The Peugeot 505 is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1979 to 1992 in Sochaux, France. It was manufactured in various other countries including Argentina, China and Nigeria; the 505 was Peugeot's last rear-wheel drive car. According to the manufacturer, 1,351,254 505s were produced between 1978 and 1999 with 1,116,868 of these being saloons/sedans. Unveiled on 16 May 1979, the 505 was the replacement for the 504 with which it shared many of its underpinnings, it was available as a sedan/saloon, a station wagon/estate, including an eight-passenger Familiale version, were introduced at the 1982 Geneva Motor Show. The styling, a collaboration between Pininfarina and Peugeot's internal styling department, is similar to that of the smaller 305; the original interior was designed by Paul Bracq more well known for his work for Mercedes-Benz and BMW. It is known as the "Work Horse" of Africa today. After being produced only in left-hand drive form for its first few months, the 505 was available in right-hand drive form for the UK market from October 1979.
Its best selling competitor in the UK was the Ford Granada. The 505 was praised by contemporary journalists for its ride and handling on rough and unmade roads, it took a British-market model on a hard charging drive across the green lanes of the Chilterns. The impacts were well suppressed and the car veritably floated over the undulations and potholes. I concluded that the 505 is as good as the 504." The 505 had good ground clearance. The four-wheel drive 505 had shorter gear ratios; the interior styling was viewed positively in contemporary reviews: "Having settled into the 505's neat cockpit one notices how handsomely styled it all would appear to be. The tweed seats and brown trim look smart and less confrontational than offerings from a certain other French marque." But the ergonomics were criticised too: "The ashtray was competitively sized but is placed directly behind the gear stick. For British market cars, this will be a constant nuisance while our continental cousins will consider the placement quite logical and natural."The estate model was launched in 1982, was available with seven seats, just like the Peugeot 504 estate.
The range was given a facelift, including an all new interior, in 1986, but European Peugeot 505 production began to wind down following the launch of the smaller Peugeot 405 in 1987. Saloon production came to a halt in 1989, when Peugeot launched its new flagship 605 saloon, while the estate remained in production until 1992 - although plans for an estate version of the 605 never materialised; the 605 was in production for a decade but never matched the popularity of the 505. In some countries such as France and Germany, the 505 estate was used as an ambulance, a funeral car, police car, military vehicle and as a road maintenance vehicle. There were prototypes of 505 coupés and 505 trucks, in France many people have modified 505s into pickup trucks themselves; the 505 was one of the last Peugeot models to be sold in the United States, with sedan sales ending there in 1990 and wagon sales in 1991. The last sedans sold had PRV's 2.8 V6 engine only. Unique to the US were turbocharged station wagons, both with diesel engines.
505s were sold in Australia, Chile and New Zealand. In New York City, Peugeot 505 diesels were used as taxicabs; the car was summed up as follows by motoring writer Archie Vicar: "The 505 is a saloon with quite a pleasant appearance, quite efficient engines, quite comfortable seating, quite nice steering and a quite reasonable price. And it is quite well constructed. So, you might say it was average, but can it be that simple? Have Peugeot in fact, played a clever game where, instead of dazzling us with technology or breathtaking styling, they have decided to woo us with understatement of the profoundest kind?"In Thailand, the Peugeot 505 sold well. It was available as a CKD version assembled in Bangkok, due to the restrictions on importing built-up cars; the 505 had the engine at the front, mounted longitudinally. The suspension system included MacPherson struts and coil springs at front and semi-trailing arms with coil springs at rear, with a body-mounted rear differential and four constant-velocity joints.
