Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in German Bundesstadt, French Ville Fédérale, Italian Città Federale. With a population of 142,493, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland; the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons; the official language in Bern is German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German. In 1983, the historic old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on folk etymology, Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, this turned out to be a bear, it has long been considered that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German.
As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin *berna "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s; the earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today′s city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, thought to be one of the 12 oppida of the Helvetii mentioned by Caesar. During the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site; the Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor. In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city; the medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in Upper Burgundy in the 12th century.
According to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a free imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps; the city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare. The Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, it was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were replaced by half-timbered houses and subsequently the sandstone buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town.
Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow due to immigration from the surrounding countryside. Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of parts of its territories, it regained control of the Bernese Oberland in 1802, following the Congress of Vienna of 1814, it newly acquired the Bernese Jura. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the Restoration and until the secession of the canton of Jura in 1979. Bern was made the Federal City within the new Swiss federal state in 1848. A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Bern during World War I when Switzerland was neutral; the city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased to below 130,000 by 2000.
As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate urban agglomeration. Bern lies on the Swiss plateau in the canton of Bern west of the centre of Switzerland and 20 km north of the Bernese Alps; the countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of 864 m and Bantiger with a height of 947 m; the site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at 46°57′08.66″N 7°26′22.50″E. The city was built on a hilly peninsula surrounded by the river Aare, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on uneven ground. An elevation difference of several metres exists betwe
A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. A music venue range in size and location, from an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a concert hall to an indoor sports stadium. Different types of venues host different genres of music. Opera houses and concert halls host classical music performances, whereas public houses and discothèques offer music in contemporary genres, such as rock, dance and pop. Music venues may be either or publicly funded, may charge for admission. An example of a publicly funded music venue is a park bandstand. A nightclub is a funded venue. Music venues do not host live acts. Depending on the type of venue, the opening hours and length of performance may differ, as well as the technology used to deliver the music in the venue. Other attractions, such as performance art or social activities, may be available, either while music is playing or at other times. For example, at a bar or pub, the house band may be playing live songs while drinks are being served, between songs, recorded music may be played.
Some classes of venues may play live music in the background, such as a performance on a grand piano in a restaurant. Music venues can be categorised in a number of ways; the genre of music played at the venue, whether it is temporary and who owns the venue decide many of the other characteristics. The majority of music venues are permanent. An example of a temporary venue would be one constructed for a music festival. Music venues may be the result of public enterprises; some venues only promote acts of one particular genre and example of this are opera houses. Music venues can be categorised by capacity. Music venues are either indoor. Examples of outdoor venues include bandshells. A temporary music festival is an outdoor venue. Examples of indoor venues include public houses, coffee bars and stadia. Venues can play live music, recorded music, or a combination of the two, depending on the event or time of day. A characteristic of every live music venue is that one or more stages are present. Venues may advance tickets only.
A dress code may not apply. Amphitheaters are round- or oval-shaped and unroofed. Permanent seating at amphitheaters is tiered. A bandshell is a large, outdoor performing structure used by concert bands and orchestras; the roof and the back half of the shell protect musicians from the elements and reflect sound through the open side and out towards the audience. Bandstand is a small outdoor structure. A concert hall is a performance venue constructed for instrumental classical music. A concert hall may exist as part of a larger performing arts center. Jazz clubs are an example of a venue, dedicated to a specific genre of music. In Japan, small live music clubs are known as live houses featuring rock, jazz and folk music, have existed since the 1970s, now being found across the country. An opera house is a theatre venue constructed for opera. An opera house has a spacious orchestra pit, where a large number of orchestra players may be seated at a level below the audience
Fossil fuel power station
A fossil fuel power station is a thermal power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which operates an electrical generator; the prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating internal combustion engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding either steam or combustion gases. Although different energy conversion methods exist, all thermal power station conversion methods have efficiency limited by the Carnot efficiency and therefore produce waste heat. By-products of fossil fuel power plant operation must be considered in their operation; the flue gas from combustion of the fossil fuels is discharged to the air.
This gas contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as other substances such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, traces of other metals, for coal-fired plants, fly ash. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must be removed; some coal ash can be recycled for building materials. Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, a major contributor to global warming; the results of a recent study show that the net income available to shareholders of large companies could see a significant reduction from the greenhouse gas emissions liability related to only natural disasters in the United States from a single coal-fired power plant. However, as of 2015, no such cases have awarded damages in the United States. Per unit of electric energy, brown coal emits nearly two times as much CO2 as natural gas, black coal emits somewhat less than brown. Carbon capture and storage of emissions has been proposed to limit the environmental impact of fossil fuel power stations, but it is still at a demonstration stage.
