RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of modern history's deadliest commercial marine disasters during peacetime. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, she was built by the Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster. Titanic was under the command of Capt. Edward Smith, who went down with the ship; the ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins.
A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, it only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—about half the number on board, one third of her total capacity—due to outdated maritime safety regulations; the ship carried 16 lifeboat davits. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved hard to launch during the sinking. After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea. Meanwhile and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only loaded.
A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats. At 2:20 a.m. she foundered with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived and brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors; the disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, which still governs maritime safety. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers; the wreck of Titanic was discovered in 1985 during a US military mission, it remains on the seabed.
The ship was split in two and is disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet. Thousands of artefacts have been displayed at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest sunk, although she holds the record as the largest sunk while in service as a liner due to Britannic being used as a hospital ship at the time of her sinking; the final survivor of the sinking, Millvina Dean, aged two months at the time, died in 2009 at the age of 97. The name Titanic derives from the Titan of Greek mythology. Built in Belfast, Ireland, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the RMS Titanic was the second of the three Olympic-class ocean liners—the first was the RMS Olympic and the third was the HMHS Britannic. Britannic was to be called Gigantic and was to be over 1,000 feet long, they were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912.
The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, the American financier J. P. Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co.. The White Star Line faced an increasing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had launched the Lusitania and the Mauretania—the fastest passenger ships in service—and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd. Ismay preferred to compete on size rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be larger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury; the company sought an upgrade in their fleet in response to the Cunard giants but to replace their oldest pair of passenger ships still in service, being the SS Teutonic of 1889 and SS Majestic of 1890. Teutonic was replaced by Olympic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss.
The ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long-established relati
Madeleine Talmage Force Fiermonte was an American socialite and a survivor of the RMS Titanic. She was the second wife and widow of businessman John Jacob Astor IV. Madeleine Talmage Force was born on June 19, 1893, in Brooklyn, New York, the younger daughter of William Hurlbut Force and the former Katherine Arvilla Talmage. Madeleine's elder sister Katherine Emmons Force was socialite. Through their father William and she had French ancestry and were grandnieces of builder Ephraim S. Force, their mother Katherine had Dutch ancestry. William Hurlbut Force was a member of a well-established business family, he owned the successful shipping firm William H. Force and Co. and his father had been prosperous in the manufacturing industry. In 1889, Force had married Katherine Talmage, the granddaughter of former Brooklyn mayor Thomas Talmage; the Forces were part of Brooklyn high society, while William Force was a member of numerous prestigious clubs in the city. He owned an art collection. Like the Astor family, the Forces were members of the Episcopal Church.
She was educated at Miss Ely's School and for four years at Miss Spence's School, located at West 48th Street in Manhattan. According to one report, she was "counted an brilliant pupil" at this school, she was taken abroad with her sister Katherine by her mother and toured Europe several times. When she was introduced to New York social life, she was adopted by the Junior League, a clique of debutantes, she attracted quite a following. She was known to be a competent horsewoman and enjoyed yachting. One report said that she was good with drawing-room conversation, she met Colonel John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV, the only son of businessman William Backhouse Astor, Jr. and socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn. During their courtship, he took her on automobile drives and yacht trips, they were followed by the press, they became engaged in August 1911 and were married on September 9, 1911. There was a considerable amount of opposition to his marriage not only because of their age difference but because of his recent divorce from his previous wife.
Several Episcopal priests refusing to celebrate the nuptials, the couple were married by a Congregationalist minister at Beechwood, his Newport mansion. His son William Vincent Astor served as best man. After their marriage, they had an extended honeymoon, they visited several places locally first in January 1912, they sailed from New York on the Titanic's sister ship, the Olympic, enjoyed a long Egyptian tour. While returning from this part of their honeymoon, they booked their passage on the Titanic. Madeleine Astor five months pregnant, boarded the Titanic as a first-class passenger in Cherbourg, with her husband, they took Kitty, Astor's pet Airedale, occupied one of the parlor suites. On the night of April 14, 1912, Colonel Astor reported to his wife, he reassured her. While they were waiting on the boat-deck, Mrs. Astor lent Leah Aks, a third-class passenger, her fur shawl to keep her son, warm. At one point, the Astors retired to the gymnasium and sat on the mechanical horses in their lifebelts.