Station wagons had instead a live-axle rear suspension, with Panhard coil springs. Stabilizer bars were universal at front but model-dependent at rear; the car used disc brakes at the front, either disc or drum brakes at the rear, depending on the model. The steering was a rack and pinion system, power assisted on most models. Introduced in the spring of 1982, the Break and Familiale versions were quite different from saloons; the wheelbase was longer, to help make it one of the most spacious in the market, at 2,900 mm. This was, not coincidentally, the same exact wheelbase as had been used on both the 404 and 504 estate derivatives; the Familiale, with its third row of bench seats, was popular as a taxi. The two rows of rear seats could be folded to give a flat load area, with 1.94 cubic me
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën. In 1934, the firm established its reputation for innovative technology with the Traction Avant; this car was the world's first mass-produced front wheel drive car, one of the first to feature a unitary type body, with no chassis supporting the mechanical components. In 1954 they produced the world's first hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system in 1955, the revolutionary DS, the first mass-produced car with modern disc brakes and, in 1967, they introduced in several of their models swiveling headlights that allowed for greater visibility on winding roads. With a successful history in motorsport, Citroën is the only automobile manufacturer to have won three different official championships from the International Automobile Federation: the World Rally Raid Championship five times, the World Rally Championship eight times and the World Touring Car Championship.
Citroën has been selling vehicles in China since 1984 via the Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën joint venture, which today represents a major market for the brand. In 2014, when PSA Peugeot Citroën ran into severe financial difficulties, the Dongfeng Motor Corporation took an ownership stake. André Citroën built armaments for France during World War I. There was nothing automatic about his decision to become an automobile manufacturer once the war was over: the automotive business was one that Citroën knew well, thanks to a successful six-year stint working with Mors between 1908 and the outbreak of war; the decision to switch to automobile manufacturing was evidently taken as early as 1916, the year when Citroën asked the engineer Louis Dufresne with Panhard, to design a technically-sophisticated 18HP automobile for which he could use his factory once peace returned. Long before that happened, however, he had modified his vision and decided, like Henry Ford, that the best post-war opportunities in auto-making would involve a lighter car of good quality, but made in sufficient quantities to be priced enticingly.
In February 1917 Citroën contacted another engineer, Jules Salomon, who had a considerable reputation within the French automotive sector as the creator, in 1909, of a little car called Le Zèbre. André Citroën's mandate was characteristically demanding and characteristically simple: to produce an all-new design for a 10 HP car that would be better equipped, more robust and less costly to produce than any rival product at the time; the result was the Type A, announced to the press in March 1919, just four months after the guns fell silent. The first production Type A emerged from the factory at the end of May 1919 and in June it was exhibited at a show room at Number 42, on the Champs-Élysées in Paris which sold Alda cars. Citroën persuaded the owner of the Alda business, Fernand Charron, to lend him the show-room, still in use today; this C42 showroom is where the company organises exhibitions and shows its vehicles and concept cars. A few years Charron would be persuaded to become a major investor in the Citroën business.
On 7 July 1919, the first customer took delivery of a new Citroën 10HP Type A. That same year, André Citroën negotiated with General Motors a proposed sale of the Citroën company; the deal nearly closed, but General Motors decided that its management and capital would be too overstretched by the takeover. Thus Citroën remained independent till 1935. Between 1921 and 1937, Citroën produced half-track vehicles for off-road and military uses, using the Kégresse track system. In the 1920s, the U. S. Army purchased several Citroën-Kégresse vehicles for evaluation followed by a licence to produce them; this resulted in the Army Ordnance Department building a prototype in 1939. In December 1942, it went into production with the M2 Half Track M3 Half-track versions; the U. S. produced more than 41,000 vehicles in over 70 versions between 1940 and 1944. After their 1940 occupation of France, the Nazi's captured many of the Citroën half-track vehicles and armored them for their own use. Mr Citroën was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower as the world's largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records.
