Dance in Cuba
Cuban culture encompasses a wide range of dance forms. The island's indigenous people performed rituals known as areíto, which included dancing, although little information is known about such ceremonies. After the colonization of Cuba by the Spanish Kingdom, European dance forms were introduced such as the French contredanse, which gave rise to the Cuban contradanza. Contradanza itself spawned a series of ballroom dances between the 19th and 20th centuries, including the danzón, mambo and cha-cha-cha. Rural dances of European origin, such as the zapateo and styles associated with punto guajiro became established by the 19th century, in the 20th century son became popular. In addition, numerous dance traditions were brought by black slaves from West Africa and the Congo basin, giving rise to religious dances such as Santería, yuka and abakuá, as well as secular forms such as rumba. Many of these dance elements from European dance and religious dances were fused together to form the basis of la técnica cubana.
Cuban music contributed to the emergence of Latin dance styles in the United States, namely rhumba and salsa. Danzón is dance of Cuba, it is an active musical form in Mexico and is still beloved in Puerto Rico. The danzón evolved from the Cuban contradanza. In Cuba, these dances were influenced by African rhythmic and dance styles and so became a genuine fusion of European and African influences; the danzón developed in 1879, has been an important root for Cuban music up to today. Its precursor is the habanera, a creolized Cuban dance form; the danzón was developed, according to one's point of view, by either Manuel Saumell or Miguel Faílde in Matanzas. The form of danzón created by Miguel Faílde in 1879, begins with an introduction and paseo, which are repeated and followed by a 16-bar melody; the introduction and paseo again repeat. The dancers do not dance during these sections: they choose partners, stroll onto the dance floor, begin to dance at the same moment: the fourth beat of bar four of the paseo, which has a distinctive percussion pattern that's hard to miss.
When the introduction is repeated the dancers stop, flirt, greet their friends, start again, right on time as the paseo finishes. Early danzón was played by groups called orquestas típicas, they had a violin or two and tympani. At the beginning of the 20th century, the lighter and somewhat more elegant sound of the charanga emerged, they were small orchestra of two violins, a cello, timbales, güiro, doublebass. Charanga and típicas competed with each other for years, but after 1930 it was clear that the days of the típica were over. Mambo is a musical form and dance style that developed in Cuba, with further significant developments by Cuban musicians in Mexico and the USA; the word "mambo" means "conversation with the gods" in Kikongo, the language spoken by Kongo slaves taken to Cuba. Modern mambo began with a song called "Mambo" written in 1938 by Cachao López; the song was a danzón, a dance form descended from European social dances like the English country dance, French contredanse, Spanish contradanza.
It was backed by rhythms derived from African folk music. The cha-cha-cha, or cha-cha, is the name of a dance of Cuban origin, it is danced to the music of the same name introduced by Cuban composer and violinist Enrique Jorrín in 1953. This rhythm was developed from the danzón by a syncopation of the fourth beat; the name is onomatopoeic, derived from the rhythm of the güiro and the shuffling of the dancers' feet. Styles of cha-cha-cha dance may differ in the place of the chasse in the rhythmical structure; the original Cuban and the ballroom cha-cha-cha count is "two, chachacha" or "four-and-one, three". The dance does not start on the first beat of a bar, though it can start with a transfer of weight to the lead's right. Many social dancers count "one, cha-cha-cha" and may find it difficult to make the adjustment to the "correct" timing of the dance; the Cuban bolero dance originated in Santiago de Cuba in the last quarter of the 19th century. In the 19th century there grew up in Santiago de Cuba a group of itinerant musicians who moved around earning their living by singing and playing the guitar.