In a fossil fuel power plant the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas or oil shale and oxygen of the air is converted successively into thermal energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy. Each fossil fuel power plant is a custom-designed system. Construction costs, as of 2004, run to $650 million for a 500 MWe unit. Multiple generating units may be built at a single site for more efficient use of land, natural resources and labor. Most thermal power stations in the world use fossil fuel, outnumbering nuclear, biomass, or solar thermal plants; the second law of thermodynamics states that any closed-loop cycle can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into mechanical work. The rest of the heat, called waste heat, must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle; the fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of absolute temperatures of the cooling system and the heat source.
Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design by the selection of alloys used for construction, making the furnace more expensive. The waste heat cannot be converted into mechanical energy without an cooler cooling system. However, it may be used in cogeneration plants to heat buildings, produce hot water, or to heat materials on an industrial scale, such as in some oil refineries and chemical synthesis plants. Typical thermal efficiency for utility-scale electrical generators is around 37% for coal and oil-fired plants, 56 – 60% for combined-cycle gas-fired plants. Plants designed to achieve peak efficiency while operating at capacity will be less efficient when operating off-design Practical fossil fuels stations operating as heat engines cannot exceed the Carnot cycle limit for conversion of heat energy into useful work. Fuel cells do not have the same thermodynamic limits; the efficiency of a fossil fuel plant may be expressed as its heat rate, expressed in BTU/kilowatthour or megajoules/kilowatthour.
In a steam turbine power plant, fuel is burned in a furnace and the hot gasses flow through a boiler. Water is converted to steam in the boiler; the hot steam is sent through controlling valves to a turbine. As the steam expands and cools, its energy is transferred to the turbine blades which turn a generator; the spent steam has low pressure and energy content. The condensed water is pumped into the boiler to repeat the cycle. Emissions from the boiler include carbon dioxide, oxides of sulfur, fly ash from non-combustible substances in the fuel. Waste heat from the condenser is transferred either to the air, or sometimes to a cooling pond, lake or river. One type of fossil fuel power plant uses a gas turbine in conjunction with a heat recovery steam generator, it is referred to as a combined cycle power plant because it combines the Brayton cycle of the gas turbine with the Rankine cycle of the HRSG. The thermal efficiency of these plants has reached a record heat rate of 5690 Btu/, or just under 60%, at a facility in Baglan Bay, Wales.
The turbines are fueled either with natural gas, syngas or fuel oil. While more efficient and faster to construct, the economics of such plants is influenced by the volatile cost of fuel natural gas; the combined cycle plants are designed in a vari
Grand Théâtre de Genève
Grand Théâtre de Genève is an opera house in Geneva, Switzerland. As with many other opera houses, the Grand Théâtre de Genève is both an institution; the venue is a majestic building, towering over Place Neuve opened in 1876 destroyed by fire in 1951 and reopened in 1962, after extensive refurbishments, which houses the largest stage in Switzerland. As an institution, it is the largest production and host theatre in French-speaking Switzerland, featuring opera and dance performances, recitals and theatre. During the 17th and early 18th centuries, Geneva was influenced by Calvinist orthodoxy and it was not until the middle 1760s that the city agreed to the building of the Théâtre de Rosimond, Geneva's first opera house. Under the influence of Voltaire opera began to flourish at La Grange aux Etrangers and its successor theatre, the Théâtre de Neuve, both of which were located outside the walls of the city. After a long period of uninterrupted activity, the Théâtre de Neuve was pulled down in 1880 to be replaced by a new theatre, better suited to the quality and space needed by Geneva's growing population.
As early as 1862, the Municipal Council had decided that the theatre was too small and plain, in view of Geneva's increasing importance and prestige. In 1870, an invitation for proposals was launched, the project was handed to architects Emile Reverdin and Gaspard André. Funds for the new theatre project were provided by Duke Charles of Brunswick's legacy to the city in 1873, out of which CHF 1.2 million were earmarked to build Geneva's future temple of operatic art. The municipal government voted to begin construction of the new theatre in 1874, on a 3,000 square metre plot granted by the State of Geneva and occupied by the moats of the ancient city wall, according to plans drawn up by the architect Jacques-Élysée Goss; the first stone was laid in 1875, the official inauguration took place in 1879 with a performance of Rossini's William Tell opening the season. The new building, placed between the Musée Rath and the Conservatory of Music, was rated among the ten best opera houses in Europe, close behind the completed Palais Garnier in Paris, from which it drew considerable architectural inspiration, in its Second Empire style.
The building's facades are built of freestone, with plinths of Jura limestone and the rest of the building in sandstone and molasse. On the main façade, eight large pillars of Jura limestone alternate with six smaller ones, of red granite found in the bed of a mountain river in the Bernese Oberland; the main façade was—and still is—graced with a number of sculptures and mouldings, which give it its monumental aspect. A spacious perron leads to the front building, where marble statues representing Drama, Dance and Comedy balance the central façade. On the upper level, double columns separate the three balcony windows from the main foyer; the top of the façade features a pediment bearing the coat of arms of Geneva, crowned with an allegorical figure representing the Genius of the Arts, supported by two groups of sculptural figures. Under the entablature, eight busts decorate the main façade and its returns on the sides of the building, they represent important composers of the time: Rossini, Beethoven, Weber and Donizetti and the famous writer—and composer—Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
When entering the vestibule, one came across the box office, and, on the right hand side, the theatre café. Beyond this, a hall with a renovated polychrome marble floor led to the house; the two flights of stairs leading to the foyer and the upper tiers were decorated with six large-scale paintings by Léon Gaud representing six types of music: military, religious, light and Dionysian. These panels, of a academic nature, alternated with medallion portraits of famous composers. All the decorative elements of the upper vestibule were lost in the great fire of 1951. On the upper level, in front of the vestibule leading to the house, three doors open onto the grand foyer, with three bay windows opening the view out on place Neuve; the grand foyer with, on the right hand side, the little foyer and, on the left hand side, the little salon, are the piano nobile of the main façade. The enfilade effect of the three spaces in the grand foyer is magnified by the subtle visual interplay of reflections from several oversized mirrors.
The grandeur of the foyer recalls the Louvre's famous Galerie d’Apollon in Paris. The ceiling panels in the little foyer are by Léon Gaud. Several artists—painters and sculptors—were commissioned to decorate the inside and the outside of the building in an eclectic style; the house was decorated in a style with gold highlights on light tones. Around the central cupola, from which hung a magnificent chandelier, a panelled ceiling with fifteen medallions featured portraits of nine actors and six singers; these medallions, along with the rest of the painted allegories decorating the house, were the work of Pierre-Nicolas Brisset. The first Grand Théâtre was not only lavishly decorated; the stage curtain was powered by hydraulic pressure from the nearby Usine des Forces Motrices power plant on the river Rhône. Electric power was installed between 1905 and 1913, allowing the installation of a safety curtain, operated by an electric winch, the replacement of gas lighting with electrical lights during performances.
On 1 May 1951 at 12:08 pm, while stagehands were preparing a set for the third act of Wagner's Die Walküre, a terrible fire broke out, destroying the stage, fly loft and gangways and their mechanical and ele
The Hallenstadion is a multi-purpose facility located in the quarter of Oerlikon in northern Zürich. It has a capacity of 11,200 spectators. Designed by Bruno Giacometti, it opened on November 4, 1939, was renovated in 2004–05; the Lions are set to move out of the Hallenstadion at the end of the 2021/22 season to move in a new 12,000-seat arena a few kilometers away in the Altstetten area. Construction for the new Swiss Life Arena began on 6 March 2019, with completion scheduled for the summer of 2022. Hallenstadion has been a top venue for entertainment in Switzerland as many international artists have performed at the venue, spanning a wide range of genres. Bicycle race events were held in the Hallenstadion in its first year of service, 1939, most years since then; the classic Zürcher 6-Tagerennen began there in 1954, running on its characteristic oval of wooden boards, until the arena closed temporarily for renovation in 2004. The event is run there again now, in a more modern atmosphere; the Hallenstadion hosted the Ice Hockey World Championships in 1998, along with Basel, is the home stadium of the ZSC Lions ice hockey team.
