Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
J. F. Oberlin University
J. F. Oberlin University is a private university in Machida, Japan; the university was founded by Yasuzo Shimizu. Its name is derived from that of pastor and philanthropist J. F. Oberlin, the name shows the university's historical ties with Oberlin College in Oberlin, which the university's founder attended. English-speaking foreign students may study for a semester or year at J. F. Oberlin through the university's Reconnaissance Japan program. In the RJ program, students take a Japanese language course as well as English-language courses in Japanese culture. During their study at J. F. Oberlin, students may stay with a Japanese host family, live in a university-provided apartment such as New Shimura Heights, or International House, or find their own housing. J. F. Oberlin has a number of international partner academic institutions from which students are welcomed to study in the RJ program. College of Arts and Sciences College of Business Management College of Health and Welfare College of Performing and Visual Arts College of Global communication The junior college of Oberlin University was founded in 1950 and became coeducational in 1999.
It was closed in 2007. Yuka Kashino: member of technopop group Perfume Ayano Ōmoto: member of technopop group Perfume Obirin University's homepage Oberlin Center for International Studies
Cleveland Heights, Ohio
Cleveland Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, United States, an inner-ring suburb of Cleveland. The city's population was 46,238 at the 2010 census; as of the 2010 census, Cleveland Heights was ranked the 8th largest city by population in the Greater Cleveland metropolitan area and ranked 20th in Ohio. It was founded as a village in 1903 and a city in 1921; the area, now Cleveland Heights was settled than most of Cuyahoga County. The first road through what is today the city, Mayfield Road, was not built until 1828; some of the land was divided into farms, but It had quarries in the 19th century. One of the early quarries was established by Duncan McFarland; this led to the settlement that grew up around the quarry for the workers to live in to be referred to as Bluestone. There is still a road of this name in that area. In 1873 John D. Rockefeller acquired about 700 acres in what is now the cities of East Cleveland and Cleveland, with the mansion itself in East Cleveland; some of the land, straddling both suburbs, was turned into residential developments and, in 1938, the family donated land, now Forest Hill Park.
There had been quarries within what is today Forest Hill Park previous to Rockefeller donating it to the city. Rockefeller was not the only affluent Clevelander to come to; the Euclid Heights development was created by Patrick Calhoun starting in 1892. It was centered around the Euclid Golf Course and began at the Cleveland city line, covering the area between Mayfield and Cedar roads as far east as Coventry Road. There was a streetcar line from this location running to the center of Cleveland's business district. In 1898 Marcus M. Brown began the development of Mayfield Heights along the south side of Mayfield Road and east of the current Coventry Road - taking advantage of the Mayfield Road streetcar. Brown had purchased this land from his sister Mary Preyer Hellwig. Emil was operator of a cedar mill. By the end of 1899 the streetcar reached out along Mayfield Road to the old village of Fairmount. In 1903 the village of Cleveland Heights was incorporated. In 1910 Cleveland Heights had a population about 5,000 people.
It had a population of 15,396 in 1920 and was incorporated as a city on August 9, 1921. By 1960 it had a population of 61,813. Cleveland Heights is located at 41°30′35″N 81°33′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.13 square miles, of which 8.11 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Cleveland Heights is within the Dugway Brook Watershed. In 1987, the city of Cleveland Heights was declared a nuclear-free zone; as of the census of 2010, there were 46,238 people, 19,957 households, 10,834 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,686.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,465 housing units at an average density of 2,770.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.8% White, 42.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 19,957 households of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.7% were non-families.
36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 35.8 years. 22.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. The median income for a household in the city was $53,024; the per capita income for the city was $31,663. About 19.3% of individuals were below the poverty line. Cleveland Heights is governed by a city charter adopted in 1921 and amended in 1972, 1982, 1986; the charter specifies a council-manager form of government, with seven members of council elected to four-year terms. Three councilmen are elected one year before a presidential election, three one year after a presidential election. All are elected using plurality at-large non-partisan voting; the mayor is elected by council from among its members and has additional duties including parliamentary and ceremonial responsibilities.