Pepe Sánchez is known as the creator of the Cuban bolero. Untrained, but with remarkable natural talent, he composed numbers in his head and never wrote them down; as a result, most of these numbers are now lost, but two dozen or so survive because friends and disciples wrote them down. He was the teacher for the great trovadores who followed; the Cuban bolero has traveled to Mexico and the rest of Latin America after its conception, where it became part of their repertoires. Some of the bolero's leading composers have come from nearby countries, most the prolific Puerto Rican composer Rafael Hernández; some Cuban composers of the bolero are listed under Trova. Salsa dancing originated in New York in the mid-1970s, it evolved from earlier dance forms such as Cha cha cha and Mambo which were popular in New York, incorporated elements of Swing dancing and Hustle, as well as elements of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Caribbean dances such as Guaguanco and Pachanga. In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer changes weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaf
Royal Winnipeg Ballet
The Royal Winnipeg Ballet is one of the world's premier dance companies. Based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, it is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America, it was founded in 1939 as the "Winnipeg Ballet Club" by Betty Farrally. The name was changed to the "Winnipeg Ballet" in 1941 and the company began touring Canada in 1945. In 1948, with the initiative of the Winnipeg Ballet, the Canadian Ballet Festival was formed; the Royal Winnipeg Ballet was granted its royal title in 1953, the first granted under the reign of Queen Elizabeth II. It completed its first American tour in 1954. In June that year the RWB's rented premises were devastated by fire. Conductor Eric Wild served as the company's music director from 1955 to 1962; the company solidified its reputation under the artistic directorship of Saskatchewan-born Arnold Spohr from 1958 to 1988. Spohr, who first joined the company as a dancer in 1945, during his tenure maintained a strong focus on developing Canadian talent, and, at the same time, he developed the RWB as an international touring company, engaged with choreographers and dancers from around the world to expand the ballet.
Spohr was succeeded by RWB principal dancer Henny Jurriëns, assistant to Dutch National Ballet director Rudi van Dantzig. Jurriëns, died in a car accident in April 1989. In 1990 John Meehan from American Ballet Theatre became artistic director but left in 1993 following the company's persistent financial difficulties. William Whitener the artistic director of Les Ballets Jazz de Montréal, was chosen to succeed Meehan. Continuing financial problems and dancer "unrest", Whitener was released in less than two years later. André Lewis was appointed in 1996 as artistic director. Lewis' decades-long association with the RWB began in 1975 when he was accepted into the Professional Division at the Royal Winnipeg Ballet School. In 1979, he was joined the Royal Winnipeg Ballet Company and performed as a dancer with the RWB until 1990. Lewis' roles include: Gunther in Nutcracker. Company Music Director and Conductor is Tad Biernacki and Senior Ballet Master is Johnny W. Chang; the dancer most associated with the RWB has been Evelyn Hart.
Born in Toronto, Ontario, in 1956, Hart made her professional debut with the RWB in 1976. In 1980, she was awarded the bronze medal at the World Ballet Concours in Japan, the gold medal at the Varna International Ballet Competition where she received the Exceptional Artistic Achievement Award. Both medals were awarded for her performance of Belong pas de deux, created by internationally acclaimed choreographer Norbert Vesak as part of his work What To Do Till the Messiah Comes. Hart was awarded the Order of Canada in 1983, she left the RWB in 2005. David Peregrine, Hart's long-time partner, joined the Royal Winnipeg Ballet as a member of the corps in 1975 and became a soloist three years and principal dancer in 1980. Peregrine was made an officer of the Order of Canada in 1986. Other Honorable mentions for dancers include principal Laura Graham, awarded a Silver medal at the 14th Varna International Ballet Competition in 1990, her team included principal Steven Hyde, receiving a best non-competing partner honor, soloist Mark Godden receiving best new choreography for'Myth'.
Principal dancer Suzanne Rubio followed in 1991 winning a Bronze medal at the 2nd Helsinki International Ballet Competition. In 1992, Gweneth Lloyd, co-founder of the company, became the first recipient of the Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement; the company spends 20 or more weeks a year on the road, presenting more than 100 performances every year in both large and small centres. The company mounts four productions a year in Winnipeg's performing arts venue, the Centennial Concert Hall; the Royal Winnipeg Ballet School is composed of two divisions and Professional, is home to the more than 1,500 students annually. The current building opened in January 1988, features 12 spacious, sprung-floor studios, a 224-seat performance space; the Royal Winnipeg Ballet School, Recreational Division is Winnipeg's largest dance school that provides high quality training and instruction to students age 3+ in various disciplines including Ballet, Jazz, Lyrical/Contemporary, Musical Theatre, Creative Movement and Hip Hop.
The Recreational Division features an audition-only competitive Dance Ensemble program for high level Junior to Senior students. The school offers an Intensive Training Program for students who have shown ability and dedication for more intense, specialized training in classical ballet. In this program, numerous ballet classes are supported with additional classes such as pointe, RWB School Dance Ensemble performance groups and modern. Students are prepared using the Cecchetti method for classical ballet exams. Alumni have gone onto careers on Broadway, Rainbow Stage and Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre and have continued their education with Arts Umbrella, Goh Ballet, Alberta Ballet, Boston Conservatory and the School of Contemporary Dancers. Students work with RWB School Artistic faculty, including award-winning choreographers, perform new works in festivals and competitions; the Royal Winnipeg Ballet School, Professional Division is an exclusive, full-time classical ballet training program for students in grades 6 through 12.
