Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders, centre-back, sweeper, full-back, the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations, a centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, tackling, intercepting passes, contesting headers, with the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defenders goal, during normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions, in the modern game, most teams employ two or three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper. The 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, and 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs, the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who sweeps up the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents. Because of this, it is referred to as libero. For example, the system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s. The more modern libero possesses the qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack. This variation on the position requires great pace and fitness, while rarely seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack, some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles. If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery, in modern football, its usage has been fairly restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a highly respected. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greeces manager, Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greeces sweeper to great success, as Greece surprisingly became European champions. The full-backs take up the wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all times
Maccabi Sha'arayim F.C.
Maccabi Shaarayim is an Israeli football club from the city Rehovot, currently playing in Liga Leumit. The club spent the past seven seasons in the top division from 1963 to 1969, the club was promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time in 1963. In their first season in the league they finished 11th out of 15, the following season the club finished sixth, which remains their highest ever league position. In the 1965–66 season they avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone. In 1969 Maccabi reach the cup final for the first time, in the same season they finished second bottom of the league and were relegated back to Liga Alef. The final match of the 1971–72 season saw the club have a chance to return to the top flight, but they lost 2–1 to Hapoel Marmorek, which were promoted instead. Two years later qualified for the promotion/relegation play-offs, but failed to win any of their five matches. At the end of the 1977–78 season they finished bottom of Liga Artzit and were relegated to Liga Alef, however, they finished bottom, and were relegated back to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club returned to Liga Alef, in the 2015–16 season, the club won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Leumit. Thus, the returned to the second tier of Israeli football after 23 years
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can also be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers also respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It. Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F.C.
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F. C. is an Israeli football club which currently plays in Liga Leumit, Israels second football division. Home matches are hosted at the Haberfeld Stadium, in 1991, the club changed its name to Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion, and in June 2008 the name was switched back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion following a change in ownership. Hapoel Rishon LeZion was one of the first clubs in the history of football in Israel. The football section of the Sports club was established in 1929, the club was formally established in 1940. Its best achievements were runner-up of the Israel State Cup in 1946 and 1996, on both occasions it lost to Maccabi Tel Aviv. Following its cup final in 1996, it played in UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in 1951–52, the club finished second bottom and dropped to the second tier. Between 1952 and 1994 the club played just three seasons in the top division, 1978-79, 1980–81 and 1981–82, in 2008–09, after the club changed its name back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion, it was promoted to Liga Leumit, the second tier. In 2010–11, the club was promoted to the Israeli Premier League and they were relegated back to Liga Leumit the following season. The club is known with their previous name Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion. On 4 December 2012, Hapoel Rishon LeZion won the 2012–13 Toto Cup Leumit, as to 19 March 2017 Arik Gilrovich Nissan Yehezkel Eyal Lahman Sharon Mimer Ofir Haim Gili Levanda Nir Berkovic Official Site fans Official Site
Israel State Cup
The State Cup, is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association. The State Cup was first held in 1928 as the Peoples Cup, the holders of the State Cup are the Israeli Premier League side Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona, who beat Maccabi Netanya in the 2014 final on 7 May 2014. Maccabi Tel Aviv have 23 titles, having the record for most titles won, Hapoel Tel Aviv in 1937–1939 and 2010–2012 are the only club to have retained the State Cup for three consecutive seasons. The draw also determines which teams play at home. Each tie is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though until 1964 replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as three matches to settle, there are a total of 13 rounds in the competition—nine rounds, followed by quarter-finals, semi-finals, and the final. Which are contested by the lowest-ranked clubs, clubs playing in the Liga Alef are given exemption to the Fifth Round, and Liga Leumit teams are given exemption to the Eighth Round. The 18 winners from that round join the 14 clubs from the Israeli Premier League, as well as being presented with the trophy, the winning team also qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. If the winners have qualified for the UEFA Champions League via the Israeli Premier League. If they also have qualified for the UEFA Champions League, the place goes to the next highest placed finisher in the league table. The draw for round, performed by drawing the clubs name from a jar, is a source of great interest to clubs and their supporters. Sometimes two top clubs may be drawn against each other in the rounds, removing the possibility of them meeting in the final. Mid-ranked teams hope for a draw against a peer to improve their chances of reaching future rounds, top-ranked teams look for easy opposition, but have to be on their guard against giant-killers and lower teams with ambition. The balls are being drawn by the officials of the Israel Football Association, the semifinals and the finals are traditionally held in the national Ramat Gan Stadium in the middle of the week. The match considered more interesting to the public is usually the second, for the final, the two winning teams of the semifinal return to Ramat Gan, with the winning team being awarded the State Cup from the President of Israel. The presidents role is traditional, and entered the Israeli sports lexicon, Israel Football Association List of winners on IFA website State Cup Soccerway Israel – List of Cup Finals
Maccabi Herzliya F.C.
Maccabi Herzliya F. C. is an Israeli football club based in Herzliya. The club is currently in Liga Leumit and plays at the Herzliya Municipal Stadium, a football section of the Maccabi Herzliya Sports Club existed and played several matches since 1929, including competing in the 1930 Palestine Cup. The club was established in 1932. In 1978 they were promoted to Liga Artzit, however, they finished bottom in the 1980–81 season and were relegated back to Liga Alef. In 1983 they moved to the Herzliya Municipal Stadium, which share with city rivals Hapoel Herzliya. At the start of the 1990s the club returned to Liga Artzit and they avoided relegation by a single point in 1994–95, and finished one place above the relegation zone again in 1996–97 and 1998–99. In the first season of the new Premier League in 1999–2000, in 2001–02 they finished third, narrowly missing out on promotion back to the Premier League. In 2005 they reached the State Cup final for the first time, in 2005–06 they won Liga Leumit to return to the top division. After finishing one place above the zone in the 2006–07 season, In the 2007–08 season they finished bottom. As to 26 January 2017 Toto Cup Winners 2007 Second Division Champions 1992–93, 2005–06 Official Website
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site