He sponsored expeditions in Asia, North America and Africa, demonstrating the potential for motor vehicles equipped with the Kégresse track system to cross inhospitable regions. These expeditions conveyed journalists. Demonstrating extraordinary toughness, a 1923 Citroën that had travelled 48,000 km was the first car to be driven around Australia; the car, a 1923 Citroën 5CV Type C Torpedo, was driven by Neville Westwood from Perth, Western Australia, on a round trip from August to December 1925. This vehicle is now restored and in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. In 1924, Citroën began a business relationship with the American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop stainless steel bodies for railroad cars, for the Pullman in particular. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers. At the Paris Motor Show in October 1924, Citroën introduced the Citroën B10, the first all-steel body in Europe; these automobiles were successful in the marketplace, but soon competitors introduced new body des
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot added motorcycles to it
The Citroën Jumpy is a light commercial van produced at Sevel Nord since 1994, now in its third generation. The Jumpy was rebadged from 1995 and sold as the Peugeot Expert and Fiat Scudo All three models were facelifted in March 2004, before being replaced by new second generation models in January 2007; these 2007 onwards models again all shared the same design and engineering, with subtle trim changes between each brand. The second generation received a small facelift in February 2012, from July 2013, Toyota began sales of a rebadged version called Toyota ProAce. On 1 December 2015, Citroën, Peugeot and Toyota unveiled their new generation of these vehicles, in people carrying specifications now called Citroën SpaceTourer, Peugeot Traveller, with Toyota retaining the ProAce name. Commercial versions premiered retaining the Peugeot Expert and Citroën Jumpy names. In July 2016, the Fiat Scudo was replaced by a second generation of Fiat Talento, a rebadged Renault Trafic. From the model year of 2019, the Jumpy will be rebadged as the Opel/Vauxhall Vivaro, replacing the previous model Vivaro, which until 2018 had been based on the Renault Trafic.
Citroën released the first generation Jumpy in June 1994, opting to rename the model "'Dispatch'" in English speaking markets, such as the United Kingdom. Peugeot followed with rebadged models in February 1996, respectively; the vans differ visually, being a prime example of badge engineering. They share mechanicals and body structure with the Sevel Nord Eurovans minivans: the Citroën Evasion, Fiat Ulysse, Lancia Zeta, Peugeot 806; the engines available throughout the models do differ, with the Fiat getting its own engines separate from those fitted to the Citroën and Peugeot. The Fiat Scudo replaced the Fiat 900T; the model received a slight facelift in March 2004. 1 Only for Scudo Combinato The second generation gained an increase in cargo space and more body styles over the older generation. It was launched in November 2006, with deliveries beginning in principal markets in January 2007; the new Citroën is available in 90 bhp, 120 bhp and 136 bhp versions with the option of four diesel engines or one petrol/gasolene engine.
The Peugeot Expert II was launched in January 2007, with the addition of a people carrier model Tepee. In May 2011, the PSA/Fiat joint venture was reported by Reuters to have ended in 2017, it ended in March 2016. The model received a slight facelift in February 2011, which changed the front bumper. From July 2013, Toyota began. At the 2016 Geneva Motor Show, Citroën, Peugeot and Toyota revealed their latest generation of their respective vans. With this new generation the vans became more contemporary, the Citroën and Peugeot models gained new names for the passenger versions, Citroën SpaceTourer and Peugeot Traveller, with the Toyota keeping the ProAce name with the ProAce Verso. Commercial variants have been released in 2016 under the Citroën Jumpy, Peugeot Expert and Toyota ProAce names; the Fiat Scudo was replaced by a second generation of Fiat Talento, a rebadged Renault Trafic. In light of the Groupe PSA takeover over Opel/Vauxhall in March 2017, Renault gave formal notice of cessation of the agreement to be able to produce the current Opel/Vauxhall Vivaro derivative model, based on the Renault Trafic, under license.