Colonel Astor found another lifebelt which he cut with a pen knife to show Madeleine what it was made of. When it was time to board a life boat, Madeleine Astor, her maid, her nurse had to crawl through the first-class promenade window into the tilting lifeboat 4. Astor had helped his wife to climb through the window and asked if he could accompany her as she was'in a delicate condition'; the request was denied by Second Officer Charles Lightoller. An account of Madeleine's boarding of the lifeboat was given by Archibald Gracie IV to the US Senate Titanic inquiry. Gracie was a fellow passenger and recalled the events regarding Madeleine Astor in the following terms; the only incident I remember in particular at this point is. She was lifted up through the window, her husband helped her on the other side, when she got in, her husband was on one side of this window and I was on the other side, at the next window. I heard Mr Astor ask the second officer whether he would not be allowed to go aboard this boat to protect his wife.
He said,'No, sir, no man is allowed on this boat or any of the boats until the ladies are off.' Mr Astor said,'Well, tell me what is the number of this boat so I may find her afterwards,' or words to that effect. The answer came back. 4.' Astor and his valet died in the sinking. He was found to be carrying about $2500 in cash, brought with him from his cabin, his young widow and the other survivors were rescued by the RMS Carpathia around 3:30 am. Madeleine Astor gave an account of what she recalled immediately after her arrival home through her spokesman Nicholas Biddle, a trustee of the Astor estate; the account given by her spokesman is: On landing from the Carpathia, the young bride widowed by the Titanic's sinking told members of her family what she could recall of the circumstances of the disaster. Of how Colonel Astor had met his death she had no definite conception, she recalled she thought that in the confusion as she was about to be put into one of the boats Colonel Astor was standing by her side.
After that she had no cle
Charles Herbert Lightoller, RNR was the second officer on board the RMS Titanic and a decorated Royal Navy officer. He was the most senior member of the crew to survive the Titanic disaster; as the officer in charge of loading passengers into lifeboats on the port side, Lightoller enforced the "women and children first" protocol, not allowing any male passengers to board the lifeboats unless they were needed as auxiliary seamen. Lightoller stayed until the last, was sucked against a grate and held under water, but was blown from the grate by a rush of warm air as a boiler exploded, he found refuge on an upturned collapsible boat with 30 others, showing his fellow survivors how to shift their weight to avoid being swamped, until their rescue at dawn. Lightoller served as a commanding officer of the Royal Navy during World War I and was twice decorated for gallantry. First while in command of a motor torpedo boat he engaged German Zeppelin L31 during a night time raid on Southern England. Second whilst in command of destroyer HMS Garry protecting a merchant convoy, Lightoller's ship rammed and sank the German U-Boat UB-110.
The captain of UB-110 claimed that some of the German survivors were massacred by Lightoller's crew, an allegation never substantiated. In his 1935 memoir'Titanic and Other Ships', Lightoller wrote of the incident that he "refused to accept the hands-up business", but did not go into further detail on the matter. In retirement, he further distinguished himself in World War II, by providing and sailing as a volunteer on one of the "little ships" that played a part in the Dunkirk evacuation. Rather than allow his motoryacht to be requisitioned by the Admiralty, he sailed the vessel to Dunkirk and repatriated 127 British servicemen. Charles Herbert Lightoller was born in Chorley, Lancashire, on 30 March 1874, into a family that had operated cotton-spinning mills in Lancashire since the late 18th century, his mother, Sarah Jane Lightoller, died of scarlet fever shortly after giving birth to him. His father, Frederick James Lightoller, emigrated to New Zealand when Charles was 10, leaving him in the care of extended family.
At age 13, not wanting to end up with a factory job like most of Britain's youth at the time, young Charles began a four-year seafaring apprenticeship on board the barque Primrose Hill. On his second voyage, he set sail with the crew of the Holt Hill, during a storm in the South Atlantic, the ship was forced to put in at Rio de Janeiro. Repairs were made in the midst of a revolution. Another storm, on 13 November 1889 in the Indian Ocean, caused the ship to run aground on an uninhabited four-and-a-half-square-mile island now called Île Saint-Paul, they were taken to Adelaide, Australia. Lightoller joined the crew of the clipper ship Duke of Abercorn for his return to England. Lightoller returned to the Primrose Hill for his third voyage, they arrived in Calcutta, where he passed his second mate's certificate. The cargo of coal caught fire while he was serving as third mate on board the windjammer Knight of St. Michael, for his successful efforts in fighting the fire and saving the ship, Lightoller was promoted to second mate.
In 1895, at age 21 and a veteran of the dangers at sea, he obtained his mate's ticket and left sailing ships for steamships. After three years of service in Elder Dempster's African Royal Mail Service on the West African coast, he nearly died from a heavy bout of malaria. Abandoning the sea, Lightoller went to the Yukon in 1898 to prospect for gold in the Klondike Gold Rush. Failing at this endeavour, he became a cowboy in Alberta, Canada. In order to return home, he became a hobo, he earned his passage back to England by working as a cattle wrangler on a cattle boat and arrived home penniless in 1899. He obtained his master's certificate and joined Greenshields, Cowie & Co, for whom he made another trip on a cattle boat, this time as third mate of the Knight Companion. In January 1900, he began his career with the White Star Line as fourth officer of the SS Medic. While on the Medic, on a voyage from Britain to South Africa and Australia, Lightoller was reprimanded for a prank he and some shipmates played on the citizens of Sydney at Fort Denison in Sydney Harbour.
In 1900, the Boer War was raging in South Africa, where Australian troops were fighting alongside British in the first war in which the colonies had taken part. As a result, passions were high when the White Star Line's Medic sailed into Sydney Harbour and dropped anchor in Neutral Bay. Spending time ashore with shipmates, the young sailor was amazed by the depth of concern expressed by locals regarding the distant South African conflict, so he decided to have some fun at their expense. Soon after midnight on Saturday 6 October 1900, accompanied by two shipmates rowed to the fortress and climbed its tower, they accessed the fort by means of the lightning conductor and hoisted a makeshift Boer flag on the tower. They loaded a cannon with 14 lb of blasting powder and a similar amount of fine-grain powder and rammed in a harmless wad of white cotton waste, they lit a 50 ft fuse, while in retreat, their small rowboat became holed by rocks. The three managed to row to shore, run through Government House grounds, reach Circular Quay by the time the cannon went off with "a huge flash", followed by "a crash like thunder"... "just as the Post Office clock had struck the hour of 1 a.m."Lightoller's plan was to fool the locals into believing a Boer raiding party was attacking Sydney and had captured Fort Denison.
When the heavy gun went off, the resounding bang blew out windows and woke residents, who leapt from their beds to see wha
Musicians of the RMS Titanic
The musicians of the RMS Titanic all perished when the ship sank in 1912. They played music, intending to calm the passengers, for as long as they could, all went down with the ship. All were recognized for their heroism; the ship's eight musicians - members of a three-piece ensemble and a five-piece ensemble - were booked through C. W. & F. N. Black, in Liverpool, they traveled as second-class passengers. They were not on the White Star Line's payroll but were contracted to White Star by the Liverpool firm of C. W. & F. N. Black, who placed musicians on all British liners; until the night of the sinking, the players performed as two separate groups: a quintet led by violinist and official bandleader Wallace Hartley, that played at teatime, after-dinner concerts, Sunday services, among other occasions. After the Titanic hit an iceberg and began to sink and his fellow band members started playing music to help keep the passengers calm as the crew loaded the lifeboats. Many of the survivors said that Hartley and the band continued to play until the end.
One second-class passenger said: Many brave things were done that night, but none were more brave than those done by men playing minute after minute as the ship settled lower and lower in the sea. The music they played served alike as their own immortal requiem and their right to be recalled on the scrolls of undying fame. Theodore Ronald Brailey was an English pianist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage who died in the disaster. Theodore Ronald Brailey, born on 25 October 1887 in Walthamstow in Greater London, was the son of William "Ronald" Brailey, a well-known figure of Spiritualism at the time, he studied piano at school, one of his first jobs was playing piano in a local hotel. In 1902, he joined the Royal Lancashire Fusiliers regiment signing for 12 years service as a musician, he was stationed in Barbados but resigned his commission prematurely in 1907. He lived at 71 Lancaster Road, Ladbroke Grove, London. In 1911, he enlisted aboard ship, playing first on the RMS Saxonia, prior to joining the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia in 1912, where he met the French cellist Roger Marie Bricoux.
Both men joined the White Star Line and were recruited by Liverpool music agency C. W. and F. N. Black to serve on the RMS Titanic Brailey boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK, his ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra. His cabin was in the second class quarters. Brailey was 24 years old, his body was never recovered. Roger Marie Bricoux was a French cellist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, he died in the disaster. Roger Bricoux was born on 1 June 1891 in Cosne-sur-Loire, France, he was the son of a musician, the family moved to Monaco when he was a young boy. He was educated in various Catholic institutions in Italy, it was during his studies that he joined his first orchestra and won first prize at the Conservatory of Bologna for musical ability. After studying at the Paris Conservatory, he moved to England in 1910 to join the orchestra in the Grand Central Hotel in Leeds. At the end of 1911, he moved to Lille, lived at 5 Place du Lion d'Or, played in various locations throughout the city.
Before joining the Titanic and pianist Theodore Ronald Brailey had served together on the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia before joining the White Star Line He boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was second class, he was the only French musician aboard the Titanic. Bricoux was 20 years old, his body was never recovered. In 1913, after his apparent disappearance, he was declared a "deserter" by the French army, it was not until 2000 that he was officially registered as dead in France due to the efforts of the Association Française du Titanic. On 2 November 2000, the same association unveiled a memorial plaque to Bricoux in Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire. Wallace Henry Hartley, an English violinist, was the bandleader on the Titanic, he died in the disaster. His body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London.
John Law Hume was a Scottish violinist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage. He died in the disaster. John Law Hume was born on 9 August 1890 in Dumfries and lived with his parents at 42 George Street, Dumfries, he had played on at least five ships before the Titanic. He was recruited to play on the maiden voyage due to his good reputation as a musician, he boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was in the second class quarters. Hume was 21 years old when he died, unaware that his fiancée, Mary Costin, was pregnant with his child, his body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London. He was buried in grave 193 at Fairview Cemetery, Nova Scotia, Canada on Wednesday 8 May 1912. A memorial was erected for John Law Thomas Mullin in Dock Park, Dumfries, it reads: In memory of John Law Hume, a member of the band and Thomas Mullin, natives of these towns who lost their lives in the wreck of the W
Edward Smith (sea captain)
Edward John Smith, RD was a British naval officer. He served as master of numerous White Star Line vessels, he was the captain of the RMS Titanic, perished when the ship sank on its maiden voyage. Raised in a working environment, he left school early to join the Merchant Navy and the Royal Naval Reserve. After earning his master's ticket, he entered the service of the White Star Line, a prestigious British company, he rose through the ranks and graduated in 1887. His first command was the SS Celtic, he served as commanding officer of numerous White Star Line vessels, including the Majestic and attracted a strong and loyal following amongst passengers. In 1904, Smith became the commodore of the White Star Line, was responsible for controlling its flagships, he commanded the Baltic and the Olympic. In 1912, he was the captain of the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, which struck an iceberg and sank on 15 April 1912. For his stoicism and fortitude in the face of adversity, Smith became an icon of British "stiff upper lip" spirit and discipline.
Edward John Smith was born on 27 January 1850 on Well Street, Staffordshire, England to Edward Smith, a potter, Catherine Hancock, born Marsh, who married on 2 August 1841 in Shelton, Staffordshire. His parents owned a shop. Smith attended the Etruria British School until the age of 13, when he left and operated a steam hammer at the Etruria Forge. In 1867, aged 17 he went to Liverpool in the footsteps of his half-brother Joseph Hancock, a captain on a sailing ship, he began his apprenticeship on Senator Weber, owned by A Co. of Liverpool. On 13 January 1887, Smith married Sarah Eleanor Pennington at St Oswald's Church, Lancashire, their daughter, Helen Melville Smith, was born in Waterloo, Liverpool on 2 April 1898. The family lived in a red brick, twin-gabled house, named "Woodhead", on Winn Road, Southampton, Hampshire. Edward Smith joined the White Star Line in March 1880 as the Fourth Officer of SS Celtic, he served aboard the company's liners to Australia and to New York City, where he rose in status.
In 1887, he received the Republic. In 1888, Smith earned his Extra Master's Certificate and joined the Royal Naval Reserve, receiving a commission as a Lieutenant, which entitled him to add the letters "RNR" after his name; this meant. Smith retired from the RNR in 1905 with the rank of Commander, his ship had the distinction of being able to fly the Blue Ensign of the RNR. Smith was Majestic's captain for nine years commencing in 1895; when the Boer War started in 1899, Majestic was called upon to transport troops to Cape Colony. Smith made two trips to South Africa, both without incident, in 1903, for his service, King Edward VII awarded him the Transport Medal, showing the "South Africa" clasp. Smith was regarded as a "safe captain"; as he rose in seniority, he gained a following amongst passengers with some only sailing the Atlantic on a ship he captained. Smith became known as the "Millionaires' Captain". From 1904 on, Smith commanded the White Star Line's newest ships on their maiden voyages.
In 1904, he was given command of what was the largest ship in the world, the Baltic. Her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York, sailing 29 June 1904, went without incident. After three years with Baltic, Smith was given his second new "big ship," the Adriatic. Once again, the maiden voyage went without incident. During his command of Adriatic, Smith received the long service Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve; as one of the world's most experienced sea captains, Smith was called upon to take first command of the lead ship in a new class of ocean liners, the Olympic – again, the largest vessel in the world at that time. The maiden voyage from Southampton to New York was concluded on 21 June 1911, but as the ship was docking in New York harbour, a small incident took place. Docking at Pier 59 under the command of Captain Smith with the assistance of a harbour pilot, Olympic was being assisted by twelve tugs when one got caught in the backwash of Olympic, spun around, collided with the bigger ship, for a moment was trapped under Olympic's stern managing to work free and limp to the docks.
On 20 September 1911, Olympic's first major mishap occurred during a collision with a British warship, HMS Hawke, in which the warship lost her prow. Although the collision left two of Olympic's compartments filled and one of her propeller shafts twisted, she was able to limp back to Southampton. At the resultant inquiry, the Royal Navy blamed Olympic, finding that her massive size generated a suction that pulled Hawke into her side. Captain Smith had been on the bridge during the events; the Hawke incident was a financial disaster for White Star, the out-of-service time for the big liner made matters worse. Olympic returned to Belfast and, to speed up the repairs and Wolff was forced to delay Titanic's completion in order to use one of her propeller shafts and other parts for Olympic. Back at sea in February 1912, Olympic lost a propeller blade and once again returned for emergency repairs. To get her back to service Harland and Wolff again had to pull resources from Titanic, delaying her maiden voyage from 20 March to 10 April.
Despite the past trouble, Smith was again appointed to command the newest ship in the Olympic class when the RMS Titanic left Southampton for her maiden voyage. Although some sources state that he had decided to retire after completing Titanic's maiden voyage
First class facilities of the RMS Titanic
Reflecting the White Star Line's reputation for superior comfort and luxury, the RMS Titanic had extensive facilities for First-Class passengers which were regarded as the finest of her time. In contrast to her French and German competitors, whose interiors were extravagantly decorated and adorned, the Titanic emphasised comfort and subdued elegance more in the style of a British country manor or luxury hotel. Titanic's enormous size enabled her to feature unusually large rooms, all equipped with the latest technologies for comfort and convenience. Staterooms and public spaces recreated historic styles with a painstaking attention to detail and accuracy. There were a wide range of recreational and sporting facilities in addition which provided ample opportunity for amusement during a voyage. Although similar to her sister ship and predecessor the RMS Olympic, Titanic featured additional First-Class staterooms, augmented public rooms, myriad minor improvements to enhance her luxury and comfort.
The bulk of First-Class facilities and accommodation was located on the upper decks within the superstructure of the Titanic, where the vibrations and noise of the engines were at their lowest. The entirety of A-Deck was devoted to First-Class recreational space and accommodation, along with most of B and C Decks. First-Class facilities were located on every level down to F-Deck, which means that First-Class passengers enjoyed the most space by far of any of the three classes on the ship; the Titanic and her sister Olympic offered the finest and most luxurious First-Class accommodations to be found on any contemporary ocean liner. The cheapest First-Class fare could be had without meals. A suite could range in price from £400 to £870 for a "Deluxe" Parlour Suite at the height of the travelling season; the "special staterooms" on B and C-Decks were richly appointed in 11 different period styles, including Adam, Louis XIV, XV, XVI, French Empire, Georgian and Italian Renaissance. Some styles, like Adam or Louis XVI, had different variations used in certain staterooms which incorporated elements from other periods, bringing the total of different designs to 19 including the 11 base styles.
In addition, there were two custom Harland and Wolff designs known as "Bedroom A" and "Bedroom B" which were used in a total of 43 bedrooms between B and C Decks. These were period-inspired but modernized and considered equal in quality to the 11 stringent period styles. Bedroom A was the plainer of the two, featuring fielded wood panels painted white, resting on a 3-foot high carved oak dado, furnished with a brass or wooden bedstead. Bedroom B was known as the "French cabin" because it was Louis XV-inspired, featuring varnished oak paneling and Cabriolet furniture. In the "special staterooms", there was a wide range of finely carved panelling and marquetry made from exotic imported woods like Mahogany, Walnut and Satinwood; such was the attention to historic detail that every piece of furniture, light fixture and woodwork was recreated with an obsessive care for accuracy by designers and master craftsmen at Harland and Wolff. There were a small number of outside contractors hired to fit out select rooms or provide furnishings.
The Dutch firm of H. P. Mutters & Zoon, for instance, fitted out twelve of the "special staterooms" according to the chosen period styles, supplying everything from the paneling and doors down to the sofa pillows, down bed quilts, wastepaper baskets. First-Class accommodation occupied the entirety of B and C Decks, but large sections forward on A, D and E-Decks. On E-Deck staterooms and cabins were interchangeable between First and Second-Class, meaning sections could be prioritized for either one of the classes in the event of overbooking or high demand. Only the starboard side of E-Deck belonged to First/Second-Class, the whole of the Port side contained Third-Class and Crew cabins; the First-Class corridors were in general spartan in appearance, but the B and C Deck passageways which accessed the finest staterooms were more impressive. These featured white-painted'Venesta' panels, archways over the stateroom entrances, a decorative frieze supported by gilt brackets running along the top of the walls which concealed the ventilation ducts and electrical wiring underneath.
There were no handrails, no carpet runners, lighting was provided by ormolu and cut-glass ceiling fixtures. On B Deck the two parallel corridors were enclosed by swinging baize-upholstered doors with louver panels, which muffled the sound coming from the stairwells and busy public rooms; the space, given over to an encircling B-Deck promenade on the Olympic was converted to additional large staterooms on Titanic, the finest on board. Many of these staterooms had private entrances, separate servants' quarters, adjoining doors, en-suite bathrooms. In all there were 330 First-Class rooms, 100 of which were single-berth; the type of First-Class stateroom that predominated was a single or double berth stateroom which contained a dressing table, horsehair sofa and marble-topped washstand with basin. Double berth cabins had "tipped" washbasins on shelves that could be folded back into the cabinet to save room. Many had additional bunks suspended over the main bed that could be folded against the wall.
Staterooms increased in size thereafter with double beds, built-in wardrobes, comfortable seating areas. Single berth state rooms, like those on A-Deck, were decorated mo
Armistice of 11 November 1918
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land and air in World War I between the Allies and their opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Known as the Armistice of Compiègne from the place where it was signed at 5:45 a.m. by the French Marshal Foch, it came into force at 11:00 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender; the actual terms written by the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German forces to behind the Rhine, Allied occupation of the Rhineland and bridgeheads further east, the preservation of infrastructure, the surrender of aircraft and military materiel, the release of Allied prisoners of war and interned civilians, eventual reparations, no release of German prisoners and no relaxation of the naval blockade of Germany.
Although the armistice ended the fighting on the Western Front, it had to be prolonged three times until the Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, took effect on 10 January 1920. On 29 September 1918 the German Supreme Army Command informed Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Imperial Chancellor, Count Georg von Hertling at Imperial Army Headquarters in Spa of occupied Belgium, that the military situation facing Germany was hopeless. Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff fearing a breakthrough, claimed that he could not guarantee that the front would hold for another two hours and demanded a request be given to the Entente for an immediate ceasefire. In addition, he recommended the acceptance of the main demands of US president Woodrow Wilson including putting the Imperial Government on a democratic footing, hoping for more favorable peace terms; this enabled him to save the face of the Imperial German Army and put the responsibility for the capitulation and its consequences squarely into the hands of the democratic parties and the parliament.
He expressed his view to officers of his staff on 1 October: "They now must lie on the bed that they've made for us."On 3 October, the liberal Prince Maximilian of Baden was appointed Chancellor of Germany, replacing Georg von Hertling in order to negotiate an armistice. After long conversations with the Kaiser and evaluations of the political and military situations in the Reich, by 5 October 1918, the German government sent a message to President Wilson to negotiate terms on the basis of a recent speech of his and the earlier declared "Fourteen Points". In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilson's allusions "failed to convey the idea that the Kaiser's abdication was an essential condition for peace; the leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility." As a precondition for negotiations, Wilson demanded the retreat of Germany from all occupied territories, the cessation of submarine activities and the Kaiser's abdication, writing on 23 October: "If the Government of the United States must deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany now, or if it is to have to deal with them in regard to the international obligations of the German Empire, it must demand not peace negotiations but surrender."In late October, Ludendorff, in a sudden change of mind, declared the conditions of the Allies unacceptable.
He now demanded to resume the war. However the German soldiers were pressing to get home, it was scarcely possible to arouse their readiness for battle anew, desertions were on the increase. The Imperial Government stayed on course and Ludendorff was replaced by Wilhelm Groener. On 5 November, the Allies agreed to take up negotiations for a truce, now demanding reparation payments; the latest note from Wilson was received in Berlin on 6 November. That same day, the delegation led by Matthias Erzberger departed for France. A much bigger obstacle, which contributed to the five-week delay in the signing of the Armistice and to the resulting social deterioration in Europe, was the fact that the French and Italian governments had no desire to accept the "Fourteen Points" and President Wilson's subsequent promises. For example, they assumed that the de-militarization suggested by Wilson would be limited to the Central Powers. There were contradictions with their post-War plans that did not include a consistent implementation of the ideal of national self-determination.
As Czernin points out: The Allied statesmen were faced with a problem: so far they had considered the "fourteen commandments" as a piece of clever and effective American propaganda, designed to undermine the fighting spirit of the Central Powers, to bolster the morale of the lesser Allies. Now the whole peace structure was supposed to be built up on that set of "vague principles", most of which seemed to them unrealistic, some of which, if they were to be applied, were unacceptable; the sailors' revolt which took place during the night of 29 to 30 October 1918 in the naval port of Wilhelmshaven spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and to the announcement of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. However, in various areas soldiers challenged the authority of their officers and on occasion established Soldiers' Councils, thus for example the Brussels Soldiers' Council was set up by revolutionary soldiers on 9 November 1918. On 9 November, Max von Baden handed over the office of Chancellor to Friedrich Ebert, a Social Democrat.
Ebert's SPD and Erzberger's Catholic Centre Party had enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the Imperia