The school includes 72 young dancers, selected from around the worl
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.
Ballroom dance is a set of partner dances, which are enjoyed both and competitively around the world. Because of its performance and entertainment aspects, ballroom dance is widely enjoyed on stage and television. Ballroom dance may refer, at its widest definition, to any type of partner dancing as recreation. However, with the emergence of dancesport in modern times, the term has become narrower in scope and traditionally refers to the five International Standard and five International Latin style dances; the two styles, while differing in technique and costumes, exemplify core elements of ballroom dancing such as control and cohesiveness. Developed in England, the two styles are now regulated by the World Dance Council and the World DanceSport Federation. In the United States, two additional variations are popular: American Smooth and American Rhythm, which combine elements of the Standard and Latin styles with influences from other dance traditions. There are a number of historical dances, local or national dances, which may be danced in ballrooms or salons.
Sequence dancing, in pairs or other formations, is still a popular style of ballroom dance. The term'ballroom dancing' is derived from the word ball which in turn originates from the Latin word ballare which means'to dance'. In times past, ballroom dancing was social dancing for the privileged, leaving folk dancing for the lower classes; these boundaries have since become blurred. The definition of ballroom dance depends on the era: balls have featured popular dances of the day such as the Minuet, Polonaise, Polka and others, which are now considered to be historical dances; the first authoritative knowledge of the earliest ballroom dances was recorded toward the end of the 16th century, when Jehan Tabourot, under the pen name "Thoinot-Arbeau", published in 1588 his Orchésographie, a study of late 16th-century French renaissance social dance. Among the dances described were the solemn basse danse, the livelier branle and the galliarde which Shakespeare called the "cinq pace" as it was made of five steps.
In 1650 the Minuet a peasant dance of Poitou, was introduced into Paris and set to music by Jean-Baptiste Lully and danced by the King Louis XIV in public. The Minuet dominated the ballroom from that time until the close of the 18th century. Toward the latter half of the 16th century, Louis XIV founded his'Académie Royale de Musique et de Danse', where specific rules for the execution of every dance and the "five positions" of the feet were formulated for the first time by members of the Académie; the first definite cleavage between ballet and ballroom came when professional dancers appeared in the ballets, the ballets left the Court and went to the stage. Ballet technique such as the turned out positions of the feet, lingered for over two centuries and past the end of the Victoria era; the waltz with its modern hold took root in England in about 1812. The dance was met with tremendous opposition due to the semblance of impropriety associated with the closed hold, though the stance softened.
In the 1840s several new dances made their appearance in the ballroom, including the polka and the Schottische. In the meantime a strong tendency emerged to drop all'decorative' steps such as entrechats and ronds de jambes that had found a place in the Quadrilles and other dances. Modern ballroom dance has its roots early in the 20th century, when several different things happened more or less at the same time; the first was a movement away from the sequence dances towards dances where the couples moved independently. This had been pre-figured by the waltz, which had made this transition; the second was a wave such as jazz. Since dance is to a large extent tied to music, this led to a burst of newly invented dances. There were many dance crazes in the period 1910–1930; the third event was a concerted effort to transform some of the dance crazes into dances which could be taught to a wider dance public in the U. S. and Europe. Here Vernon and Irene Castle were important, so was a generation of English dancers in the 1920s, including Josephine Bradley and Victor Silvester.
These professionals analysed, codified and taught a number of standard dances. It was essential, if popular dance was to flourish, for dancers to have some basic movements they could confidently perform with any partner they might meet. Here the huge Arthur Murray organisation in America, the dance societies in England, such as the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing, were influential. Much of this happened during and after a period of World War, the effect of such a conflict in dissolving older social customs was considerable. In the 1930s, the on-screen dance pairing of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers influenced all forms of dance in the U. S. and elsewhere. Although both actors had separate careers, their filmed dance sequences together, which included portrayals of the Castles, have reached iconic status. Much of Astaire and Rogers' work portrayed social dancing, although the performances were choreographed and meticulously staged and rehearsed. Competitions, sometimes referred to as dancesport, range from world championships, regulated by the World Dance Council, to less advanced dancers at various proficiency levels.
