United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Touro Law Center
Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center known as Touro Law Center, is an ABA accredited law school, it is located on New York, in the hamlet of Central Islip. The Law Center is part of Touro College and University System, a private, not-for-profit, coeducational institution based in New York City. Touro Law Center has 58 teaching adjunct faculty. Of the Touro graduates who took the New York bar for the first time in July 2018, 48.6% passed, vs. a statewide average of 83% for ABA-approved law schools. Touro Law Center is the only law school in New York. After beginning operations in Manhattan, the Law Center's first campus was established in the town of Huntington, located in northwestern Suffolk County. In 2007, the Law Center moved to its current campus in Central Islip; the Central Islip campus, consisting of a four-story, 180,000-square-foot building, is located within walking distance of both The Alfonse M. D’Amato United States Courthouse and the John P. Cohalan State Court Complex, in which the Suffolk County District and Family Courts and the New York State Supreme Court sit.
Students may enroll in either a program to earn a Juris Doctor degree or to earn a Master of Laws degree. Both full-time and part-time programs are available to students in the JD program. Touro Law Center is one of several law schools in New York State to offer a two-year accelerated JD program, in which accepted students fulfill their credit-requirements of study within 24 months, beginning with the summer of their first year, sit for a Bar Examination 26 months after they begin their law school studies. In addition, Touro Law Center offers an accelerated JD program, referred to as a "three-plus-three" program, with the University of Central Florida, an accelerated JD Program which allows graduates of foreign law schools to earn a J. D. degree in two years. Touro Law Center offers 4 concentrations for J. D. candidates, an L. L. M program for U. S. law school graduates and a Master of Laws in U. S. Legal Studies for foreign law graduates, joint J. D./M. B. A, J. D./M. P. A. and J. D./M. S. W. Programs with Touro College, State University of New York at Stony Brook, LIU-Post.
Touro Law Center maintains summer programs in Vietnam and Croatia. In 2011, when the Vietnam program was first offered, Touro Law Center was the first and only law school to offer such a program within the borders of Vietnam; the law school held summer abroad programs in India and China and in Israel. In September 2013, Touro Law Center became an invited member of the Educating Tomorrow’s Lawyers Consortium, which consists of 31 ABA-accredited law schools that have demonstrated a commitment to innovation in legal education and offer a number of law school courses "that implement a student-centered approach to legal education". In 2013, PreLaw Magazine recognized Touro Law Center as one of six law school schools in the nation offering innovative clinical and experiential learning opportunities, highlighting the law school's ProBono Uncontested Divorce Project, a required part of the first year of study. Touro Law Center is a member of the Alliance for Experiential Learning in Law, an alliance that has 113 law school and legal service organization members, established in 2011 with the goal of integrating experience-based education into the traditional law school curriculum.
In Fall 2006, the Law Center began a pilot program that required all first year students to observe courtroom practice in both the federal Alfonse M. D’Amato United States Courthouse and the John P. Cohalan State Court Complex. In 2009, the Center for Court Innovation issued a report on its three-year study of the pilot program; as of 2011, the program is a graduation requirement in which all first year students must participate, upper – level students have the option of continuing the curriculum through coursework and court externships, clerkships, or pro bono projects. Touro Law Center's clinical program consists of legal clinics that specialize in the areas of: Bankruptcy & Mortgage Foreclosure Criminal Law Disaster Relief Elder Law Family Law Immigration Law Small Business and Not-for-Profit Law Veterans' and Servicemembers' RightsTouro Law Center hosts the following Institutes and Centers: Aging and Longevity Law Institute Center for Innovation in Business, Law & Technology Institute of Land Use and Sustainable Development Law Jewish Law Institute TLC Heart International Justice Center for Post-Graduate DevelopmentThe International Justice Center for Post–Graduate Development serves as a national clearinghouse for the law-school based incubator movement.
Led by Fred Rooney, the Center launched Touro’s Community Justice Center in 2013, housing eight-ten start-up law firms owned by Touro alumni. The William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Public Advocacy Center, established in 2007, has 14 offices and houses on-campus non-profit legal service providers such as the Nassau/Suffolk Law Services Committee, Inc. New York Civil Liberties Union, the Empire Justice Center. Thomas Maligno has served as the Executive Director of the Public Advocacy Center. Touro Law Center was establis
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
104th United States Congress
The One Hundred Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997, during the third and fourth years of Bill Clinton's presidency. Apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1990 United States census. Both chambers had Republican majorities for the first time since the 1950s. Major events included passage of elements of the Contract with America and a budget impasse between Congress and the Clinton Administration that resulted in the Federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996. January 3, 1995: Republicans gained control of both houses for the first time since 1954. January 31, 1995: President Clinton invoked emergency powers to extend a $20 billion loan to help Mexico avert financial collapse. April 19, 1995: Oklahoma City bombing August 30, 1995: NATO began Operation Deliberate Force against Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina November 14–19, 1995: U.
