Damocloid

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Damocloids are a class of minor planets such as 5335 Damocles and 1996 PW that have Halley-family or long-period highly eccentric orbits typical of periodic comets such as Halley's Comet, but without showing a cometary coma or tail. David Jewitt defines a damocloid as an object with a Tisserand's parameter relative to Jupiter of 2 or less (TJ ≤ 2),[1] while Akimasa Nakamura defines this group with the following orbital criterion:[2]

  • q < 5.2 AU, a > 8.0 AU, and e > 0.75,
  • or alternatively, i > 90°

However, this definition that does not focus on Jupiter excludes objects such as (127546) 2002 XU93, 2003 WG166, and 2004 DA62.[3]

Using the Tisserand's parameter with respect to Jupiter of 2 or less, there are currently 155 damocloid candidates.[4] Of these objects, 122 have orbital observation arcs greater than 30 days providing reasonably decent orbits.[5][1] Their average radius is eight kilometers assuming an albedo of 0.04. The albedos of four damocloids have been measured, and they are among the darkest objects known in the Solar System. Damocloids are reddish in color, but not as red as many Kuiper-belt objects or centaurs. Other damocloids include: 2013 BL76, 2012 DR30, 2008 KV42, (65407) 2002 RP120, and 20461 Dioretsa.

Retrograde objects such as Halley's Comet and damocloid (343158) 2009 HC82 can have relative velocities to Earth of 81 km/s (290,000 km/h).[6]

Origin[edit]

Damocloids are thought to be nuclei of Halley-type comets that have lost all their volatile materials due to outgassing and become dormant. Such comets probably originate from the Oort cloud. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that a number of objects thought to be damocloids (and assigned minor-planet provisional designations) subsequently showed a coma and were confirmed to be comets: C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS), C/2002 CE10 (LINEAR), C/2002 VQ94 (LINEAR), C/2004 HV60 (Spacewatch) and possibly others. Another strong indication of cometary origin is the fact that some damocloids have retrograde orbits, unlike any other minor planets. (Objects with an inclination beyond 90 degrees up to 180 degrees are in a retrograde orbit and orbit in the opposite direction of other objects.)

List[edit]

This is a list of 14 numbered and 128 unnumbered bodies from the JPL SBDB as of April 2018, that meet Akimasa Nakamura's criteria for being classified as a damocloid, that is, either a retrograde orbit, or the following orbital elements: q < 5.2 AU, a > 8.0 AU, and e > 0.75 (also see § top). Tisserand's parameter with respect to Jupiter (TJupiter) is also given. Akimasa Nakamura's criteria and a TJupiter of less than 2 are largely equivalent as only 9 of the listed bodies (6%) do not meet the defined TJupiter threshold.