Cleveland Heights is reliably Democratic. Five of the six current members of Council are Democrats. In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama defeated John McCain 84.2%-15.0% while winning the state, while in the 2004 presidential election, John Kerry defeated George W. Bush 80.8%-18.8% in the city but was unable to win the state. In 2012, every precinct in the city was carried by Barack Obama. All of Cleveland Heights is in the 11th congressional district, a seat held by Marcia Fudge, elected in a special election following the death of Rep. Stephanie Tubbs Jones. In 2003, voters supported a referendum to establish a domestic partnership registry; the current city council is composed of Kahlil Seren, Jason S. Stein, Mary Dunbar, Cheryl L. Stephens, Mayor Carol Roe, Michael Ungar and Vice-Mayor Melissa Yasinow. Public education in the city of Cleveland Heights is provided by two school districts. Most of the city is served by the Cleveland Heights-University Heights City School District, while a small portion located on the northwest side of the city lies within the East Cleveland City
Charles A. Otis
Charles Augustus Otis, Sr. was a businessman and mayor of Cleveland from 1873 until 1874. Otis was born in Ohio, to William Augustus Otis and Eliza Proctor. Otis was a direct descendant of James Otis Jr.. William was a Massachusetts-born manufacturer who worked in Pittsburgh before traveled to Bloomfield, Trumbull County, Ohio, to start a primitive mercantile business and a tavern. In 1836, William moved to Cleveland to return to ironworks. Charles would follow his father in this line of work. William became a steamboat purser in 1848. Otis shipped wheat from Ohio to New York en route the Erie Canal, he manufactured high-quality flour and potash thirty-five miles to Ashtabula River, where it was loaded on a schooner and shipped to Buffalo and New York City. Otis established the Lake Erie Iron Company in 1852, he sold the business in 1866. The Otis Iron and Steel Company was established upon Otis' return in Industrial Valley, it was the first American company to manufacture acid open-hearth steel. Otis founded American Wire Company, which became the American Steel and Wire Company, was connected with the Standard Sewing Machine Company.
He founded the American Steel Screw Company, the Cleveland Electric Railway Company, the Society for Savings. Otis worked with Dr. Everett and Samuel T. Wellman in the old East Cleveland line, it was said. Otis was both a prominent industrial developer and municipal leader of Cleveland; the Democrats nominated him in his absence and without his knowledge, as their candidate for mayor by 1872. He defeated Republican candidate, John Huntington, it was said that Otis' lack of consent for the nomination allowed him to show respectable individuality in his political career. On October 17, 1873, Ulysses S. Grant passed through the city. Gossip and a telegram reached Otis. Grant's presidential train arrived to a city decorated with American flags; the group drove down Euclid Avenue to meet the President at Kennard House. In February, 1874, Otis visited Indiana. Much like Cleveland, Indianapolis saw its growth in the last decades of the nineteenth-century. Otis toured the city for less than a month to see much of the early growth.
Charles' brother, William H. Otis, was a prominent resident of Indianapolis. On March 19, 1874, forty members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union marched on Ontario Street, Public Square, the Young Men's Christian Association. Assaults were made against the women in the eleventh ward on Lorain Avenue; the WTC returned to their protest on Garden Street on the following day. Mayor Otis ordered a sidewalk ordinance. Mayor Otis argued that the few who could afford to use the Cleveland Water Works "should aid in extending" the service to the rest of the city. Written on page xxi of the City Documents of 1874, Otis advocated a 33.3% increase in the cost of public waterworks, to fund construction. Otis left as mayor in the following year due to business reasons, his political career was described as successful. His party found that his business was too successful; the work took much of his attention, so he declined to seek reelection. Otis had a strong wish to serve the people. Otis became a member of the Board of Imprisonments in 1878.