Most competitions are divided into professional and amateur, though in the USA pro-am competitions accompany professional competitions. Th
Ukrainian dance refers to the traditional folk dances of the peoples of Ukraine. Today, Ukrainian dance is represented by what ethnographers and dance historians refer to as "Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dances", which are stylized representations of traditional dances and their characteristic movements that have been choreographed for concert dance performances; this stylized art form has so permeated the culture of Ukraine, that few purely traditional forms of Ukrainian dance remain today. Ukrainian dance is described as energetic, fast-paced, entertaining, along with traditional Easter eggs, it is a characteristic example of Ukrainian culture recognized and appreciated throughout the world. Judging by the figures depicted in motion on Trypillian clay vessels, dance has been performed in the lands of present-day Ukraine since at least the third millennium BC, it has been assumed that up to the introduction of Christianity in Kievan Rus' in 988, dance served a important ritual function in the lands of present-day Ukraine.
Pre-Christian rituals combined dance with music and song. A remnant of these ritual dances which survive in limited form today are the Spring Dances, or Vesnianky referred to as Hahilky, Hayivky, Yahilky, or Rohulky. Another seasonal event featuring dances was the yearly pre-harvest festival of Kupalo, which to this day remains a favorite theme for Ukrainian choreographers; these religious ritual dances proved to be so ingrained into the culture of the people prior to the introduction of Christianity, that rather than attempting to eliminate them, Christian missionaries incorporated Christian themes into the songs and poetry which accompanied the dancing, using the dances to spread their religion, as well as enabling millennia-old steps and choreographic forms to continue to be passed down from generation to generation. At about the time of Ukraine's Kozak uprisings, social dances became more and more popular with the people native to the lands of present-day Ukraine. Ukrainian social dances can be distinguished from the earlier Ukrainian ritual dances by two characteristics: the prevalence of musical accompaniment without song, the increased presence of improvisation.
The early Hopak and Kozachok developed as social dances in the areas surrounding the River Dnieper, while the Hutsulka and Kolomyjka sprang up in the Carpathian mountains to the west. Social dances of foreign extraction such as the Polka and Quadrille gained in popularity, developing distinct variations after having been performed by native dancers and musicians gifted in improvisation; the third major type of Ukrainian folk dancing which developed prior to the modern era were the thematic or story dances. The story dances incorporated an artistically sophisticated level of pantomime and movement which entertained audiences. Thematic story dances told the story of a particular group of people through movements which mimicked their work. By the turn of the eighteenth century, many of these traditional dances began to be performed, or referred to thematically, by a blossoming theatrical trade. Peasant or Serf Theaters entertained the subjugated native peoples of present-day Ukraine, who remained relegated to lower social classes in their own homelands, while their foreign rulers lived lavishly in comparison, importing foreign entertainers and their dances.
It is within this context that staged Ukrainian folk dances, which depicted the ideals of an agrarian society, gained more popularity with the native population, which further developed the theater into a thriving occupation. Ukrainian folk-stage dance began the path to transforming into its present incarnation first and foremost through the work of Vasyl Verkhovynets, an actor and amateur musicologist. Verkhovynets had acquired a professional level of training in the arts as part of Mykola Sadovsky's theatrical troupe, which had itself incorporated a distinguished level of folk dance in its productions of dramas based on Ukrainian folk themes. While touring central Ukraine with the theatrical troupe, Verkhovynets' would take off whenever he could and visit the villages surrounding the cities he was performing in, in order to learn about and record the villages' traditional dances, his landmark book which he based upon this research, Theory of Ukrainian Folk Dance, brought together for the first time the various steps and terminology now recognized by all contemporary students of Ukrainian dance.
It fundamentally altered the nature of Ukrainian folk dance by setting dances on a stage, laid out a method of transcribing folk dances, put into use across the Soviet Union. This book has since been reprinted five times and remains a basic instructional text of Ukrainian dance; the history of Ukrainian dance diverges at this stage of Vasyl Verkhovynets career. Because of the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, it would develop contemporaneously both in Ukraine as well outside of the Iron curtain for more than 40 years. In Ukraine, Verkhovynets remained involved in the training of the next generation of dancers, while outside
National Ballet of Canada
One of the top international ballet companies, The National Ballet of Canada was founded in 1951 by Celia Franca. A company of 70 dancers with its own orchestra, the National Ballet has been led by Artistc Director Karen Kain, one of the greatest ballerinas of her generation, since 2005. Renowned for its diverse repertoire, the company performs traditional full-length classics, embraces contemporary work and encourages the creation of new ballets as well as the development of Canadian choreographers; the company’s repertoire includes works by Sir Frederick Ashton, George Balanchine, John Cranko, Rudolf Nureyev, John Neumeier, William Forsythe, James Kudelka, Wayne McGregor, Alexei Ratmansky, Crystal Pite, Christopher Wheeldon, Aszure Barton, Guillaume Côté and Robert Binet. The National Ballet tours in Canada, the US and internationally with appearances in Paris, Moscow and St. Petersburg, New York City, Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, San Francisco. In 1951, the two major ballet companies in Canada were the Royal Winnipeg Ballet headed by Gweneth Lloyd and the Volkoff Canadian Ballet founded by Boris Volkoff, based in Toronto.
With the aim of create a more based Canadian ballet troupe, following the example set by the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet, a group of Canadian ballet enthusiasts set out to create the National Ballet of Canada. Both Lloyd and Volkoff were interested in being the first artistic director of the company, but the organizers agreed that the only way to ensure an unbiased selection of dancers for the new ballet company was to hire an outsider, they chose British dancer and choreographer Celia Franca, who had many connections within the dance community and had been to Canada only twice at that point, as artistic director. Franca at first showed little interest interested in heading this new company; when she came to Canada in 1951 to attend a festival, the founders again asked her to consider the position. Franca accepted the job and became the first artistic director, while Volkoff was appointed as Resident Choreographer. Conductor George Crum acted as Musical Director. In August 1951 what was The National Ballet Guild of Canada launched its first cross-country audition tour.
By the end of the month, the ballet had chosen 29 dancers for the troupe and was rehearsing for their first performance in the St. Lawrence Hall. For The National Ballet Guild of Canada's early performances, Franca chose classic ballets, as she believed this would allow the dancers to be properly judged by the international dance community; the first performance was in the Eaton Auditorium on November 12, 1951. The program included Les Sylphides and Polovtsian Dances from Prince Igor; the company toured Canada extensively, with Lois Smith and David Adams as its stars. In 1964 the National adopted the 3200-seat O'Keefe Centre in Toronto as its home venue; the company moved in 2006 to new facilities at the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts. In 1976 Alexander Grant, former Principal Dancer with London's Royal Ballet and Artistic Director of Ballet for All, became the Artistic Director of The National. Under his leadership, The National Ballet added a number of works by Frederick Ashton to its repertoire.
The National Ballet of Canada became the first Canadian company to perform at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London in 1979. In 1989 Reid Anderson became the artistic director, he led the company though a difficult economic recession by choreographing traditional ballet pieces while commissioning Canadian and international choreographers to create contemporary pieces. In 1995 he left the company citing a frustration of the continued funding cuts from the government, the directorship was taken up in 1996 by choreographer James Kudelka. In 2005 Karen Kain, former Principal Dancer became Artistic Director of the Company. In 2009 she introduced Innovation – a mixed programme featuring three world premieres by Canadian choreographers Crystal Pite, Sabrina Matthews, Peter Quanz. In 2011, the company premiered a new version of Juliet by Alexei Ratmansky; the National Ballet of Canada remains Canada's largest and most influential dance company. The National Ballet School was founded in 1959 by Celia Franca and Julia Bondy and was directed for many years by co-founder Betty Oliphant.
The primary goal of the school is to train dancers for the National Ballet of Canada and for companies across Canada and around the world. Graduates of the School include Frank Augustyn, Neve Campbell, Anne Ditchburn, Rex Harrington, Karen Kain, James Kudelka, Veronica Tennant, Martine Lamy, John Alleyne, Emmanuel Sandhu, Mavis Staines. Rudolf Nureyev danced with the company in 1965 and returned in 1972 to stage his version of The Sleeping Beauty, his work is credited to raising the standards of the company. He was responsible for bringing the Company to Lincoln Center's Metropolitan Opera House in New York City where he showcased the company; the Ballet met with rave reviews and this was a pivotal point in receiving recognition internationally. Karen Kain and Frank Augustyn, two members of NBC, received the prize for best pas de deux at the International Ballet Competition in Moscow in 1973; the following year, in 1974, while on a tour in Canada, Mikhail Baryshnikov defected and requested political asylum in Toronto and joined the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.
His first televised performance after coming out of temporary seclusion in Canada was with the National Ballet of Canada in a version of La Sylphide. The National Ballet