56th United States Congress
The Fifty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1899, to March 4, 1901, during the third and fourth years of William McKinley's presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White of North Carolina, who served his second and final term as a Representative in this Congress, would be the last black member of Congress until 1928, the last black member of Congress from the South until 1972. June 2, 1899: The Filipino Rebellion began the Philippine–American War. November 21, 1899: Vice President Garret Hobart died. January 8, 1900: President McKinley placed Alaska under military rule. January 17, 1900: Brigham H. Roberts was refused a seat in the United States House of Representatives because of his polygamy.
February 5, 1900: Britain and the United States signed a treaty for the building of a Central American shipping canal through Nicaragua. February 16, 1900: The United States and Great Britain ratified the Tripartite Convention partitioning the Samoan Islands. November 6, 1900: U. S. presidential election, 1900: Republican incumbent William McKinley was reelected by defeating Democratic challenger William Jennings Bryan. March 14, 1900: Gold Standard Act, Sess. 1, ch. 41, 31 Stat. 45 April 2, 1900: Foraker Act, Sess. 1, ch. 191, 31 Stat. 77 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: Garret Hobart, until November 21, 1899. President pro tempore: William P. Frye Democratic Caucus Chairman: James K. Jones Republican Conference Chairman: William B. Allison Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Stephen M. White Speaker: David B. Henderson Democratic Caucus Chairman: James Hay Republican Conference Chairman: Joseph G. Cannon Majority Leader: Sereno E. Payne Majority Whip: James A. Tawney Minority Leader: James D. Richardson Minority Whip: Oscar Underwood This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1904; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Democratic: no net change Republican: 1 seat loss Populist: 1 seat gain deaths: 3 resignations: 1 vacancy: 5 interim appointments: 2 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 21 Democratic: 5 seat loss Republican: 5 seat gain Populist: no net change deaths: 12 resignations: 7 contested election: 3 new seats: 1 Total seats with changes: 26 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Canadian Relations Census Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Coast and Insular Survey Coast Defenses Commerce Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia Cuban Relations Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Establish a University in the United States Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Expenditures in Executive Departments Finance Fisheries Five Civilized Tribes of Indians Foreign Relations Forest Reservations and the Protection of Game Geological Survey Immigration Immigration and Naturalization Indian Affairs Irrigation and Reclamation Industrial Expositions International Expositions Interoceanic Canals Interstate Commerce Judiciary Library Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River and its Tributaries National Banks Naval Affairs Nicaragua Canal Pacific Islands and Puerto Rico Pacific Railroads Patents Pensions Philippines Post Office and Post Roads Potomac River Front Printing Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Buildings and Grounds Public Health and National Quarantine Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Territories Transportation and Sale of Meat Products Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Washington City Centennial Whole Wom
Thomas J. Creamer
Thomas James Creamer was an American lawyer and politician from New York. Born near Lough Garadice, County Leitrim, Creamer immigrated to the United States and took up his residence in New York City, he attended the public schools, became a shipping clerk in a dry-goods house in 1860. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, practiced, he was member of the New York State Assembly in 1865, 1866, 1867. He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1868 to 1871, sitting in the 91st, 92nd, 93rd and 94th New York State Legislatures, he was a New York City Tax Commissioner for five years, acted as counsel for State commissions to revise the tax laws. Creamer was elected as a Democrat to the 43rd United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, he was again a member of the State Assembly in 1889. Creamer was elected to the 57th United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1901, to March 3, 1903. Afterwards he resumed the practice of law in New York City, died there August 4, 1914.
He was interred in Green-Wood Cemetery. United States Congress. "Thomas J. Creamer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
New York State Senate
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature. There are 63 seats in the Senate, its members are elected to two-year terms. There are no term limits; the New York State Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Between World War II and the turn of the 21st century, the Democratic Party only controlled the upper house for one year. Following the 1964 presidential election, the Democrats took control of the Senate in 1965. In April 2018, The Wall Street Journal described the State Senate as the "last bastion of power" of the Republican Party in the State of New York. On Election Day 2018, Democrats gained eight Senate seats, taking control of the chamber from the Republicans; the following day, The New York Times wrote that the Democrats had "decisively evict Republicans from running the State Senate, which they controlled for all but three years since World War II." At the beginning of the 2019-2020 legislative session, the Senate Democratic Conference held 39 of the chamber's 63 seats.
Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades. The Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008 as New York turned solidly Democratic at all levels. However, a power struggle emerged. Four Democratic senators — Rubén Díaz Sr. Carl Kruger, Pedro Espada, Jr. and Hiram Monserrate — refused to caucus with their party. The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions. Monserrate soon rejoined the caucus after reaching an agreement with Smith that included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee; the remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week, but was resolved with Smith becoming majority leader. At the beginning of the 2009–2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--both Democrats—voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith.
The Associated Press described the vote as a "parliamentary coup". The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein unilaterally moved to recess, Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader. Following the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. On June 14, Monserrate declared; this development meant that the Senate was evenly split, 31–31, between the Republican Conference and the Democratic Conference. Due to a vacancy in the office of the Lieutenant Governor, there was no way to break the deadlock. Between June 8 and the end of the coup on July 9, the Senate did not conduct any official business. According to The New York Times, Espada's power play "threw the Senate into turmoil and hobbled the state government, making the body a national laughingstock as the feuding factions shouted and gaveled over each other in simultaneous legislative sessions."
The coup led to litigation. On July 9, 2009, the coup ended. Espada rejoined the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal in which he would be named Senate Majority Leader, Sampson would remain Senate Democratic Leader, Smith would be Temporary President of the Senate during a "transition period" after which Sampson would ascend to the Temporary Presidency. On February 9, 2010, the Senate voted to expel Monserrate from the Senate following a misdemeanor domestic violence conviction. Espada was defeated in a September 2010 primary election in which the Democratic Party backed his challenger, Gustavo Rivera; the Republicans made a net gain of two seats in the 2010 elections to claim a 32–30 majority at the commencement of the January 2011 legislative session. One Republican Senate incumbent was defeated on Election Day, while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38, vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan. Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections.
Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference. Klein said that he and his three colleagues, Diane Savino, David Carlucci and David Valesky could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson. In March 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges, he pleaded guilty to those charges in December 2011. Following the 2010 census, the Senate underwent redistricting and was expanded from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013; when all election night results w
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
John F. Ahearn
John F. Ahearn was a New York City political figure who served in the New York State Assembly, the New York State Senate, as Manhattan Borough President. John Francis Ahearn was born in Manhattan on April 18, 1853, he was educated in New York City's public schools and pursued a business career, working as a clerk and manager in several different firms. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1882. Upon leaving the legislature Ahearn was appointed to a clerkship in the New York City Police Court. Ahearn was a member of the New York State Senate from 1890 to 1902, sitting in the 113th, 114th, 115th, 116th, 117th, 118th, 119th, 120th, 121st, 122nd, 123rd, 124th and 125th New York State Legislatures. At first a member of the "County Democracy" he became an active member of the Tammany Hall organization, created a political organization loyal to him, the John F. Ahearn Association. In 1903 Ahearn was elected Manhattan Borough President. Governor Charles Evans Hughes removed Ahearn from office for corruption and neglect in 1907, but Ahearn won the aldermanic election to fill the vacancy.
In 1909 the New York Court of Appeals ruled that the aldermanic election that returned Ahearn to office following his removal by Hughes was illegal. With Hughes' action being upheld, Ahearn vacated the borough presidency. Ahearn died in New York City on December 19, 1920. State Senator Edward J. Ahearn was his son; the John F. Ahearn Papers at the New-York Historical Society
Tammany Hall known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society, it was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City and New York State politics and helping immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. It controlled Democratic Party nominations and political patronage in Manhattan from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 and used its patronage resources to build a loyal, well-rewarded core of district and precinct leaders; the Tammany Society emerged as the center for Democratic-Republican Party politics in the city in the early 19th century. After 1854, the Society expanded its political control further by earning the loyalty of the city's expanding immigrant community, which functioned as its base of political capital; the business community appreciated its readiness, at moderate cost, to cut through red tape and legislative mazes to facilitate rapid economic growth.
The Tammany Hall ward boss or ward heeler – wards were the city's smallest political units from 1786 to 1938 – served as the local vote gatherer and provider of patronage. By 1872 Tammany had an Irish Catholic "boss," and in 1928 a Tammany hero, New York Governor Al Smith, won the Democratic presidential nomination. However, Tammany Hall served as an engine for graft and political corruption most infamously under William M. "Boss" Tweed in the mid-19th century. By the 1880s, Tammany was building local clubs that appealed to social activists from the ethnic middle class. In quiet times the machine had the advantage of a core of solid supporters and exercised control of politics and policymaking in Manhattan. Charles Murphy was the quiet, but effective boss of Tammany from 1902 to 1924. "Big Tim" Sullivan was the Tammany leader in the Bowery, machine's spokesman in the state legislature. In the early twentieth century Murphy and Sullivan promoted Tammany as a reformed agency dedicated to the interests of the working class.
The new image deflected attacks and built up a following among the emerging ethnic middle class. In the process Robert F. Wagner became a powerful United States Senator, Al Smith served multiple terms as governor and was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1928. Tammany Hall's influence waned from 1930 to 1945 when it engaged in a losing battle with Franklin D. Roosevelt, the state's governor and the United States president. In 1932, Mayor Jimmy Walker was forced from office when his bribery was exposed. Roosevelt stripped Tammany of federal patronage. Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor on a Fusion ticket and became the first anti-Tammany mayor to be re-elected. A brief resurgence in Tammany power in the 1950s under the leadership of Carmine DeSapio was met with Democratic Party opposition led by Eleanor Roosevelt, Herbert Lehman, the New York Committee for Democratic Voters. By the mid-1960s Tammany Hall ceased to exist; the Tammany Society known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was founded in New York on May 12, 1789 as a branch of a wider network of Tammany Societies, the first having been formed in Philadelphia in 1772.
The society was developed as a club for "pure Americans". The name "Tammany" comes from Tamanend, a Native American leader of the Lenape; the society adopted many Native American words and their customs, going so far as to call its hall a wigwam. The first Grand Sachem, as the leader was titled, was William Mooney, an upholsterer of Nassau Street. Although Mooney claimed the top role in the early organization, it was a wealthy merchant and philanthropist named John Pintard who created the society's constitution and declared its mission as " political institution founded on a strong republican basis whose democratic principles will serve in some measure to correct the aristocracy of our city." Pintard established the various Native American titles of the society. The Society had the political backing of the Clinton family in this era, whereas the Schuyler family backed the Hamiltonian Federalists, the Livingston's sided with the anti-federalists and the Society; the Society assisted the federal government in procuring a peace treaty with the Creek Indians of Georgia and Florida at the request of George Washington in 1790 and hosted Edmond-Charles Genêt in 1793, representative of the New French Republic after the French Revolution toppled the old regime.
By 1798, the society's activities had grown political. High ranking Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr saw Tammany Hall as an opportunity to counter Alexander Hamilton's Society of the Cincinnati and developed it into a tool to further his own agenda. Tammany emerged as the center of Democratic-Republican Party politics in the city. Burr used Tammany Hall influence in the election of 1800, in which he was elected Vice President of the United States. Many historians believe that without Tammany, President John Adams might have won New York State's electoral votes and won reelection. Early cases of political corruption involving Tammany Hall came to light during the group's feud with local politician Dewitt Clinton; the feud began in 1802 after Clinton accused Aaron Burr of being a traitor to the Democratic-Republican Party. Clinton's uncle, George Clinton was jealous of Burr's achievements and positions; however George was too old to compete with young Aaron Burr, so he left it to his nephew to topple Burr.
One of Burr's politic
John M. Mitchell
John Murry Mitchell was a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in New York City, Mitchell attended Leggett's School at New York City, he was graduated from Columbia College, New York City, where he was a member of St. Anthony Hall, in 1877, from the law department of that college in 1879, he was admitted to the bar in 1879 and practiced in New York City. He contested as a Republican the election of James J. Walsh to the Fifty-fourth Congress, he was reelected to the Fifty-fifth Congress and served from June 2, 1896, to March 3, 1899. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1898 to the Fifty-sixth Congress, he resumed the practice of law. He died in Tuxedo Park, New York, May 31, 1905, he was interred in Greenwood Cemetery, New York. United States Congress. "John M. Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov