Hertha BSC Berlin. FC Moscow made their second appearance in Europe in the 2008–09 UEFA Cup, beating Legia Warsaw in the qualifying round. Had international caps for their respective countries. Players whose name is listed in bold represented their countries while playing for FC Moscow/Torpedo-ZIL/Torpedo-Metallurg. Oleg Blokhin Leonid Slutsky Sergei Petrenko Miodrag Božović Igor Zvezdin As of 1 January 2009. Including FC Torpedo-ZIL and FC Torpedo-Metallurg seasons. Héctor Bracamonte: 132 Konstantin Veselovskiy / Oleg Kuzmin: 115 Stanislav Ivanov: 112 Radu Rebeja: 110 Dmitri Godunok: 100 Maksim Beletskiy: 96 Yuri Zhevnov: 95 Mikhail Sinyov: 94 Munever Rizvić: 92 Pompiliu Stoica: 88 Mariusz Jop: 83 Valeri Leonov: 81 Aleksei Melyoshin: 78 Aleksandr Borodkin / Maksim Mishatkin: 76 Sergei Lavrentyev: 74 Sergey Shustikov: 73 Nikolai Barkalov: 72 Emin Agaev / Pyotr Bystrov / Aleksei Snigiryov: 70 Aleksei Snigiryov: 52 Héctor Bracamonte: 35 Gleb Panfyorov: 27 Dmitri Kirichenko: 26 Roman Adamov: 24 Sergei Lavrentyev: 21 Aleksandr Smirnov: 20 Yuri Yakovenko: 15 Konstantin Veselovskiy / Valeri Klimov: 13 http://www.fcmoscow.ru – Official website
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b