A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam. Known as the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, it merged on 22 September 2000 with the Brussels Stock Exchange and the Paris Stock Exchange to form Euronext; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company for dealings in its printed stocks and bonds. It was subsequently renamed the Amsterdam Bourse and was the first to formally begin trading in securities; the European Options Exchange was founded in 1978 in Amsterdam as a options exchange. In 1983 it started a stock market index, called the EOE index, consisting of the 25 largest companies that trade on the stock exchange, it should be noted that forward contracts and other sophisticated instruments were traded on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange well before this. In 1997 the Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the EOE merged, its blue chip index was renamed AEX, for "Amsterdam EXchange", it is now managed by Euronext Amsterdam. On 3 October 2011, Princess Máxima opened the new trading floor of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.
The former Stock Exchange building was the Beurs van Berlage. Although it is considered to be the first stock market, Fernand Braudel argues that this is not true: "It is not quite accurate to call the first stock market, as people do. State loan stocks had been negotiable at a early date in Venice, in Florence before 1328, in Genoa, where there was an active market in the luoghi and paghe of Casa di San Giorgio, not to mention the Kuxen shares in the German mines which were quoted as early as the fifteenth century at the Leipzig fairs, the Spanish juros, the French rentes sur l’Hotel de Ville or the stock market in the Hanseatic towns from the fifteenth century; the statutes of Verona in 1318 confirm the existence of the settlement or forward market... In 1428, the jurist Bartolomeo de Bosco protested against the sale of forward loca in Genoa. All evidence points to the Mediterranean as the cradle of the stock market, but what was new in Amsterdam was the volume, the fluidity of the market and publicity it received, the speculative freedom of transactions."
However, it is the first incarnation of. The Amsterdam stock exchange is considered the oldest “modern” securities market in the world, it was shortly after the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 when equities began trading on a regular basis as a secondary market to trade its shares. Prior to that, the market existed for the exchange of commodities. In that year, the States General of the Netherlands granted the VOC a 21-year charter over all Dutch trade in Asia and quasi-governmental powers; the monopolistic terms of the charter granted the VOC complete authority over trade defenses, war armaments, political endeavors in Asia. The first multi-national corporation with significant resource interests was thereby established. In addition, the high level of risk associated with trade in Asia gave the VOC its private ownership structure. Following in the footsteps of the English East India Company, stock in the corporation was sold to a large pool of interested investors, who in turn received a guarantee of some future share of profits.
In the Amsterdam East India House alone, 1,143 investors subscribed for over ƒ3,679,915 or €100 million in today’s money. The subscription terms of each stock purchase offered shareholders the option to transfer their shares to a third party. A secondary market arose in the East India House for resale of this stock through the official bookkeeper. After an agreement had been reached between the two parties, the shares were transferred from seller to buyer in the “capital book.” The official account, held by the East India House, encouraged investors to trade and gave rise to market confidence that the shares weren't just being transferred on paper. Thus, speculative trading ensued and the Amsterdam securities market was born. A big acceleration in the turnover rate came in 1623, after the 21-year liquidation period for the VOC ended; the terms of the initial charter called for a full liquidation after 21 years to distribute profits to shareholders. However, at this time neither the VOC nor its shareholders saw a slowing down of Asian trade, so the States General of the Netherlands granted the corporation a second charter in the West Indies.
This new charter gave the VOC additional years to stay in business but, in contrast to the first charter, outlined no plans for immediate liquidation, meaning that the money invested remained invested, dividends were paid to investors to incentivize shareholding. Investors took to the secondary market of the newly constructed Amsterdam Stock Exchange to sell their shares to third parties; these “fixed” capital stock transactions amassed huge turnover rates, made the stock exchange vastly more important. Thus the modern securities market arose out of this system of stock exchange; the voyage to the precious resources in the West Indies was risky. Threats of pirates, misfortune and various macroeconomic factors heightened the risk factor and thus made the trip wildly expensive. So, the stock issuance made possible the spreading of risk and dividends across a vast pool of investors. Should something go wrong on the voyage, risk was mitigated and dispersed throughout the pool and investors all suffered just a fraction of the total expense of the voyage.