Designation a
(AU)
e i
(°)
Orbital criteria and classes q
(AU)
Q
(AU)
Catalog Refs
Cls Retro TJupiter TJ ≤ 2
5335 Damocles 11.83 0.866 61.7 CEN 1.15 Green tickY 1.58 22.08 LoMP JPL · MPC
(15504) 1999 RG33 9.38 0.774 34.9 CEN 1.952 Green tickY 2.12 16.65 LoMP JPL · MPC
20461 Dioretsa 23.9 0.9 160.4 CEN Green tickY -1.55 Green tickY 2.4 45.4 LoMP JPL · MPC
(65407) 2002 RP120 53.92 0.954 119 TNO Green tickY -0.833 Green tickY 2.45 105.39 LoMP JPL · MPC
(154783) 2004 PA44 14.21 0.76 3.3 CEN 2.512 3.41 25.01 LoMP JPL · MPC
(330759) 2008 SO218 8.11 0.564 170.3 CEN Green tickY -1.389 Green tickY 3.54 12.69 LoMP JPL · MPC
(336756) 2010 NV1 290.08 0.968 140.7 TNO Green tickY -2.904 Green tickY 9.4 570.76 LoMP JPL · MPC
(342842) 2008 YB3 11.62 0.441 105.1 CEN Green tickY -0.25 Green tickY 6.5 16.74 LoMP JPL · MPC
(343158) 2009 HC82 2.53 0.807 154.4 NEO Green tickY 1.317 Green tickY 0.49 4.57 LoMP JPL · MPC
(434620) 2005 VD 6.67 0.252 172.9 CEN Green tickY -1.394 Green tickY 4.99 8.35 LoMP JPL · MPC
(459870) 2014 AT28 10.93 0.404 165.6 CEN Green tickY -2.092 Green tickY 6.51 15.36 LoMP JPL · MPC
(468861) 2013 LU28 175.49 0.95 125.4 TNO Green tickY -2.064 Green tickY 8.73 342.26 LoMP JPL · MPC
(471325) 2011 KT19 35.58 0.331 110.1 TNO Green tickY -1.55 Green tickY 23.81 47.35 LoMP JPL · MPC
(514107) 2015 BZ509 5.14 0.381 163 Other Green tickY -0.745 Green tickY 3.18 7.09 LoMP JPL · MPC
(518151) 2016 FH13 24.55 0.615 93.5 CEN Green tickY -0.000 Green tickY 9.46 39.64 LoMP JPL · MPC
(523797) 2016 NM56 72.7 0.855 144 TNO Green tickY -3.0630 Green tickY 10.52 134.88 LoMP JPL · MPC
(523800) 2017 KZ31 53.4 0.795 161.7 TNO Green tickY -3.5950 Green tickY 10.96 95.84 LoMP JPL · MPC
1996 PW 251.53 0.99 29.8 TNO 1.72 Green tickY 2.51 500.56 JPL · MPC
1997 MD10 26.47 0.942 59.4 CEN 0.97 Green tickY 1.54 51.39 JPL · MPC
1998 QJ1 11.26 0.813 23.6 CEN 2.03 2.1 20.41 JPL · MPC
1998 WU24 15.16 0.905 42.5 CEN 1.413 Green tickY 1.44 28.88 JPL · MPC
1999 LE31 8.13 0.466 151.8 CEN Green tickY -1.311 Green tickY 4.34 11.93 JPL · MPC
1999 XS35 17.8 0.946 19.4 NEO 1.421 Green tickY 0.96 34.65 JPL · MPC
2000 AB229 52.89 0.956 68.6 TNO 0.781 Green tickY 2.32 103.47 JPL · MPC
2000 DG8 10.76 0.794 129.3 CEN Green tickY -0.623 Green tickY 2.21 19.31 JPL · MPC
2000 HE46 23.6 0.899 158.5 CEN Green tickY -1.517 Green tickY 2.39 44.8 JPL · MPC
2000 KP65 90.26 0.964 45.7 TNO 1.614 Green tickY 3.29 177.24 JPL · MPC
2002 RN109 564.22 0.995 58 TNO 1.088 Green tickY 2.7 1125.75 JPL · MPC
2003 UY283 33.34 0.895 18.9 TNO 2.294 3.51 63.17 JPL · MPC
2003 WN188 14.39 0.848 26.9 CEN 1.935 Green tickY 2.19 26.58 JPL · MPC
