The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Jonathan Swift was an Anglo-Irish satirist, political pamphleteer and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Swift is remembered for works such as A Tale of a Tub, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, he is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, is less well known for his poetry. He published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M. B. Drapier – or anonymously, he was a master of two styles of the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. His deadpan, ironic writing style in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian". Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in Ireland, he was the second child and only son of Jonathan Swift and his wife Abigail Erick of Frisby on the Wreake. His father was a native of Goodrich, but he accompanied his brothers to Ireland to seek their fortunes in law after their Royalist father's estate was brought to ruin during the English Civil War.
His maternal grandfather, James Ericke, was the vicar of England. In 1634 the vicar was convicted of Puritan practices; some time thereafter and his family, including his young daughter Abilgail, fled to Ireland. Swift's father joined Godwin, in the practice of law in Ireland, he died in Dublin. He died of syphilis. At the age of one, child Jonathan was taken by his wet nurse to her hometown of Whitehaven, England, he said. His nurse returned him still in Ireland, when he was three, his mother returned to England after his birth, leaving him in the care of his Uncle Godwin, a close friend and confidant of Sir John Temple whose son employed Swift as his secretary. Swift's family had several interesting literary connections, his grandmother Elizabeth Swift was the niece of Sir Erasmus Dryden, grandfather of poet John Dryden. The same grandmother's aunt Katherine Dryden was a first cousin of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Walter Raleigh, his great-great grandmother Margaret Swift was the sister of Francis Godwin, author of The Man in the Moone which influenced parts of Swift's Gulliver's Travels.
His uncle Thomas Swift married a daughter of poet and playwright Sir William Davenant, a godson of William Shakespeare. Swift's benefactor and uncle Godwin Swift took primary responsibility for the young man, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College, he arrived there at the age of six, where he was expected to have learned the basic declensions in Latin. He had so started at a lower form. Swift graduated in 1682, when he was 15, he attended Dublin University in 1682, financed by Godwin's son Willoughby. The four-year course followed a curriculum set in the Middle Ages for the priesthood; the lectures were dominated by Aristotelian philosophy. The basic skill taught the students was debate and they were expected to be able to argue both sides of any argument or topic. Swift was an above-average student but not exceptional, received his B. A. in 1686 "by special grace."Swift was studying for his master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for England in 1688, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham.
Temple was an English diplomat who arranged the Triple Alliance of 1668. He had retired from public service to his country estate to write his memoirs. Gaining his employer's confidence, Swift "was trusted with matters of great importance". Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple had introduced his secretary to William III and sent him to London to urge the King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments. Swift took up his residence at Moor Park where he met Esther Johnson eight years old, the daughter of an impoverished widow who acted as companion to Temple's sister Lady Giffard. Swift was her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life. In 1690, Swift left Temple for Ireland because of his health but returned to Moor Park the following year; the illness consisted of fits of vertigo or giddiness, now known to be Ménière's disease, it continued to plague him throughout his life. During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M.
A. from Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1692. He left Moor Park despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, to become an ordained priest in the Established Church of Ireland, he was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor in 1694, with his parish located at Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim. Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, he may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring, whom he called "Varina", the sister of an old college friend. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused, she refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park in 1696, he remained there until Temple's death. There he was employ
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
Henry Sacheverell was an English High Church Anglican clergyman who achieved nationwide fame in 1709 after preaching an incendiary 5 November sermon. He was subsequently impeached by the House of Commons and though he was found guilty, his light punishment was seen as a vindication and he became a popular figure in the country, contributing to the Tories' landslide victory at the general election of 1710; the son of Joshua Sacheverell, rector of St Peter's, Marlborough, he was adopted by his godfather, Edward Hearst, his wife after Joshua's death in 1684. His maternal grandfather, Henry Smith, after whom he was named, may be the same Henry Smith, recorded as a signatory of Charles I's death warrant, his relations included what he labelled his "fanatic kindred". One of these sons, was ejected from his vicarage at the Restoration and died in prison after being convicted for preaching at a Dissenting meeting, he was more proud of distant relatives who were Midlands landed gentry that had supported the Royalist cause during the Civil War.