In April 2018, PSA announced that the Luton plant would began production of the third generation Jumpy from the beginning of 2019, which would be badged as the Opel/Vauxhall Vivaro to replace the Trafic based Vivaro
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Fire services in France
The fire service in France is organised into local fire services which cover the Departments of France, with a few exceptions. There are two types of fire service: The Paris Fire Brigade and Marseille Naval Fire Battalion are military units providing fire protection to Paris and Marseille; the rest of France has civilian fire services organized and trained by the French Ministry of the Interior. There are 246,900 fire service personnel in France operating 15,642 emergency vehicles out of 6,894 emergency centres. In addition to providing fire protection and rescue, the French fire service is one of the providers of emergency medical services. In French, firefighters are known as pompiers or sometimes as sapeurs-pompiers; the latter refers to the military-based Paris Fire Brigade, though it is sometimes informally used for firefighters elsewhere. Pompier comes from the word for "pump", referring to the manual pumps used for firefighting. Sapeur means "sapper" and refers to the first official firefighting unit created by Napoleon I, part of the military engineering arm.
Firefighters in the Marseille Marine Fire Battalion are known as marins-pompiers. The usual name of a civilian fire services is a service departmentaux d'incendie et de secours; the fire service is organized based on the various Departments. Each department has a Service Departmentaux d'Incendie et de Secours responsible for operations within its territory, with a few exceptions: Paris and the three departments of the petite couronne are covered by the Paris Fire Brigade. Bouches-du-Rhône is covered by both the Marseille Naval Fire Battalion and a civilian Bouches-du-Rhône SDIS. Lyon Metropolis and Rhône are both covered by the Rhône SDIS, reflecting Rhône's boundaries before 2015. Corsica is divided between two fire services, reflecting the departments that existed from 1975 to 2017; as of December 2015, there were 246,900 firefighters in France: 78% voluntary/call firefighters 22% career firefighters, including: 17% civilian 5% military firefighters In addition, they employed 11,910 medical responders, 10,900 administrative and support personnel.
The jeunes sapeurs-pompiers and cadets numbered 27,800. Civilian professional fire fighters are local government civil servants of class A, B, C. Civil servants class A and B, their volunteer counterparts, are trained at the National Fire College, École nationale supérieure des officiers de sapeurs-pompiers. Given their military origin, rank insignia follow those of the French Army. Professional fire fighters class C are recruited from volunteer fire fighters or youth fire fighters, age 18 or above, with three years service as Sapper without a civil service exam. Corporals can be recruited with a civil service exam open to direct entry candidates who passed middle school, through a civil service exam open to volunteer fire fighters or youth fire fighters, with three years service. In 2017, Sapeur de 1re classe was abolished and Sapeur de 2e classe was replaced by the rank of Sapeur, except for volonteers whose grades remained unchanged. Promotion to Corporal can occur after three years as Sapper.
Sergents are selected through a civil service exam open to team leaders. Promotion to Adjudant and Chief Adjudant can occur after four years as Sergeant/Chief Sergeant. Since 2013, Chief Adjutant is the highest NCO rank of most departments as the rank of Major has been abolished. Sources: Professional fire fighters class B are recruited through civil service exams open to direct entry candidates with a foundation degree in engineering, to fire fighters class C with four years service, leading to employment as Lieutenant 1st class. 75% of the promotions from Lieutenant 2nd class to Lieutenant 1st class are through a civil service exam open to Lieutenants 2nd class with three years in the grade. 75 % of the promotions from Lieutenant 1st class to Lieutenant above class are through a civil service exam open to Lieutenants 1st class with three years in the grade. Direct entry lieutenants 1st class are undergoing a 32 weeks course at the French Fire College. Lieutenants 2nd class are undergoing a 12-week course at the Fire College, while Lieutenants 1st class promoted from 2nd class, are in addition undergoing a course of 6 weeks.
Sources Professional fire fighters class A are recruited through civil service exams open to direct entry candidates with a bachelor's degree in engineering, to fire fighters class B qualified as sector commanders. Commandants are selected through a civil service exam from captains with three years in the grade. Direct entry captains are undergoing a 42-week course, internal entry captains a 10-week course, at the National Fire College. Sources Professional fire fighters class A+ hold senior management positions, such as brigade manager, deputy brigade manager, or senior expert for the government. Colonels are recruited through civil service exams open to fire fighters class A qualified as area