2004 CM111 33.93 0.852 4.7 TNO 2.819 5.03 62.84 JPL · MPC
2004 NN8 97.47 0.976 165.5 TNO Green tickY -1.774 Green tickY 2.35 192.58 JPL · MPC
2005 HL3 11.28 0.833 35.7 CEN 1.784 Green tickY 1.88 20.67 JPL · MPC
2005 NP82 5.87 0.478 130.5 CEN Green tickY -0.327 Green tickY 3.07 8.68 JPL · MPC
2005 OE 62.72 0.952 67.5 TNO 0.897 Green tickY 3.03 122.41 JPL · MPC
2005 SB223 29.47 0.906 91.3 CEN Green tickY 0.132 Green tickY 2.77 56.17 JPL · MPC
2005 TJ50 9.24 0.589 110.2 CEN Green tickY -0.181 Green tickY 3.8 14.68 JPL · MPC
2005 VX3 1042.77 0.996 112.2 TNO Green tickY -0.946 Green tickY 4.12 2081.42 JPL · MPC
2006 BZ8 9.61 0.803 165.3 CEN Green tickY -1.026 Green tickY 1.89 17.32 JPL · MPC
2006 EX52 42.71 0.94 150.2 TNO Green tickY -1.577 Green tickY 2.57 82.84 JPL · MPC
2006 LM1 37.18 0.9 172.1 TNO Green tickY -2.166 Green tickY 3.71 70.66 JPL · MPC
2006 RG1 25.39 0.921 133.4 CEN Green tickY -0.978 Green tickY 2.01 48.76 JPL · MPC
2006 RJ2 9.68 0.762 164.6 CEN Green tickY -1.164 Green tickY 2.3 17.05 JPL · MPC
2006 SO134 19.53 0.83 4.2 CEN 2.42 3.31 35.75 JPL · MPC
2007 DA61 496.46 0.995 76.7 TNO 0.476 Green tickY 2.68 990.24 JPL · MPC
2007 VW266 5.44 0.39 108.3 Other Green tickY 0.365 Green tickY 3.32 7.56 JPL · MPC
2008 BN18 30.42 0.914 28.8 TNO 1.888 Green tickY 2.61 58.24 JPL · MPC
2008 KV42 41.5 0.491 103.4 TNO Green tickY -1.015 Green tickY 21.11 61.9 JPL · MPC
2008 SE82 19.31 0.835 17.4 CEN 2.292 3.19 35.43 JPL · MPC
2008 WA95 14.06 0.877 60.2 CEN 1.156 Green tickY 1.73 26.39 JPL · MPC
2009 AU16 23.68 0.918 69.8 CEN 0.804 Green tickY 1.94 45.43 JPL · MPC
2009 DD47 47.98 0.954 107.5 TNO Green tickY -0.439 Green tickY 2.22 93.73 JPL · MPC
2009 FW23 11.52 0.855 86.6 CEN 0.542 Green tickY 1.67 21.37 JPL · MPC
2009 QY6 12.47 0.835 137.6 CEN Green tickY -0.842 Green tickY 2.06 22.88 JPL · MPC
2009 YS6 20.18 0.921 147.8 CEN Green tickY -1.044 Green tickY 1.6 38.76 JPL · MPC
2010 BK118 416.05 0.985 143.9 TNO Green tickY -2.451 Green tickY 6.09 826.02 JPL · MPC
2010 CG55 32 0.91 146.3 TNO Green tickY -1.548 Green tickY 2.88 61.12 JPL · MPC
2010 EB46 31.43 0.952 156.6 TNO Green tickY -1.213 Green tickY 1.5 61.35 JPL · MPC
2010 EJ104 21.64 0.901 41.6 CEN 1.564 Green tickY 2.14 41.14 JPL · MPC
2010 EQ169 2.05 0.102 91.6 MBA Green tickY 2.501 1.84 2.26 JPL · MPC
2010 GW64 63.35 0.941 105.2 TNO Green tickY -0.538 Green tickY 3.73 122.98 JPL · MPC
2010 GW147 165.99 0.968 99.8 TNO Green tickY -0.452 Green tickY 5.38 326.59 JPL · MPC
2010 JH124 69.18 0.962 53.4 TNO 1.256 Green tickY 2.6 135.77 JPL · MPC
2010 JC147 14.62 0.763 41.8 CEN 1.971 Green tickY 3.46 25.78 JPL · MPC
2010 LG61 7.07 0.807 123.7 CEN Green tickY -0.029 Green tickY 1.37 12.77 JPL · MPC
2010 OR1 26.99 0.925 143.9 CEN Green tickY -1.209 Green tickY 2.04 51.95 JPL · MPC
2010 OM101 26.06 0.919 118.8 CEN Green tickY -0.65 Green tickY 2.12 50.01 JPL · MPC
2010 PO58 13.25 0.78 121.3 CEN Green tickY -0.646 Green tickY 2.91 23.58 JPL · MPC
2011 MM4 21.13 0.473 100.5 CEN Green tickY -0.4 Green tickY 11.14 31.12 JPL · MPC
2011 OR17 259.22 0.988 110.5 TNO Green tickY -0.742 Green tickY 3.11 515.33 JPL · MPC
2011 SP25 19.58 0.884 109 CEN Green tickY -0.324 Green tickY 2.27 36.89 JPL · MPC
2011 UR402 18.73 0.78 24.6 CEN 2.436 4.11 33.35 JPL · MPC
2011 WS41 38.31 0.946 141.6 TNO Green tickY -1.248 Green tickY 2.08 74.54 JPL · MPC
2012 HD2 62.39 0.959 146.9 TNO Green tickY -1.563 Green tickY 2.56 122.21 JPL · MPC
2012 KA51 224.45 0.978 70.7 TNO 0.928 Green tickY 4.91 444 JPL · MPC
2012 TL139 30.14 0.883 160 TNO Green tickY -1.949 Green tickY 3.52 56.77 JPL · MPC
2012 YO6 6.32 0.478 106.9 CEN Green tickY 0.261 Green tickY 3.3 9.34 JPL · MPC
2012 YE8 9.38 0.592 136.1 CEN Green tickY -1.005 Green tickY 3.83 14.93 JPL · MPC
2013 BN27 66.41 0.976 101.8 TNO Green tickY -0.238 Green tickY 1.57 131.26 JPL · MPC
2013 BL76 1036.23 0.992 98.6 TNO Green tickY -0.53 Green tickY 8.36 2064.1 JPL · MPC
2013 HS150 26.15 0.894 96.5 CEN Green tickY -0.027 Green tickY 2.78 49.52 JPL · MPC
2013 JD4 12.1 0.866 73 CEN 0.877 Green tickY 1.62 22.58 JPL · MPC
2013 LA2 7.51 0.594 175.2 CEN Green tickY -1.233 Green tickY 3.05 11.97 JPL · MPC
2013 LD16 79.99 0.968 154.8 TNO Green tickY -1.712 Green tickY 2.55 157.43 JPL · MPC
2013 LG29 16.95 0.791 15.4 CEN 2.438 3.55 30.35 JPL · MPC
2013 NS11 12.65 0.787 130.3 CEN Green tickY -0.834 Green tickY 2.7 22.61 JPL · MPC
2013 YG48 8.19 0.752 61.3 CEN 1.429 Green tickY 2.03 14.36 JPL · MPC
2014 CW14 27.76 0.846 170.7 CEN Green tickY -2.246 Green tickY 4.28 51.24 JPL · MPC
2014 JJ57 6.99 0.293 95.9 CEN Green tickY 0.516 Green tickY 4.94 9.04 JPL · MPC
2014 MH55 27.54 0.838 91.5 CEN Green tickY 0.124 Green tickY 4.45 50.63 JPL · MPC
2014 PP69 21.36 0.942 93.6 NEO Green tickY 0.157 Green tickY 1.25 41.46 JPL · MPC
2014 SQ339 28.66 0.903 128.5 CEN Green tickY -1.075 Green tickY 2.78 54.54 JPL · MPC
2014 UV114 6.36 0.385 170.5 CEN Green tickY -1.195 Green tickY 3.91 8.81 JPL · MPC
2014 XS3 75.07 0.957 101.4 TNO Green tickY -0.367 Green tickY 3.25 146.89 JPL · MPC
2015 AO44 22.15 0.836 140 CEN Green tickY -1.497 Green tickY 3.63 40.67 JPL · MPC
2015 BH311 9.17 0.729 94.5 CEN Green tickY 0.424 Green tickY 2.49 15.85 JPL · MPC
