Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word implies a unwarranted certainty of accuracy. Absolute dating provides an age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events. Techniques include tree rings in timbers, radiocarbon dating of wood or bones, radiometric dating is based on the known and constant rate of decay of radioactive isotopes into their radiogenic daughter isotopes. Particular isotopes are suitable for different applications due to the type of atoms present in the mineral or other material, one of the most widely used and well-known absolute dating techniques is carbon-14 dating, which is used to date organic remains. This is a technique since it is based on radioactive decay. Cosmic radiation entering the earth’s atmosphere produces carbon-14, and plants take in carbon-14 as they fix carbon dioxide, carbon-14 moves up the food chain as animals eat plants and as predators eat other animals.
With death, the uptake of carbon-14 stops and it takes 5,730 years for half the carbon-14 to change to nitrogen, this is the half-life of carbon-14. After another 5,730 years only one-quarter of the original carbon-14 will remain, after yet another 5,730 years only one-eighth will be left. By measuring the carbon-14 in organic material, scientists can determine the date of death of the matter in an artifact or ecofact. The relatively short half-life of carbon-14,5,730 years, an additional problem with carbon-14 dates from archeological sites is known as the old wood problem. Thus dating that particular tree does not necessarily indicate when the fire burned or the structure was built, for this reason, many archaeologists prefer to use samples from short-lived plants for radiocarbon dating. The development of mass spectrometry dating, which allows a date to be obtained from a very small sample, has been very useful in this regard. Other radiometric dating techniques are available for earlier periods, one of the most widely used is potassium-argon dating.
Potassium-40 is an isotope of potassium that decays into argon-40. The half-life of potassium-40 is 1.3 billion years, far longer than that of carbon-14, potassium is common in rocks and minerals, allowing many samples of geochronological or archeological interest to be dated. Argon, a gas, is not commonly incorporated into such samples except when produced in situ through radioactive decay. The date measured reveals the last time that the object was heated past the closure temperature at which the trapped argon can escape the lattice, k-Ar dating was used to calibrate the geomagnetic polarity time scale
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
With the exception of some ectothermic species like the leatherback sea turtle and crocodiles, no tetrapods weighing more than 25 kilograms survived. It marked the end of the Cretaceous period and with it, in the geologic record, the K–Pg event is marked by a thin layer of sediment called the K–Pg boundary, which can be found throughout the world in marine and terrestrial rocks. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earths crust, the fact that the extinctions occurred at the same time as the impact provides strong situational evidence that the K–Pg extinction was caused by the asteroid. It was possibly accelerated by the creation of the Deccan Traps, some scientists maintain the extinction was caused or exacerbated by other factors, such as volcanic eruptions, climate change, or sea level change, separately or together. A wide range of species perished in the K–Pg extinction, the most well-known victims are the non-avian dinosaurs. However, the extinction destroyed a plethora of other organisms, including certain mammals, birds, insects.
In the oceans, the K–Pg extinction killed off plesiosaurs and the giant marine lizards and devastated fish, mollusks and it is estimated that 75% or more of all species on Earth vanished. Yet the devastation caused by the extinction provided evolutionary opportunities, mammals in particular diversified in the Paleogene, producing new forms such as horses, whales and primates. Birds and perhaps lizards radiated, the K–Pg boundary represents one of the most dramatic turnovers in the fossil record for various calcareous nanoplankton that formed the calcium deposits that gave the Cretaceous its name. The turnover in this group is marked at the species level. Statistical analysis of marine losses at this time suggests that the decrease in diversity was caused more by an increase in extinctions than by a decrease in speciation. Recent studies indicate that there were no major shifts in dinoflagellates through the boundary layer, the K–Pg extinction event was severe, global and selective. In terms of severity, the event eliminated a vast number of species, based on marine fossils, it is estimated that 75% or more of all species were made extinct by the K–Pg extinction event.
