Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Puncak Trikora, until 1963 Wilhelmina Peak, is a 4,730 or 4,750 m high mountain in the Papua province of Indonesia on New Guinea. It lies in the part of the Sudirman Range of the Maoke Mountains. Behind Puncak Jaya at 4,884 m, it is either the second or third highest mountain on the island of New Guinea and the Australasian continent. As such it appears on some Seven Second Summits lists, although SRTM-data support that Puncak Mandala in the Jayawijaya Range is higher with 4,760 m. At the beginning of the 20th century all the highest mountains in New Guinea, including Puncak Jaya, Puncak Mandala, Ngga Pilimsit, the first expeditions to Maoke Mountains documented a strong recent retreat of all glaciers in the area. The ice cap of Puncak Trikora melted between 1936 and 1962, in 1909 the ice cap still reached as low as 4,400 m. The leader of the first two expeditions was the diplomat and amateur biologist H. A, each expedition was accompanied by soldiers and dayaks, who were employed for their expertise with boat journeys.
The Second South New Guinea Expedition used Camp Alkmaar, from where it left on October 9,1909. A group of nine, including Lorentz and Jan Willem van Nouhuys, were the first to reach the snow of New Guinea at a height of 4,460 m on November 8,1909. From the ridge they observed a lake to the north. No attempt was made to reach the Wilhelmina summit, the return trip was severe, with a loss of four expedition members, the explorers finally returned to Camp Alkmaar in mid-December. The summit was first reached in 1913 during the Third South New Guinea Expedition, which lasted from September 1912 to April 1913 and followed the same route. It was led by Alphons Franssen Herderschee, an officer of the Royal Dutch East Indies Leger, other expedition members were the zoologist Gerard Martinus Versteeg, the botanist August Adriaan Pulle, the geologist Paul François Hubrecht, and J. B. Sitanala, an Indonesian GP. Herderschee took over the role of ethnographer, including soldiers and dayaks, the baggage train had 241 members.
They were divided up into groups in order to carry out the different tasks in a time-effective way. Herderschee and Versteeg formed the team, which reached the Wilhelminatop on 21 February 1913. The 1920-1922 Central New Guinea Expedition had as goal to reach the mountain from the north coast over a partially explored in a 1914 military expedition. On February 7,1920 the first exploration, under leadership of A. J. A. van Overeem started at the mouth of the Mamberamo, in October, they had climbed across the Doorman Mtns and reached the upper Swart Valley
A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes specific, prepared food, or the food eaten on that occasion. The names used for meals in English vary greatly, depending on the speakers culture. Meals occur primarily at homes and cafeterias, regular meals occur on a daily basis, typically several times a day. Special meals are held in conjunction with such occasions as birthdays, anniversaries. A meal is different from a snack in that meals are generally larger, more varied, the type of meal served or eaten at any given time varies by custom and location. In most modern cultures, three meals are eaten, in the morning, early afternoon, and evening. Further, the names of meals are often interchangeable by custom as well, some serve dinner as the main meal at midday, with supper as the late afternoon/early evening meal, while others may call their midday meal lunch and their early evening meal supper. Except for breakfast, these names can vary from region to region or even family to family.
A study in 2016 by Toluna found that 47% of parents share fewer meals with their families than when growing up, breakfast is the first meal of a day, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the days work. Some believe it to be the most important meal of the day, among English speakers, breakfast can be used to refer to this meal or to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods served at any time of day. The word literally refers to breaking the fasting period of the prior night, a full breakfast is a breakfast meal, usually including bacon, eggs, and a variety of other cooked foods, with a beverage such as coffee or tea. It is especially popular in the UK and Ireland, to the extent that many cafés and it is popular in other English-speaking countries. In England it is referred to as a full English breakfast or fry-up. Other regional names and variants include the full Scottish, full Welsh, full Irish, the full breakfast is among the most internationally recognised British dishes, along with such staples as bangers & mash, shepherds pie and chips and the Christmas dinner.
A full breakfast is often contrasted with the alternative of a Continental breakfast, traditionally consisting of tea, milk or coffee and fruit juices with bread, croissants. Instant breakfast typically refers to breakfast food products that are manufactured in a powdered form, some instant breakfasts are produced and marketed in liquid form, being pre-mixed. The target market for instant breakfast products includes consumers who tend to be busy, a champagne breakfast is a breakfast served with champagne or sparkling wine. It is a new concept in some countries and is not typical of the role of a breakfast and it may be part of any day or outing considered particularly luxurious or indulgent
Richard Archbold was an American zoologist and philanthropist. He was independently wealthy, being the grandson of the capitalist John Dustin Archbold and he was educated at private schools and attended classes at Columbia University though he never graduated. In 1929 Archbold joined the ranks of members of the Explorers Club in New York, in 1928 Archbold was invited to participate in a Franco-British-American zoological expedition to Madagascar, led by Jean Delacour, on which he was responsible for mammal collecting. The American component of this expedition was funded by his father, John F. Archbold and it was on this expedition that Archbold first met Austin L. Rand, the expedition ornithologist, who became a long-term research collaborator and lifelong friend. It was during the course of this expedition that he learnt of the death of his father, in the 1930s, inspired and encouraged by Ernst Mayr, Archbold financed a series of major biological expeditions to New Guinea. This used conventional equipment, pack animals and human carriers, logistical problems and limitations started Archbold thinking about the use of aircraft for future expeditions, as well as radio for communications.