The Hearsts were pious High Anglicans and were pleased with Sacheverell, "always retiring to his private devotions before he went to school". He was educated at Marlborough Grammar School from 1684 to 1689, he was sent to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1689, where he was a student until 1701 and a fellow from 1701 to 1713. Joseph Addison, another native of Wiltshire, had entered the same college two years earlier, it was at Sacheverell's instigation that Addison wrote his'Account of the Greatest English Poets' and he dedicated it to Sacheverell. Sacheverell took his degree of B. A. on 30 June 1693, became M. A. on 16 May 1695. The Bishop of Oxford, John Hough, ordained him deacon on 18 May 1695. However, when in 1697 he presented himself to the Bishop of Lichfield, William Lloyd, with a reference from the dean of Lichfield, Lloyd complained of his grammatically incorrect Latin. Sacheverell, who had published several Latin poems, quoted Latin grammars to verify his Latin and told Lloyd it was "better Latin than he or any of his chaplains could make".
Lloyd failed to do so. In 1696 he was appointed chaplain to curate for Aston parish church. However, when the Aston living fell vacant, Holt refused to appoint Sacheverell. Holt's wife years claimed this was because Sacheverell "was exceedingly light and foolish, without any of that gravity and seriousness which became one in holy orders; however Lancelot Addison, the dean of Lichfield and the father of Joseph, nominated him to the small vicarage of Cannock in Staffordshire and after an intense three-day examination, Lloyd was convinced Sacheverell was ready and accepted his nomination in September 1697. Sacheverell was threatened with prosecution for seditious libel after preaching a fiery sermon but this was dropped due to Sacheverell's unimportance. In July 1701 he was elected Fellow of Magdalen College but his overbearing, disrespectful self-confidence and arrogance won him few friends. In 1709 before his two famous sermons, Thomas Hearne dismissed him as a loud-mouthed wine-soaker; however he was an active teacher, being promoted to a variety of offices.
In June 1703 he was appointed to an endowed lectureship. Sacheverell first achieved notability as a High Church preacher in May 1702 when he gave a sermon entitled The Political Union, on the necessity of the union between church and state and denigrating Dissenters, occasional conformists and their Whig supporters, his peroration included an appeal to Anglicans not to "strike sail to a party, an open and avowed enemy to our communion" but instead to "hang out the bloody flag and banner of defiance". Gaining a small London readership, Daniel Defoe labelled Sacheverell "the bloody flag officer" and in his The Shortest Way with the Dissenters he included in its subtitle an acknowledgement of "Mr Sach—ll's sermon and others". John Dennis replied to Sacheverell in The Danger of Priestcraft to Religion and Government. Roger Mander, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, appointed Sacheverell to preach the University Sermon on 10 June 1702, the date chosen by Queen Anne as a Fast Day for Heaven's blessing for British success in the new war against France.
In support of the Tory candidate at the general election of 1702, Sir John Pakington, Sacheverell published The Character of a Low-Church-Man. This attacked William Lloyd and advised the clergy to be on the look out against "false brethren" within the Church. Pakington recommended Sacheverell to Robert Harley as the Speaker's chaplain. Harley, a moderate Tory with a Dissenting background, declined. Only two other sermons in this period were printed: The Nature and Mischief of Prejudice and Partiality and The Nature and Danger of Presumptuous Sins. With two other Oxford dons he wrote The Rights of the Church of England Proved; the first sermon led to a further notice by Defoe that "Mr Sacheverell of Oxford has blown his second trumpet to let us know he has not yet taken down his bloody flag". During the "Church in Danger" scare of 1705-06 he preached a sermon in which he with "a great deal of courage and boldness" showed "the great danger the Church is in...from the fanatics and other false brethren, whom he set forth in their proper colours".