2015 FK37 191.08 0.974 156.1 TNO Green tickY -2.478 Green tickY 4.95 377.22 JPL · MPC
2015 RK245 81.99 0.966 91.6 TNO Green tickY 0.007 Green tickY 2.76 161.22 JPL · MPC
2015 TN178 57.01 0.958 91.1 TNO Green tickY 0.055 Green tickY 2.39 111.64 JPL · MPC
2015 TS350 138.64 0.964 58.1 TNO 1.497 Green tickY 5.05 272.23 JPL · MPC
2015 XN63 19.91 0.932 19.7 CEN 1.601 Green tickY 1.36 38.45 JPL · MPC
2015 XX351 14.61 0.854 159.1 CEN Green tickY -1.27 Green tickY 2.13 27.09 JPL · MPC
2015 XR384 37.1 0.904 157.5 TNO Green tickY -1.974 Green tickY 3.58 70.62 JPL · MPC
2015 YY18 19.5 0.831 118.2 CEN Green tickY -0.752 Green tickY 3.29 35.7 JPL · MPC
2016 CO264 48.39 0.938 129.8 TNO Green tickY -1.251 Green tickY 3.02 93.77 JPL · MPC
2016 DF2 5.58 0.415 166.8 CEN Green tickY -0.904 Green tickY 3.27 7.9 JPL · MPC
2016 EJ203 67.48 0.959 171 TNO Green tickY -1.928 Green tickY 2.74 132.23 JPL · MPC
2016 JK24 13.05 0.66 152.3 CEN Green tickY -1.708 Green tickY 4.43 21.66 JPL · MPC
2016 LS 13.34 0.608 114.3 CEN Green tickY -0.659 Green tickY 5.24 21.45 JPL · MPC
2016 PN66 31.46 0.908 105.1 TNO Green tickY -0.372 Green tickY 2.9 60.02 JPL · MPC
2016 PO66 49.66 0.996 53.1 NEO 0.442 Green tickY 0.21 99.12 JPL · MPC
2016 TK2 9.18 0.552 92.3 CEN Green tickY 0.477 Green tickY 4.12 14.24 JPL · MPC
2016 TP93 7.48 0.56 138.3 CEN Green tickY -0.787 Green tickY 3.29 11.67 JPL · MPC
2016 US109 36.45 0.949 87.2 TNO 0.225 Green tickY 1.86 71.03 JPL · MPC
2016 VY17 11.2 0.851 148.4 CEN Green tickY -0.847 Green tickY 1.67 20.73 JPL · MPC
2016 WS1 14.48 0.883 53 CEN 1.303 Green tickY 1.7 27.26 JPL · MPC
2016 YB13 5.46 0.408 139.7 Other Green tickY -0.473 Green tickY 3.23 7.69 JPL · MPC
2017 AX13 28.5 0.882 137.2 CEN Green tickY -1.433 Green tickY 3.35 53.66 JPL · MPC
2017 BD86 5.5 0.475 159.2 CEN Green tickY -0.746 Green tickY 2.89 8.11 JPL · MPC
2017 CW32 187.66 0.984 152.4 TNO Green tickY -1.855 Green tickY 2.96 372.37 JPL · MPC
2017 EE 17.92 0.884 73.9 CEN 0.772 Green tickY 2.08 33.76 JPL · MPC
2017 EM4 33.5 0.921 83.4 TNO 0.382 Green tickY 2.65 64.35 JPL · MPC
2017 GD8 43.29 0.947 74.9 TNO 0.601 Green tickY 2.28 84.3 JPL · MPC
2017 JB6 32.8 0.884 160.9 TNO Green tickY -2.06 Green tickY 3.81 61.78 JPL · MPC
2017 MZ4 66.2 0.952 65.8 TNO 0.973 Green tickY 3.18 129.21 JPL · MPC
2017 MB7 4059.09 0.999 55.7 TNO 1.474 Green tickY 4.45 8113.72 JPL · MPC
2017 NM2 14.67 0.625 101.3 CEN Green tickY -0.159 Green tickY 5.5 23.84 JPL · MPC
2017 OX68 59.01 0.971 94.7 TNO Green tickY -0.046 Green tickY 1.74 116.29 JPL · MPC
2017 PY24 17.38 0.924 71.8 CEN 0.736 Green tickY 1.31 33.45 JPL · MPC
2017 QO33 34.55 0.857 148.8 TNO Green tickY -2.12 Green tickY 4.93 64.17 JPL · MPC
2017 RR2 17.21 0.849 88.6 CEN 0.35 Green tickY 2.61 31.82 JPL · MPC
2017 SV13 9.68 0.793 113.2 CEN Green tickY -0.119 Green tickY 2.01 17.36 JPL · MPC
2017 SN33 280.77 0.993 152.1 TNO Green tickY -1.465 Green tickY 1.84 559.71 JPL · MPC
2017 UW51 137.18 0.977 144.2 TNO Green tickY -1.732 Green tickY 3.13 271.23 JPL · MPC
2017 UX51 30.26 0.749 90.5 TNO Green tickY 0.142 Green tickY 7.61 52.91 JPL · MPC
2017 UR52 411.87 0.997 108.2 NEO Green tickY -0.42 Green tickY 1.24 822.49 JPL · MPC
2018 AS18 13.02 0.873 63 CEN 1.101 Green tickY 1.66 24.39 JPL · MPC
2018 DE4 32.65 0.927 81.3 TNO 0.443 Green tickY 2.39 62.9 JPL · MPC
2018 DF4 100.35 0.984 68.2 TNO 0.632 Green tickY 1.6 199.11 JPL · MPC
2018 DO4 27.52 0.912 160.5 CEN Green tickY -1.5900 Green tickY 2.42 52.61 JPL · MPC
2018 EN4 18.34 0.921 81.6 CEN 0.4980 Green tickY 1.45 35.24 JPL · MPC
2018 EF9
C/2018 EF9 (Lemmon)
533.09 0.997 84.7 comet 0.1530 Green tickY 1.56 1064.62 JPL · MPC
2018 KH3 101.19 0.963 46.9 TNO 1.670 Green tickY 3.7 198.67 JPL · MPC
2018 KJ3
C/2018 KJ3 (Lemmon)
151.64 0.976 136.6 comet Green tickY -1.710 Green tickY 3.63 299.65 JPL · MPC
Designation a
(AU)
e i
(°)
Orbital criteria and classes q
(AU)
Q
(AU)
Catalog Refs
Cls Retro TJupiter TJ ≤ 2

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b David Jewitt (August 2013). "The DAMOCLOIDS". UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Sciences. Retrieved 2014-02-14. (2013 list / 2011 list / 2010 list)
  2. ^ Akimasa Nakamura and bas (2 May 2009). "List of Damocloids (Oort cloud asteroids)". Lowell Observatory. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  3. ^ Jewitt, David (2005). "A first look at the Damocloids" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 129 (1): 530–538. Bibcode:2005AJ....129..530J. doi:10.1086/426328. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
  4. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: asteroids and T-Jupiter <= 2". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2017-02-20. Search parameters used: Limited by object type/group: Asteroids and T-Jupiter <= 2
  5. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: asteroids and T-Jupiter <= 2 and data-arc span > 30 (d)". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
  6. ^ "NEO Close-Approaches (Between 1900 and 2200)". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program. Retrieved 2012-06-22. (sorted by descending relative velocity, dist<0.5AU = "215,221 close-Earth approaches")

External links[edit]