The event appears to have affected all continents at the same time, non-avian dinosaurs, for example, are known from the Maastrichtian of North America, Asia, South America and Antarctica, but are unknown from the Cenozoic anywhere in the world. Similarly, fossil pollen shows devastation of the plant communities in areas as far apart as New Mexico, China, even though the boundary event was severe, there was significant variability in the rate of extinction between and within different clades. Species that depended on photosynthesis declined or became extinct as atmospheric particles blocked sunlight and this plant extinction caused a major reshuffling of the dominant plant groups. Omnivores and carrion-eaters survived the event, perhaps because of the increased availability of their food sources. No purely herbivorous or carnivorous mammals seem to have survived, the surviving mammals and birds fed on insects and snails, which in turn fed on dead plant and animal matter
Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point
The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes, hence GSSPs are usually described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs. The GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977, as of 2012,64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined. A geologic section has to fulfill a set of criteria to be adapted as a GSSP by the ICS, the following list summarizes the criteria, A GSSP has to define the lower boundary of a geologic stage. The lower boundary has to be defined using a primary marker, there should be secondary markers. The horizon in which the marker appears should have minerals that can be radiometrically dated, the marker has to have regional and global correlation in outcrops of the same age The marker should be independent of facies. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary GSSP at Fortune Head, Newfoundland is a typical GSSP and it is accessible by paved road and is set aside as a nature preserve.
A continuous section is available from beds that are clearly Precambrian into beds that are clearly Cambrian, the boundary is set at the first appearance of a complex trace fossil Treptichnus pedum that is found worldwide. The Fortune Head GSSP is unlikely to be washed away or built over. Nonetheless, Treptichnus pedum is less than ideal as a fossil as it is not found in every Cambrian sequence. In fact, further eroding its value as a boundary marker, however, no other fossil is known that would be preferable. There is no radiometrically datable bed at the boundary at Fortune Head and these factors have led some geologists to suggest that this GSSP is in need of reassigning. Once a GSSP boundary has been agreed upon, a spike is driven into the geologic section to mark the precise boundary for future geologists. GSSPs are referred to as Golden Spikes. Because defining a GSSP depends on finding well-preserved geologic sections and identifying key events, before 630 million years ago, boundaries on the geologic timescale are defined simply by reference to fixed dates, known as Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages.
Body form European Mammal Neogene Fauna Geologic time scale New Zealand geologic time scale List of GSSPs North American Land Mammal Age Type locality Hedberg, H. D
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start. The name Oligocene comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος and καινός, the Oligocene is preceded by the Eocene Epoch and is followed by the Miocene Epoch. The Oligocene is the third and final epoch of the Paleogene Period, the Oligocene is often considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene. Major changes during the Oligocene included an expansion of grasslands. By contrast, the Oligocene–Miocene boundary is not set at an easily identified worldwide event, Oligocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are, The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A deeper 8.2 °C,400, 000-year temperature depression leads the 2 °C, the stepwise climate change began 32.5 Ma and lasted through to 25.5 Ma, as depicted in the PaleoTemps chart.
The Oligocene climate change was a increase in ice volume. The 7-million-year depression abruptly terminated within 1–2 million years of the La Garita Caldera eruption at 28–26 Ma, a deep 400, 000-year glaciated Oligocene Miocene boundary event is recorded at McMurdo Sound and King George Island. During this epoch, the continued to drift toward their present positions. Antarctica became more isolated and finally developed an ice cap, a brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. Marine fossils from the Oligocene are rare in North America, there appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe, since the faunas of the two regions are very similar. Sometime during the Oligocene, South America was finally detached from Antarctica and it allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow, rapidly cooling the Antarctic continent. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by deciduous forests.
Open plains and deserts became more common and grasses expanded from their habitat in the Eocene moving out into open tracts. However, even at the end of the period, grass was not quite enough for modern savannas. In North America, subtropical species dominated with cashews and lychee trees present, and temperate trees such as roses, the legumes spread, while sedges and ferns continued their ascent. Even more open landscapes allowed animals to grow to larger sizes than they had earlier in the Paleocene epoch 30 million years earlier, marine faunas became fairly modern, as did terrestrial vertebrate fauna on the northern continents
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell and its name comes from the Greek words μείων and καινός and means less recent because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene Epoch and is followed by the Pliocene Epoch, the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, with the climate slowly cooling towards a series of ice ages. The Miocene boundaries are not marked by a single distinct global event, the apes arose and diversified during the Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path, as in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to expand and forests to dwindle in extent. In the Miocene seas, kelp forests made their first appearance, the plants and animals of the Miocene were fairly modern.
The Miocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are typically named according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, Two subdivisions each form the lower, continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Mountain building took place in western North America, both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines. Well studied continental exposures occur in the North American Great Plains, India continued to collide with Asia, creating dramatic new mountain ranges. The Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish–Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma. The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea near the end of the Miocene. The global trend was towards increasing aridity caused primarily by global cooling reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorb moisture, climates remained moderately warm, although the slow global cooling that eventually led to the Pleistocene glaciations continued.
Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene. The Miocene warming began 21 million years ago and continued until 14 million years ago, by 8 million years ago, temperatures dropped sharply once again, and the Antarctic ice sheet was already approaching its present-day size and thickness. Greenland may have begun to have large glaciers as early as 7 to 8 million years ago, life during the Miocene Epoch was mostly supported by the two newly formed biomes, kelp forests and grasslands. This allows for more grazers, such as horses, ninety five percent of modern plants existed by the end of this epoch. The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in sediments, produced a carbon and this, combined with higher surface albedo and lower evapotranspiration of grassland, contributed to a cooler, drier climate. The expansion of grasslands and radiations among terrestrial herbivores correlates to fluctuations in CO2
Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. They provide a source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish. These organisms include bacteria, algae and drifting or floating animals that inhabit, for example, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, plankton includes organisms covering a range of sizes. The name plankton is derived from the Greek adjective πλαγκτός, meaning errant and it was coined by Victor Hensen. Plankton typically flow with ocean currents, while some forms are capable of independent movement and can swim hundreds of meters vertically in a single day, their horizontal position is primarily determined by the surrounding currents. This is in contrast to nekton organisms that can swim against the ambient flow, within the plankton, holoplankton spend their entire life cycle as plankton.
By contrast, meroplankton are only planktic for part of their lives, examples of meroplankton include the larvae of sea urchins, crustaceans, marine worms, and most fish. Plankton abundance and distribution are strongly dependent on such as ambient nutrient concentrations, the physical state of the water column. The study of plankton is termed planktology and an individual is referred to as a plankter. The adjective planktonic is widely used in both the scientific and popular literature, and is an accepted term. However, from the standpoint of prescriptive grammar the less commonly used planktic is more strictly the correct adjective, when deriving English words from their Greek or Latin roots the gender specific ending is normally dropped, using only the root of the word in the derivation. Among the more important groups are the diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores, small protozoans or metazoans that feed on other plankton and telonemia. Some of the eggs and larvae of larger animals, such as fish, bacterioplankton and archaea, which play an important role in remineralising organic material down the water column.
Mycoplankton and fungus-like organisms, which are significant in nutrient cycling and this scheme divides the plankton community into broad producer and recycler groups. However, determining the level of some plankton is not straightforward. For example, although most dinoflagellates are either photosynthetic producers or heterotrophic consumers, Plankton are often described in terms of size. Usually the following divisions are used, some of terms may be used with very different boundaries
Mons is a Belgian city and municipality, and the capital of the province of Hainaut. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons was the European Capital of Culture in 2015, the first signs of activity in the region of Mons are found at Spiennes, where some of the best flint tools in Europe were found dating from the Neolithic period. When Julius Caesar arrived in the region in the 1st century BC, the region was settled by the Nervii, a Belgian tribe. A castrum was built in Roman times, giving the settlement its Latin name Castrilocus, soon after, Saint Waltrude, daughter of one of Clotaire II’s intendants, came to the oratory and was proclaimed a saint upon her death in 688. Like Ath, its neighbour to the north-west, Mons was made a city by Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut in the 12th century. The population grew quickly, trade flourished, and several buildings were erected near the Grand’Place. The 12th century saw the appearance of the first town halls, the city had 4,700 inhabitants by the end of the 13th century.