The system of privatizing national expeditions was not new to Europe, but the fixed stock structure of the East India Company made it one of a kind. In the decade preceding the formation of the VOC, adventurous Dutch merchants had used a similar method of “private part
The Zwanenburgwal is a canal and street in the center of Amsterdam. During the Dutch Golden Age the canal was home to painter Rembrandt van Rijn, as well as philosopher Spinoza lived here. In 2006 it was voted one of the most beautiful streets in Amsterdam by readers of Het Parool, a local daily newspaper; the Zwanenburgwal flows from the Sint Antoniessluis sluice gate to the Amstel river. The canal was named Verversgracht, after the textile industry that once dominated this part of town. Dyed textiles were hung to dry along the canal. Waterlooplein, a market-square popular among city visitors, sits along the Zwanenburgwal; the combined city hall and opera house structure, the Stopera, lies at the intersection of the Zwanenburgwal and the river Amstel. On this corner lies the Joods Verzetsmonument, a monument to the Jewish resistance during World War II, where a ceremony in remembrance of the Kristallnacht massacre is held each year. Well-known inhabitants of the Zwanenburgwal include the following painters: Rembrandt, Karel Appel, Nicolaes Eliasz.
Pickenoy, Salomon Meijer, Cornelis van der Voort, the philosopher Baruch de Spinoza, the architect Michel de Klerk, the writer Arend Fokke Simonsz, the communist leader Paul de Groot. From 1631 to 1635, Rembrandt lived and worked at the home of Hendrick van Uylenburgh at the corner of Zwanenburgwal and Jodenbreestraat. In 1639 he bought the adjacent house, now the Rembrandthuis museum. Rembrandt was able to leave his house via an exit onto the Zwanenburgwal, running underneath the adjacent corner house, which enabled him to move the giant canvas of the Night Watch out of his studio; the Zwanenburgwal was an arm of the Amstel delta, dug into a canal at the start of the 17th Century. In 1602 the Sint Antoniesdijk, a dike along the eastern edge of the city, was breached to construct a sluice gate, the Sint Antoniessluis; the inner section came to be known as the Zwanenburgwal and the outer section, beyond the sluice gate, became known as the Oude Schans. During construction of the canal, a part of the Amstel river was reclaimed to form two new neighborhoods and Vlooienburg.
With the arrival in Amsterdam of large numbers of Jews from all over Europe in the late 16th and early 17th Century, the Zwanenburgwal became part of the Jewish neighborhood of Amsterdam. A synagogue was located on the Zwanenburgwal until 1936. During World War II, the neighborhood was emptied of its residents as most were deported to the Nazi concentration camps; the deserted houses were used for left derelict. After the war, the Vlooienburg district was demolished to make way for a new city hall, which however was not built until the 1980s
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
The Grachtengordel is a neighborhood in Amsterdam, Netherlands located in the Centrum district. The seventeenth-century canals of Amsterdam, located in the center of Amsterdam, were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in August 2010; the Amsterdam Canal District consists of the area around the city’s four main canals: the Singel, the Herengracht, the Keizersgracht, the Prinsengracht. From the Brouwersgracht, the canals are parallel with one another, leading southeast into the Amstel river. Many of the canal houses in the Amsterdam Canal District are from the Dutch Golden Age, 17th century. Many of these buildings, underwent restoration or reconstruction in various centuries, meaning that these building display many different architectural styles and facades; until the end of the 16th century, the city of Amsterdam encompassed the area inside the Singel and what is now Kloveniersburgwal. After the Alteration and change in management, the city expanded explosively; this led to Amsterdam's expansion in four stages between 1585 and 1665.
In 1613, during the Twelve Years' Truce, reclamation of Herengracht and Prinsengracht began. After the Peace of Westphalia, Amsterdam created new space for investment and new plans were developed to expand the city. From about 1660, the canals were extended to the Amstel. With this expansion, the city formed its iconic crescent shape. In July 2006, the city of Amsterdam announced its intention to nominate the canal ring as a UNESCO World Heritage site; because of new administrative requirements for the nomination, the nomination was delayed until December 2008. On August 1, 2010, at the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee added to the World Heritage List. Amsterdam's canal belt has been named a World Heritage site under the criteria I, II, IV. In 2013, Amsterdam celebrated the 400th birthday of the Canal Ring; the area is known for its small bridges going over 17th-century canal homes. The Anne Frank House is located in the Grachtengordel neighborhood on Prinsengracht. Other museums in the area include Het Grachtenhuis, Museum Van Loon, Museum of Bags and Purses, Museum Willet-Holthuysen, Museum Ons' Lieve Heer op Solder, Bijbels Museum, Foam Fotografiemuseum Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet & Smokiana, Huis Marseille, Museum Geelvinck-Hinlopen.