In February 2006, it hosted semi-finals and the final of the 2006 European Men's Handball Championship. It had been the home of the annual Zürich Open, a WTA Tour tennis tournament, discontinued after 25 years in 2008. On 21 December 2010, tennis returned to the arena with an exhibition featuring Roger Federer against Rafael Nadal, for the benefit of Federer's foundation. On September 29, 2009, the Hallenstadion hosted the 2009 Victoria Cup; the game pit the NHL's Chicago Blackhawks against the Champions Hockey League title-holder, the Zurich Lions. In April 2011, the 2011 IIHF Women's World Championship top division are being held at Hallenstadion ice rink hockey arena and at Deutweg rink. Among many others, in August 2005 the 14th Dalai Lama gave several teachings and initiations as well as a public talk on "The Art of Happiness" open for everyone within 10 days; the 61st FIFA Congress was held at the Hallenstadion on 31 May and 1 June 2011, the 65th FIFA Congress was held there on 28 May and 29 May 2015.
The 2016 FIFA Extraordinary Congress took place at the venue on 26 February 2016. List of tennis stadiums by capacity Media related to Hallenstadion at Wikimedia Commons Official website
SEG Geneva Arena
SEG Geneva Arena is an indoor arena in Geneva, Switzerland. Part of the Palexpo complex, it opened in 1995, it holds 9,500 spectators and hosts concerts and indoor sporting events, such as tennis and basketball. Geneva Arena website
A cultural center or cultural centre is an organization, building or complex that promotes culture and arts. Cultural centers can be neighborhood community arts organizations, private facilities, government-sponsored, or activist-run. Bahman Cultural Center, Iran Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, Thailand Beigang Cultural Center, Taiwan Cultural Center of the Philippines, Philippines Hong Kong Cultural Centre, Hong Kong, China Japanese Cultural Center, Taiwan Kaohsiung Cultural Center, Taiwan Keelung Cultural Center, Taiwan Ketagalan Culture Center, Taiwan King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture, Saudi Arabia Korean Cultural Center, Korea Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Center, Kuwait City, Kuwait Lukang Culture Center, Changhua County, Taiwan Mongolian and Tibetan Cultural Center, Taiwan Taichung City Dadun Cultural Center, Taiwan Taichung Municipal City Huludun Cultural Center, Taiwan Tainan Municipal Cultural Center, Taiwan Taiwan Cultural Center, Japan Telugu Saamskruthika Niketanam, India Thailand Cultural Centre, Bangkoentrance to the Belém Cultural Centre in Bangkok, Thailand Tokyo Korean Culture Center, Japan Xinying Cultural Center, Taiwan Vooruit, Belgium National Palace of Culture, Bulgaria Kulturværftet, Helsingør, Denmark Centre Georges Pompidou, France Gasteig, Germany De Balie, Netherlands Letterkenny Regional Cultural Centre, County Donegal, Ireland Glaspaleis, Netherlands OT301, Netherlands Matadero Madrid, Spain ACU, Netherlands Centro Cultural de Belem, Portugal Dom omladine Beograda, Serbia Cultural center Bor, Serbia Kuryokhin Center, Saint Petersburg, Russia Nida Culture and Tourism Information Centre "Agila", Lithuania Art Aia-Creatives/In/Residence, Sesto al Reghena, Italy El Centro Cultural de Mexico, Mexico Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros, Mexico City, Mexico Eyedrum, United States Centro Cultural de la Raza, San Diego, CA, United States Detroit Cultural Center, MI, United States Cultural Center of Charlotte County, Port Charlotte, FL, United States Self Help Graphics & Art, Los Angeles, United States Tia Chucha's Centro Cultural, Los Angeles, CA, United States La Peña Cultural Center, Berkeley, CA, United States Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, IL, United States Kansas City Irish Center, Kansas City, United States Asheville Culture Project, Asheville, NC, United States Greensboro Cultural Center, Greensboro, NC, United States Polynesian Cultural Center, United States Howland Cultural Center, United States El Museo del Barrio, New York, NY, United States The Kitchen, New York, NY, United States ISSUE Project Room, New York, NY, United States Park Performing Arts Center, Union City, New Jersey, United States William V. Musto Cultural Center, Union City, New Jersey, United States Centro Cultural Baudilio Vega Berríos, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico The Largo Cultural Center, Largo, FL, United States Ngarachamayong Culture Center, Palau Perth Cultural Centre, Australia Queensland Cultural Centre, Australia Vanuatu Cultural Centre, Port Vila, Vanuatu Agustín Ross Cultural Center, Chile Nestor Kirchner Cultural Centre, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo Centro Cultural São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Centro Cultural Palacio de La Moneda, Chile Centro Cultural Gabriela Mistral, Chile Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil Narguila Pub Lounge Cultural, Bogotá.
Colombia Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. Brazil. Art space community centre infoshop music venue social centre Palace of Culture