Mons succeeded Valenciennes as the capital of the county of Hainaut in 1295, in the 1450s, Matheus de Layens took over the construction of the Saint Waltrude church from Jan Spijkens and restored the town hall. In 1515, Charles V took an oath in Mons as Count of Hainaut, after the murder of de Coligny during the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, the Duke of Alba took control of Mons in September 1572 in the name of the Catholic King of Spain. This spelled the ruin of the city and the arrest of many of its inhabitants, from 1580 to 1584, on 8 April 1691, after a nine-month siege, Louis XIV’s army stormed the city, which again suffered heavy casualties. From 1697 to 1701, Mons was alternately French or Austrian, after being under French control from 1701 to 1709, the Dutch army gained the upper hand in the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1715, Mons returned to Austria under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, but the French did not give up easily, Louis XV besieged the city again in 1746. After the Battle of Jemappes, the Hainaut area was annexed to France, following the fall of the First French Empire in 1814, King William I of the Netherlands fortified the city heavily.
In 1830, Belgium gained its independence and the decision was made to dismantle fortified cities such as Mons, the actual removal of fortifications only happened in the 1860s, allowing the creation of large boulevards and other urban projects. The Industrial Revolution and coal mining made Mons a center of heavy industry and it was to become an integral part of the sillon industriel, the industrial backbone of Wallonia. On 17 April 1893, between Mons and Jemappes, seven strikers were killed by the guard at the end of the Belgian general strike of 1893. The proposed law on universal suffrage was approved the day after by the Belgian Parliament and this general strike was one of the first general strikes in an industrial country. On 23–24 August 1914, Mons was the location of the Battle of Mons—the first battle fought by the British Army in World War I
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the old recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from about 66 to 56 million years ago. It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era, as with many geologic periods, the strata that define the epochs beginning and end are well identified, but the exact ages remain uncertain. The Paleocene Epoch brackets two major events in Earths history and it started with the mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous, known as the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. This was a marked by the demise of non-avian dinosaurs, giant marine reptiles and much other fauna. The die-off of the dinosaurs left unfilled ecological niches worldwide, the Paleocene ended with the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, a geologically brief interval characterized by extreme changes in climate and carbon cycling. The name Paleocene comes from Ancient Greek and refers to the old new fauna that arose during the epoch. The K–Pg boundary that marks the separation between Cretaceous and Paleocene is visible in the record of much of the Earth by a discontinuity in the fossil fauna.
There is evidence of abrupt changes in flora and fauna. There is some evidence that a substantial but very short-lived climatic change may have happened in the early decades of the Paleocene. The end of the Paleocene was marked by a time of major change, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum upset oceanic and atmospheric circulation and led to the extinction of numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera and a major turnover in mammals on land. The Paleocene is divided into three stages, the Danian, the Selandian and the Thanetian, as shown in the table above, the Paleocene is divided into six Mammal Paleogene zones. The early Paleocene was cooler and dryer than the preceding Cretaceous, in many ways, the Paleocene continued processes that had begun during the late Cretaceous Period. During the Paleocene, the continued to drift toward their present positions. The Laramide orogeny of the late Cretaceous continued to uplift the Rocky Mountains in the American west, africa was heading north towards Europe, slowly closing the Tethys Ocean, and India began its migration to Asia that would lead to a tectonic collision and the formation of the Himalayas.
The inland seas in North America and Europe had receded by the beginning of the Paleocene, making way for new land-based flora, warm seas circulated throughout the world, including the poles. The earliest Paleocene featured a low diversity and abundance of marine life, tropical conditions gave rise to abundant marine life, including coral reefs. With the demise of marine reptiles at the end of the Cretaceous, at the end of the Cretaceous, the ammonites and many species of foraminifera became extinct. Marine fauna came to resemble modern fauna, with only the marine mammals, terrestrial Paleocene strata immediately overlying the K–Pg boundary is in places marked by a fern spike, a bed especially rich in fern fossils
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. As with other periods, the strata that define the start and end of the epoch are well identified. The name Eocene comes from the Ancient Greek ἠώς and καινός, the Eocene epoch is conventionally divided into early and late subdivisions. The corresponding rocks are referred to as lower, the Ypresian stage constitutes the lower, the Priabonian stage the upper, and the Lutetian and Bartonian stages are united as the middle Eocene. The Eocene Epoch contained a variety of different climate conditions that includes the warmest climate in the Cenozoic Era.
During this period of time, little to no ice was present on Earth with a difference in temperature from the equator to the poles. Following the maximum was a descent into an icehouse climate from the Eocene Optimum to the Eocene-Oligocene transition at 34 million years ago. During this decrease ice began to reappear at the poles, greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane, played a significant role during the Eocene in controlling the surface temperature. For the early Eocene there is discussion on how much carbon dioxide was in the atmosphere. This is due to numerous proxies representing different atmospheric carbon dioxide content, for contrast, today the carbon dioxide levels are at 400 ppm or 0. 04%. At about the beginning of the Eocene Epoch the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere more or less doubled. During the early Eocene, methane was another gas that had a drastic effect on the climate. In comparison to carbon dioxide, methane has much effect on temperature as methane is ~34 times more effective per molecule than carbon dioxide on a 100-year scale.
Most of the methane released to the atmosphere during this period of time would have been from wetlands, the atmospheric methane concentration today is 0. 000179% or 1.79 ppmv. Due to the climate and sea level rise associated with the early Eocene, more wetlands, more forests. Comparing the early Eocene production of methane to current levels of atmospheric methane, biogenic production of methane produces carbon dioxide and water vapor along with the methane, as well as yielding infrared radiation
All but perhaps a very few are aquatic and most are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment while a smaller variety are floaters in the water column at various depths. A few are known from freshwater or brackish conditions and some species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA. Foraminifera typically produce a test, or shell, which can have one or multiple chambers. These shells are made of calcium carbonate or agglutinated sediment particles. Over 50,000 species are recognized, both living and fossil and they are usually less than 1 mm in size, but some are much larger, the largest species reaching up to 20 cm. The word foraminifera is the present day plural and singular form of the derived from Latin. Foraminifera was initially informalized ca.1836 by not capitalizing the first letter, the taxonomic position of the Foraminifera has varied since their recognition as protozoa by Schultze in 1854, there referred to as an order, Foraminiferida.
Loeblich and Tappan reranked Foraminifera as a class as it is now commonly regarded, the Foraminifera have typically been included in the Protozoa, or in the similar Protoctista or Protist kingdom. Compelling evidence, based primarily on molecular phylogenetics, exists for their belonging to a group within the Protozoa known as the Rhizaria. The Rhizaria are problematic, as they are called a supergroup. Cavalier-Smith defines the Rhizaria as an infrakingdom within the kingdom Protozoa, some taxonomies put the Foraminifera in a phylum of their own, putting them on par with the amoeboid Sarcodina in which they had been placed. However, the relationships of the forams to the other groups. Foraminifera are closely related to testate amoebae, modern Foraminifera are primarily marine organisms, but living individuals have been found in brackish and even terrestrial habitats. The majority of the species are benthic, and a further 40 morphospecies are planktonic and this count may, represent only a fraction of actual diversity, since many genetically discrepant species may be morphologically indistinguishable. A number of forams have unicellular algae as endosymbionts, from diverse lineages such as the algae, red algae, golden algae, diatoms.
Some forams are kleptoplastic, retaining chloroplasts from ingested algae to conduct photosynthesis, the foraminiferal cell is divided into granular endoplasm and transparent ectoplasm from which a pseudopodial net may emerge through a single opening or through many perforations in the test. Individual pseudopods characteristically have small granules streaming in both directions, the pseudopods are used for locomotion, and in capturing food, which consists of small organisms such as diatoms or bacteria. The foraminiferal life-cycle involves an alternation between haploid and diploid generations, although they are similar in form
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government