Collingbourne Ducis is a village and civil parish on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, about 10 miles south of Marlborough. It is one of several villages on the River Bourne, a seasonal river dry in summer; the parish includes the hamlets of Sunton. From the Domesday Book we know Earl Harold held the manor, in 1086 a large settlement of 87 households was recorded. In 1256 the village was named Collingbourne Earls after the Lord of the Manor, the Earl of Leicester, who held neighbouring Everleigh. John of Gaunt inherited the manor, became the Duke of Lancaster, the village was thus known as Collingbourne Ducis or Dukes. Sunton House is a Grade II* listed seven-bay house from c. 1710. The architect C. E. Ponting was born in Collingbourne Ducis in 1850; the restoration of St. Andrew's parish church in 1856 by G. E. Street made a lasting impression on him; the Bourne Iron Works in the village was established by James Rawlings in the 1860s and made agricultural implements until the outbreak of World War II.
The Swindon and Andover Railway was opened through the Bourne valley in 1882, becoming the Midland and South Western Junction Railway in 1884 and part of the Great Western Railway in 1923. The line passed close to the east of Collingbourne Ducis and Collingbourne station was close to the village centre, south of the Cadley road; the station closed when the line was closed to passengers in 1961, subsequently the track was removed. Sunton, the northern part of Cadley, were transferred to the parish from Collingbourne Kingston in 1934. In 1974 a Saxon cemetery of archaeological significance was discovered in Cadley, including one bed burial. In 1998 a Saxon settlement was found in Saunders Meadow during the construction of a housing estate; the Post Office at Collingbourne Ducis was mentioned by Sir Anthony Hopkins' character, Mr. Stevens, in the 1993 film The Remains of the Day; the village has one of the few surviving original Victorian post boxes inset to a flint cobble wall at Sally Lunn's Cottage.
The Church of England parish church of St Andrew is from the early 13th century. Alterations in the 14th century included the addition of the tower, rebuilt in the 15th. In 1856 the chancel was narrowed and a vestry added, to designs of G. E. Street; the church is a Grade II* listed building. The parish was united with Everleigh in 1977 after the closure of Everleigh, it forms part of the Savernake team ministry. A Primitive Methodist chapel was built at Cadley in 1880; the building was sold for residential use in 1988. Collingbourne Ducis is a civil parish with an elected parish council, it is in the area of Wiltshire Council unitary authority, responsible for all significant local government functions. Collingbourne Church of England Primary School serves the parish and surrounding area, including Collingbourne Kingston, its building opened in 2004 at a new site on the northwest outskirts of the village. Near the school is a village hall with playing fields; the village has two pubs: The Tipple Inn, an 18th-century building on the A4 road, The Shears Inn at the far end of Cadley Road.
Collingbourne and District is twinned with Le Merlerault in France. The twinning agreement was made on 18 April 1992. Collingbourne Ducis Parish Council Collingbourne Ducis Village Hall "Collingbourne Ducis". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 23 April 2016
Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the River Thames in Surrey, England. Part of Middlesex, it was known to the Romans as Pontes or Ad Pontes as Stanes and subsequently Staines; the town is inside the M25 motorway, 17 miles south-west of Charing Cross. It is within the London Commuter Belt and the Greater London Urban Area, adjoins part of the Green Belt. Passing along the edge of the town and crossing Staines Bridge is the Thames Path National Trail. Parts of the large Staines-upon-Thames post town are whole villages: Laleham and Wraysbury; the post town includes, due to the long association of Staines Bridge with a medieval causeway on the opposite bank of the river, half of a large part of a neighbouring town, namely Egham Hythe, which contains a significant business area within the county, some of the town's oldest listed buildings. The longstanding parish boundaries are those of a strip parish that ranges from 12 to 17 metres above sea level, it has no remaining woods, but a large number of parks, leisure centres, a football club which has reached Conference level and some multinational research/technology company offices.