Canals of Amsterdam Amsterdam Canal District travel guide from Wikivoyage Seventeenth-century canal ring area of Amsterdam inside the Singelgracht, Unesco World Heritage
The Jordaan is a neighbourhood of the city of Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is part of the borough of Amsterdam-Centrum; the area is bordered by the Singelgracht canal and the neighbourhood of Frederik Hendrikbuurt to the west. The former canal Rozengracht is the main traffic artery through the neighbourhood. A working-class neighbourhood, the Jordaan has become one of the most expensive, upscale locations in the Netherlands, it is home to many art galleries for modern art, is dotted with speciality shops and restaurants. Markets are held at Noordermarkt, the Westerstraat and Lindengracht. Rembrandt spent the last years of his life on the Rozengracht canal, he was buried in the Westerkerk church, at the corner of Rozengracht and Prinsengracht, just beyond the Jordaan. The Anne Frank House, where Anne Frank went into hiding during World War II, is located on the edge of the Jordaan, on the Prinsengracht canal; the most common theory on the origin of the name is as a derivation of the French word jardin, meaning garden: most streets and canals in the Jordaan are named after trees and flowers.
Another theory is that the Prinsengracht canal was once nicknamed Jordaan, that the neighbourhood beyond the canal came to be called this as well. The Jordaan has a high concentration of hofjes, many of them with restored houses and peaceful gardens; these courtyards were built by rich people as a kind of charity. By the 1970s most of these courtyards were in bad shape, like the rest of the neighbourhood. Since many have been restored and are now inhabited by artists and some elderly people. During the summer some of these yards are opened on Sundays during free concerts known as hofjesconcerten. Many houses in the Jordaan have a stone tablet on their facade, a stone sign displaying the profession or family sign of the inhabitants. For instance a butcher displayed a pig and a tailor a pair of scissors, carved in stone above the entry; the first such stone tablets were made in the 16th century, when citizens were ordered to use these tablets instead of big wooden gables that obstructed the traffic in the narrow streets.
Construction of the Jordaan began in 1612. The streets and canals were built according to the old ditches and paths, which explains its unusual orientation compared to the rest of the city. In the 19th century, six of the Jordaan's canals were filled including the Rozengracht; the neighbourhood was traditionally a leftwing stronghold, with a stormy history. Heavy riots broke out in 1835, 1886, 1917 and 1934; the February strike of 1941 started with meetings on Noordermarkt square. The Jordaan had a lively music scene in the 20th century. Several of the most popular musicians now have a statue in their memory at the corner of Prinsengracht and Elandsgracht; the singer Willy Alberti is commemorated with a memorial plaque on the Westerkerk church. The Jordaanfestival, celebrating the neighbourhood's music tradition, is held annually. Starting in the 1960s, many of the neighbourhood's original working-class residents moved out of the city to more affordable locations to Almere and Purmerend. Jordaan INFO
Kloveniersburgwal is an Amsterdam canal flowing south from Nieuwmarkt to the Amstel River on the edge of the medieval city, lying east of the dam in the centre of Amsterdam. The Kloveniersburgwal was dug at the end of the 15th century; the Geldersekade, the Singel and the Kloveniersburgwal together formed the city wall around the city. After the Nieuwe Gracht was dug and the new city walls were built, Kloveniersburgwal lost its function as a defense canal; the old city wall was taken down and they built houses on it instead. The east side became populated in the 17th century and has a few grand mansions, like the Trippenhuis, now housing the KNAW; the name'Kloveniersburgwal' comes from a division of the civic guards, the'kloveniers', named after the gun the guards were armed with. The kloveniers met at the'Kloveniersdoelen' next to Swijgh Utrecht on the corner of the Kloveniersburgwal and the Nieuwe Doelenstraat. On their groupportrait, the famous painting De Nachtwacht, hung in the'Kloveniersdoelen'.
Nowadays, it is exhibited in the Rijksmuseum. Swijgh Utrecht was destroyed in 1882. During the Second World War, starting in February 1941, Kloveniersburgwal was the border of the Jewish quarter, segregated by the Germans. In the "Jodenhoek" between Centraal Station, Kloveniersburgwal, Valkenburgerstraat, Prins Hendrikkade, there lived more than 25,000 Jews. Kloveniersburgwal was popular with administrators at the Dutch East India Company, being close to its center on Oude Hoogstraat and its warehouse. There are some important monuments located at Kloveniersburgwal, for example:'The Trippenhuis', KLoveniersburgwal 29. Compagnietheater, Kloveniersburgwal 50. Media related to Kloveniersburgwal, Amsterdam at Wikimedia Commons