He served for one year. Otis became a member of the House of Correction Board in 1882 until 1884, he established Cleveland's first Board of Fire Board of Police Commissioners. Otis married Mary Shepard in 1853; the couple had two daughters and Nelly. Mary died in 1860. Otis married Mary's sister, Anna Elizabeth Shepard in 1863, they had 3 sons, Charles A. Jr. Harrison G. and William A. He moved to New York in 1890. Otis was a member of the Ohio Society of New York. In 1894, he became president of New Commercial National Bank, he retired from Otis Iron and Steel Company in 1899. By 1901, the Otis Iron and Steel Company merged with the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company into US Steel; the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company bought the former Otis Steel company along the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland was purchased in 1942. Otis retired from the New Commercial National Bank in 1904. Commercial Bank merged with the Mercantile National Bank, forming the present National Commercial Bank, his retirement left him unnoticed by the public in the 20th-Century.
Otis spent his last years as an avid tourist of Europe. Otis died at his son's house in 1905, in which his obituary stated that Cleveland lost one of the builders. Otis was described as a pioneer in the creative industrial enterprises which made the possibility of modern Cleveland, he was described as "one of the most active forces in the growth of Cleveland." Otis is buried in Lake View Cemetery
Ohio District Courts of Appeals
The Ohio District Courts of Appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the U. S. state of Ohio. The Ohio Constitution provides for courts of appeals that have jurisdiction to review final appealable orders. There are twelve appellate districts, each consisting of at least one county, the number of judges in each district varies from four to twelve; each case is heard by a three-judge panel. There are 69 courts of appeals judges as provided by statute. A court of appeals judge is an elected position, with a term of six years; the Ohio Supreme Court has the discretion to review cases from the courts of appeals, but the appeals process in Ohio ends with the decision of the court of appeals. List of Ohio politicians Homepage of the Ohio District Courts of Appeals
Raymond T. Miller
Raymond Thomas Miller, Sr. was an American politician who served as the 43rd mayor of Cleveland and the chairman of the Cuyahoga County Democratic Party for over twenty years. Miller was born in Ohio, he attended University of Notre Dame and received his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1914. He joined the Ohio National Guard and served in France during World War I. After the war, Miller began practing law in Cleveland. In 1928, he had a hand in defeating the city manager plan, he defeated Daniel E. Morgan for mayor in 1931, becoming the first Democrat to serve as the city's mayor since Newton D. Baker. In his tenure, Miller reduced expenditures to cope with the misery brought by the Great Depression, he was defeated by returning Cleveland politician and former mayor, Harry L. Davis, when he attempted to run for reelection in 1933. In 1938, Miller became chairman of the Cuyahoga County Democratic party; as chairman he succeeded in attracting African American voters which allowed the Democrats to elect mayors for thirty years and obtain a Democratic majority in council.
Miller resigned as chairman in 1964. Miller owned radio station WERE in Cleveland, pioneering rock and roll-format music and hiring Bill Randle and Phil McLean. Miller died of a heart attack at his home in Shaker Heights, Ohio, on May 21, 1966, he was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Cleveland. The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4
Cleveland City Council
Cleveland City Council is the legislative branch of the government of the City of Cleveland in Ohio. Its members are elected from 17 wards to four-year terms; the number of council members has decreased over the years. In 1885 there were 50 council members, by the 1960s there were 33, in 1981 Cleveland voters approved reducing council to 21 members. In November 2008, Cleveland voters passed a charter amendment linking the size of City Council to the city's population. City Council approved a redistricting plan in March 2009 reducing the number of wards to 19 at the start of the 2010–2013 term. Thereafter, the number of wards will be tied to the population identified in the decennial United States Census. Population decreases identified in the 2010 Census resulted in the elimination of two wards, reducing the number of members to 17. In March 2013, City Council approved new ward boundaries that went into effect in January 2014. Council voted to amend the boundaries on April 17, 2013; the Cleveland City Council chambers are located in Cleveland City Hall, across the street from Public Auditorium.
The members of Cleveland City Council are listed below in the order of the ward. List of Cleveland politicians List of mayors of Cleveland Cuyahoga County Council Cleveland City Council