S. government shutdown December 16, 1995 – January 6, 1996: U. S. government shutdown November 5, 1996: Re-election of President Bill Clinton. April 10, 1995: Mexican Debt Disclosure Act of 1995, Pub. L. 104–6, 109 Stat. 73 November 28, 1995: National Highway System Designation Act of 1995, Pub. L. 104–59, 109 Stat. 568 December 19, 1995: Lobbying Disclosure Act, Pub. L. 104–65, 109 Stat. 691, 2 U. S. C. ch. 26 December 22, 1995: Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, Pub. L. 104–67, 109 Stat. 737 February 8, 1996: Telecommunications Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–104, 110 Stat. 56, 47 U. S. C. § 609 March 12, 1996: Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–114, 110 Stat. 785, 22 U. S. C. §§ 6021–6091 April 9, 1996: Line Item Veto Act, Pub. L. 104–130, 110 Stat. 1200 April 24, 1996: Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, Pub. L. 104–132, 110 Stat. 1214 July 30, 1996: Taxpayer Bill of Rights 2, Pub. L. 104–168, 110 Stat. 1452 August 3, 1996: National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act, Pub.
L. 104–169, 110 Stat. 1482 August 3, 1996: Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–170, 110 Stat. 1489, 7 U. S. C. § 136 August 20, 1996: Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, 110 Stat. 1755 August 21, 1996: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Pub. L. 104–191, 110 Stat. 1936 August 22, 1996: Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 104–193, 110 Stat. 2105 September 21, 1996: Defense of Marriage Act, Pub. L. 104–199, 110 Stat. 2419 September 30, 1996: Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban, Pub. L. 104–208, 110 Stat. 3001 October 1, 1996: Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act, Pub. L. 104–210, 110 Stat. 3011 October 12, 1996: Water Resources Development Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–303, 110 Stat. 3658 President: Al Gore President pro tempore: Strom Thurmond Majority Leader: Bob Dole, until June 11, 1996 Trent Lott, starting June 12, 1996 Majority Whip: Trent Lott, until June 11, 1996 Don Nickles, starting June 12, 1996 Republican Conference Chairman: Thad Cochran Republican Conference Secretary: Connie Mack III Republican Campaign Committee Chair: Al D'Amato Republican Policy Committee Chairman: Don Nickles, until June 12, 1996 Larry Craig, starting June 12, 1996 Minority Leader: Tom Daschle Minority Whip: Wendell Ford Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Tom Daschle and Harry Reid Democratic Conference Secretary: Barbara Mikulski Campaign Committee Chairman: Bob Kerrey Chief Deputy Whip: John Breaux Speaker: Newt Gingrich Majority Leader: Dick Armey Majority Whip: Tom DeLay Chief Deputy Whip: Dennis Hastert Conference Chair: John Boehner Conference Vice-Chair: Susan Molinari Conference Secretary: Barbara Vucanovich Policy Committee Chairman: Christopher Cox Campaign Committee Chairman: Bill Paxon Minority Leader: Dick Gephardt Minority Whip: David Bonior Chief Deputy Minority Whips: Rosa DeLauro, John Lewis, & Bill Richardson Caucus Chairman: Victor H. Fazio Caucus Vice-Chairman: Barbara B.
Kennelly Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Martin Frost Armenian Caucus Biomedical Research Caucus Blue Dog Coalition Congressional Arts Caucus Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Congressional Automotive Caucus Congressional Bike Caucus Congressional Black Caucus Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans Congressional Caucus on Korea Congressional Fire Services Caucus Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Motorsports Caucus Congressional Pediatric & Adult Hydrocephalus Caucus Congressional Progressive Caucus Congressional Portuguese-American Caucus Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus Congressional Western Caucus Congresswomen's Caucus Hong Kong Caucus House Democratic Caucus Law Enforcement Caucus Northern Border Caucus Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus Skip to House of Representatives, below In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1996.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate comm