The expedition used radio as well as a Fairchild 91 amphibian flying boat, however, a Dutch soldier on board the Guba named the valley Groote Vallei, or Grand Valley, and Archbold declared that would be its name. In August 1938, Archbold dispatched two exploration teams, each consisting of Dutch soldiers and Dyak tribesmen, into the Baliem Valley, one team led by Captain C. G. J. Teerink started at one end of the valley while the other, van Arcken, started at the other end with the goal of meeting in the middle of the valley. On August 10,1938, an incident occurred near the valleys resulting in the death of a Dani tribesman. Towards the conclusion of the expedition in 1939, with Archbold intending to return to the USA across the Pacific and it appeared that Guba II was the only suitable aircraft for the job at short notice. As Archbold was amenable to the project, his plane was chartered for the crossing by the Australian government. The intended flight path across the Indian Ocean was from Port Hedland, Western Australia to the Cocos Islands, Diego Garcia, the Seychelles and Mombasa, Kenya.
Apart from the leg of the flight, when the plane was forced, after leaving Port Hedland, to detour via Batavia because of bad weather. In Mombasa Taylor left the crew to return to Australia and Archbold continued the flight westwards, there were four further Archbold-financed expeditions to New Guinea after the war, but Archbold did not personally participate in them. Summary of the 1933-1934 Papuan Expedition, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 68, 527-579. Summary of the 1936-1937 New Guinea Expedition, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 77, 341-380. Archbold, R. Rand, A. L. & Brass, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 79, 197-288
Animism is the worlds oldest religion. Animism teaches that objects and creatures all possess distinctive spiritual qualities, animism perceives all things—animals, rocks, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animate and alive. Animism is the oldest known type of system in the world that even predates paganism. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in traditional societies. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, animism is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples spiritual or supernatural perspectives. The currently accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names, or metaphors in mythology. Some members of the world consider themselves animists. Earlier anthropological perspectives – since termed the old animism – were concerned with knowledge surrounding what is alive, the old animism assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things.
Critics of the old animism have accused it of preserving colonialist and dualist worldviews, according to Tylor, animism often includes an idea of pervading life and will in nature, i. e. a belief that natural objects other than humans have souls. This formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as fetishism, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew. The earliest known usage in English appeared in 1819, Tylors definition of animism was a part of a growing international debate on the nature of primitive society by lawyers and philologists. The debate defined the field of research of a new science – anthropology and their religion was animism – the belief that natural species and objects had souls. With the development of property, these descent groups were displaced by the emergence of the territorial state. These rituals and beliefs eventually evolved over time into the vast array of developed religions, in 1869, the Edinburgh lawyer, John Ferguson McLellan, argued that the animistic thinking evident in fetishism gave rise to a religion he named Totemism.
Primitive people believed, he argued, that they were descended of the species as their totemic animal. Subsequent debate by the armchair anthropologists remained focused on totemism rather than animism, anthropologists have commonly avoided the issue of Animism and even the term itself rather than revisit this prevalent notion in light of their new and rich ethnographies. Certain indigenous religious groups such as the Australian Aboriginals are more typically totemic, stewart Guthrie saw animism – or attribution as he preferred it – as an evolutionary strategy to aid survival. He argued that humans and other animal species view inanimate objects as potentially alive as a means of being constantly on guard against potential threats
An earth oven, ground oven or cooking pit is one of the simplest and most ancient cooking structures. At its most basic, an oven is a pit in the ground used to trap heat and bake, smoke. Earth ovens have been used in places and cultures in the past. Earth ovens remain a tool for cooking large quantities of food where no equipment is available. They have been used in various civilizations around the world and are commonly found in the Pacific region to date. To bake food, the fire is built, allowed to burn down to a smoulder, the food is placed in the oven and covered. This covered area can be used to bake bread or other various items, steaming food in an earth oven covers a similar process. Fire-heated rocks are put into a pit and are covered with vegetation to add moisture. More green vegetation and sometimes water are added, if more moisture is needed. Finally, a covering of earth is added over everything, the food in the pit can take up to several hours to a full day to cook, regardless of the dry or wet method used.
Today, many still use cooking pits for ceremonial or celebratory occasions, including the indigenous Fijian lovo, the Hawaiian luau, the Māori hāngi. The central Asian tandoor use the method primarily for uncovered, live-fire baking and this method is essentially a permanent earth oven made out of clay or firebrick with a constantly burning, very hot fire in the bottom. In modern times, earth ovens are used for outdoor cooking. In many areas, archaeologists recognize pit-hearths as being used in the past. In Central Texas, there are large burned-rock middens speculated to be used for cooking of plants of various sorts. The Mayan pib and Andean watia are other examples, the clam bake, invented by Native Americans on the Atlantic seaboard and considered a traditional element of New England cuisine, traditionally uses a type of ad hoc earth oven. A large enough hole is dug into the sand and heated rocks are added to the bottom of the hole, a layer of seaweed is laid on top to create moisture and steam, followed by the food.