The centre of Heathrow airport is 3 miles to the north-east and Staines railway station is a main stop on the London Waterloo to Reading line and Windsor & Eton Riverside line. The name derives from Old English stānas. Evidence of neolithic settlement has been found at Yeoveney on Staines Moor. There has been a crossing of the River Thames at Staines since Roman times; the emperor Claudius invaded Britain in AD 43. Staines was settled the same year. Within a decade, the first Staines Bridge was constructed as a crossing for the Devil's Highway between Londinium and Calleva Atrebatum; the Romans knew the place as Pontes or Ad Pontes and it was mentioned in the early 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary. The Roman name implies the existence of more than one bridge; the Middlesex section of the Domesday Book records the manor "Stanes" as a property held by Westminster Abbey. It had 6 mills worth £ 3, 4s, 0d, it rendered £35. A boundary stone on the bank of the River Thames dated 1280 still remains, indicating the western limit of the City of London's jurisdiction over the Thames.
Although familiarly known as the'London Stone', it is not to be confused with the more famous – and more ancient – London Stone in Cannon Street in the City of London. The barons assembled at Staines before they met King John at Runnymede in 1215, Stephen Langton held a consecration there shortly after the sealing of Magna Carta. Sir Thomas More was tried in 1535 in a Staines public house, to avoid the outbreak of plague in London at that time. Kings and other important people must have passed through the town on many occasions: the church bells were rung several times in 1670, for instance, when the king and queen went through Staines. Between 1642 and 1648 during the Civil War, there were skirmishes on Staines Moor and numerous troop movements over Staines Bridge; the parish remained agricultural until the mid-19th century. Staines was a regular staging post with coaching inns, it was used for an overnight horse change on The Trafalgar Way in 1805, announcing the victory over the combined French and Spanish fleet and the death of Nelson.
Samuel Lewis mentions the place in his 1848 Topographical Dictionary of England, saying that "The town, much improved of late, consists principally of one wide street, containing several good houses, terminating at the river." In the 19th century the Church of England lost all relief functions. However, as Staines's local government is unparished, the parish boundary of the village of Laleham is the one used in road signs and official naming. Stanwell, forming its own wards, lost land in and around Leaside, north of the River Ash in the 20th century to Staines. Laleham remains as at the mid 19th century a long tranche beginning east of the north-south Sweep's Ditch which runs south to the tip of the Penton Hook peninsula of the River Thames. Spelthorne Borough Council is one of the few Surrey districts divided equally in terms of number of councillors per wards yet the population of Laleham is insufficient to elect three councillors. Laleham does share a post town, has a large sports ground named after Laleham and Staines.
It instead forms one half of the ward Riverside and Laleham, parts A and D of Spelthorne's 009 division in the United Kingdom Census 2011. The town was a major producer of linoleum after the formation of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864 by its inventor, Frederick Walton. Linoleum was a major employer in the area until the 1960s. In 1876 about 220 and in 1911 about 350 people worked in the plant. By 1957 it employed some 300 people and in 1956 the factory produced about 2675 m2 of linoleum each week; the term'Staines Lino' became a worldwide name but the factory was closed around 1970 and is the site is now occupied by the Two Rivers shopping centre, completed about 2000. A bronze statue of two lino workers in Staines High Street commemorates the Staines Lino Factory; the Spelthorne Museum has a display dedicated to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company. The Lagonda car factory was on the site of Sainsbury's supermarket in Egham Hythe; the town was the site of the Staines air disaster in 1972, at the time the worst air crash in Britain until the Lockerbie disaster of 1988.
(Since the Lockerbie crash was a terrorist act in Scotland, the Staines cras
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke was an English politician, government official and political philosopher. He was a leader of the Tories, supported the Church of England politically despite his antireligious views and opposition to theology, he supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 which sought to overthrow the new king George I. Escaping to France he became foreign minister for the Pretender, he was attainted for treason, but reversed course and was allowed to return to England in 1723. According to Ruth Mack, "Bolingbroke is best known for his party politics, including the ideological history he disseminated in The Craftsman by adopting the Whig theory of the Ancient Constitution and giving it new life as an anti-Walpole Tory principle." Henry St John was most born at Lydiard Tregoze, the family seat in Wiltshire, christened in Battersea. St John was the son of Sir Henry St John, 4th Baronet 1st Viscount St John, Lady Mary Rich, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Warwick. Although it has been asserted that St John was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, his name does not appear on registers for either institution and there is no evidence to support either claim.
It is possible. He travelled to France and Italy during 1698 and 1699 and acquired an exceptional knowledge of French. St John made friends with the Whigs James Stanhope and Edward Hopkins and corresponded with the Tory Sir William Trumball, who advised him: "There appears indeed amongst us a strong disposition to liberty, but neither honesty nor virtue enough to support it". Oliver Goldsmith reported that he had been seen to "run naked through the park in a state of intoxication". Swift, his intimate friend, said that he wanted to be thought the Alcibiades or Petronius of his age, to mix licentious orgies with the highest political responsibilities. In 1700, he married Frances, daughter of Sir Henry Winchcombe of Bucklebury, but this made little difference to his lifestyle, he became a Member of Parliament in 1701, representing the family borough of Wootton Bassett in Wiltshire, as a Tory. His seat was Lydiard Park at Lydiard Tregoze, now in the Borough of Swindon, he attached himself to Robert Harley speaker, distinguished himself by his eloquence in debate, eclipsing his schoolfellow, Robert Walpole, gaining an extraordinary ascendancy over the House of Commons.
In May, he had charge of the bill for securing the Protestant succession. In March 1702, he was chosen commissioner for taking the public accounts. After Queen Anne's accession, St John supported the bills in 1702 and 1704 against occasional conformity, took a leading part in the disputes which arose between the two Houses. In 1704, St John took office with Harley as secretary at war, thus being brought into intimate relations with John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, by whom he was treated with favour. In 1708, he left office with Harley on the failure of the latter's intrigue, retired to the country till 1710, when he became a privy counsellor and secretary of state in Harley's new ministry, representing Berkshire in parliament, he supported the bill for requiring a real property qualification for a seat in parliament. In 1711 he founded the Brothers' Club, a society of Tory politicians and men of letters, the same year witnessed the failure of the two expeditions to the West Indies and to Canada promoted by him.
In 1712, he was the author of the bill taxing newspapers. The refusal of the Whigs to make peace with France in 1706, again in 1709 when Louis XIV offered to yield every point for which the allies professed to be fighting, showed that the war was not being continued in the national interest, the queen and the people supported the ministry in its wish to terminate hostilities; because of the diversity of aims among the allies, St John was induced to enter into separate and secret negotiations with France for the security of English interests. In May 1712, he ordered the Duke of Ormonde, who had succeeded Marlborough in command, to refrain from any further engagement; these instructions were communicated to the French, though not to the allies, Louis putting Dunkirk as security into possession of England, the English troops deserted their allies on the battlefield. Subsequently, St John received the congratulations of the French foreign minister, de Torcy, on the French victory over Prince Eugene at Denain.
In June 1712, St John's commercial treaty with France, establishing free trade with that country, was rejected by the House of Commons. The treaty was presented in the Commons by Arthur Moore as St John had been created Viscount Bolingbroke earlier that year. A major campaign was waged against its approval under the slogan "No Peace Without Spain". At least 40 or so from the Tories voted to reject the treaty. In August 1712, Bolingbroke went to France and signed an armistice between England and France for four months; the Treaty of Utrecht was signed in March 1713 by all the allies except the emperor. The first production of Addison's Cato was made by the Whigs the occasion of a great demonstration of indignation against the peace, by Bolingbroke for presenting the actor Barton Booth with a purse of fifty guineas for "defending the cause of liberty against a perpetual dictator". Meanwhile, the friendship between Bolingbroke and Harley, the basis of the whole Tory administration, had been dissolved.
In March 1711, when the Marquis de Guiscard made an attempt on Harley's life, Bolingbroke assume