Lastly, another layer of seaweed is added to trap in the steam and cook the food, the Curanto of the Chiloé Archipelago consists of shellfish, potatoes, milcao chapaleles, and vegetables traditionally prepared in an earth oven
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years, and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking, bone tools were used during this period as well but are rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of tools in use. According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System, especially toward the north in Ethiopia, where it is bordered by grasslands. The closest relative among the living primates, the genus Pan, represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest. The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. The oldest indirect evidence found of stone tool use is fossilised animal bones with tool marks, the oldest stone tools were excavated from the site of Lomekwi 3 in West Turkana, northwestern Kenya, and date to 3.3 million years old.
Prior to the discovery of these Lomekwian tools, the oldest known stone tools had been found at sites at Gona, Ethiopia, on the sediments of the paleo-Awash River. All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity, or missing layer, the oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2. 6–2.55 mya. One of the most striking circumstances about these sites is that they are from the Late Pliocene, excavators at the locality point out that. the earliest stone tool makers were skilled flintknappers. The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of tools to the presence thereof include. The species who made the Pliocene tools remains unknown, fragments of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus aethiopicus and Homo, possibly Homo habilis, have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools. Innovation of the technique of smelting ore ended the Stone Age, the first most significant metal manufactured was bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, each of which was smelted separately.
The Chalcolithic by convention is the period of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age, the transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia. Note the Rudna Glava mine in Serbia, Ötzi the Iceman, a mummy from about 3300 BCE carried with him a copper axe and a flint knife. In regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by the Iron Age, the Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BCE. Europe, and the rest of Asia became post–Stone Age societies by about 4000 BCE, the proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BCE, when gold and silver made their entrance
The Asmat are an ethnic group of New Guinea, residing in the Papua province of Indonesia. The land of Asmat is located both within and adjacent to Lorentz National Park and World Heritage Site, the largest protected area in the Asia-Pacific region, the total Asmat population is estimated to be around 50,000 as of 1996. The term Asmat is used to both to the people and the region they inhabit. The Asmat have one of the most well-known woodcarving traditions in the Pacific, the natural environment has been a major factor affecting the Asmat, as their culture and way of life are heavily dependent on the rich natural resources found in their forests and seas. The Asmat mainly subsist on starch from the palm, supplemented by grubs of the sago beetle, fish, forest game. Materials for canoes and woodcarvings are all gathered locally, due to the daily flooding which occurs in many parts of their land, Asmat dwellings have typically been built two or more meters above the ground, raised on wooden posts.
In some inland regions, the Asmat have lived in houses, sometimes as high as 25 meters from the ground. The Asmat have traditionally placed emphasis on the veneration of ancestors. Asmat art consists of elaborate stylized wood carvings such as the pole and is designed to honour ancestors. One of the most comprehensive collections of Asmat Art can be found in the American Museum of Asmat Art at the University of Saint Thomas in St. Paul, many Asmat men practiced polygyny by marrying more than one woman. In many cases, men were expected to marry a male relatives wife when that relative dies, Schneebaum reported that many Asmat men had long-term ritual sexual/friendship relationships with other men, although the prevalence of this practice has been disputed by others. In the mbai system, male partners were known to share their wives in a practice called papitsj. It is probable that missionary influence in the last several decades has reduced the occurrence of both mbai and papitsj, headhunting raids were an important element of Asmat culture until missionaries suppressed the practice.
The death of an adult, even by disease, was believed to be caused by an enemy, heads were thought necessary for the rituals in which boys were initiated into manhood. Cannibalism was a feature of the rituals that followed the taking of heads. However, some groups who speak languages in the Asmat language family, such as the Kamoro. Asmat may be thought of as a term for twelve different ethnic sub-groups with shared linguistic and cultural affinities. These twelve Asmat groups include Joirat, Emari Ducur, Becembub, Kenekap, Unir Siran, Unir Epmak, Aramatak, further complicating the issue, these groups speak approximately five dialects
Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society.
Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action.
These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australias national public broadcaster and funded by the government. The ABC plays a role in the history of broadcasting in Australia. With a total budget of A$1. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, it was made a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 as the Australian Broadcasting Commission. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983. The ABC is sometimes referred to as Aunty, originally in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporations nickname. The first public station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth. It nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company which had created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations.
Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a broadcasting organisation through regular program relays. The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the ABC and the commercial sector, in 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, and in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing and it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, Kindergarten of the Air began on ABC Radio in Perth, cater argues that reform was urgently needed in 1945, By the end of World War II, the ABC was a decadent, hollow institution. Its authority had been compromised by a poorly drafted charter and further undermined by timid management, poor governance, in April 1945, Boyer refused to accept the post of chairman until Prime Minister Curtin issued a mandate of independence which Boyer drafted itself. The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, and followed the earlier practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state.
ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, aBV-2 followed two weeks later, on 18 November 1956. Stations in other cities followed, ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, and ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s. This meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually