Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. For instance, the vowel of the English word "feet" can be described with reference to cardinal vowel 1, the cardinal vowel closest to it, it is stated that to be able to use the cardinal vowel system one must undergo training with an expert phonetician, working both on the recognition and the production of the vowels. Daniel Jones wrote. A cardinal vowel is a vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low; the current system was systematised by Daniel Jones in the early 20th century, though the idea goes back to earlier phoneticians, notably Ellis and Bell. Cardinal vowels are not vowels of a measuring system. However, some languages contain vowel or vowels. An example of such language is Ngwe, spoken in Cameroon, it has been cited as a language with a vowel system that has 8 vowels which are rather similar to the 8 primary cardinal vowels.
Three of the cardinal vowels—, —have articulatory definitions. The vowel is produced with the tongue as far forward and as high in the mouth as is possible, with spread lips; the vowel is produced with the tongue as far back and as high in the mouth as is possible, with protruded lips. This sound can be approximated by adopting the posture to whistle a low note, or to blow out a candle, and is produced with the tongue as low and as far back in the mouth as possible. The other vowels are'auditorily equidistant' between these three'corner vowels', at four degrees of aperture or'height': close, close-mid, open-mid, open; these degrees of aperture plus the front-back distinction define 8 reference points on a mixture of articulatory and auditory criteria. These eight vowels are known as the eight'primary cardinal vowels', vowels like these are common in the world's languages; the lip positions can be reversed with the lip position for the corresponding vowel on the opposite side of the front-back dimension, so that e.g. Cardinal 1 can be produced with rounding somewhat similar to that of Cardinal 8.
Sounds such as these are claimed to be less common in the world's languages. Other vowel sounds are recognised on the vowel chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet. In the International Phonetic Association's number chart, the cardinal vowels have the same numbers used above, but added to 300; the usual explanation of the cardinal vowel system implies that the competent user can reliably distinguish between sixteen Primary and Secondary vowels plus a small number of central vowels. The provision of diacritics by the International Phonetic Association further implies that intermediate values may be reliably recognized, so that a phonetician might be able to produce and recognize not only a close-mid front unrounded vowel and an open-mid front unrounded vowel but a mid front unrounded vowel, a centralized mid front unrounded vowel, so on; this suggests a range of vowels nearer to fifty than to twenty in number. Empirical evidence for this ability in trained phoneticians is hard to come by.
Ladefoged, in a series of pioneering experiments published in the 1950s and 60s, studied how trained phoneticians coped with the vowels of a dialect of Scottish Gaelic. He asked eighteen phoneticians to listen to a recording of ten words spoken by a native speaker of Gaelic and to place the vowels on a cardinal vowel quadrilateral, he studied the degree of agreement or disagreement among the phoneticians. Ladefoged himself drew attention to the fact that the phoneticians who were trained in the British tradition established by Daniel Jones were closer to each other in their judgments than those who had not had this training. However, the most striking result is the great divergence of judgments among all the listeners regarding vowels that were distant from Cardinal values. List of phonetics topics audio demonstrations of cardinal vowels as spoken by Daniel Jones at age 75 Ladefoged, Peter.. Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Ida C. Ward
Ida Caroline Ward, was a British linguist working on African languages who did influential work in the domains of phonology and tonology. Her 1933 collaboration with Diedrich Hermann Westermann, Practical Phonetics for Students of African languages, was reprinted many times. African languages she worked on include Efik, Igbo and Yoruba. Born in Bradford, Ida Ward was the eighth child of a Yorkshire wool merchant, she studied for a B. Litt degree at Durham University, as a member of the recently founded Women's Hostel, graduating in 1902. Following this she taught as a secondary school teacher for 16 years before becoming an academic. From 1919 to 1932 she worked in the phonetics department at University College London with the famous phonetician Daniel Jones. In her books on African languages she gave a detailed account of the tones of the languages, in her day was one of the leading authorities in the subject. Ward, Ida C. Defects of Speech: Their Nature and Their Cure. E. P. Dutton. Armstrong, Lilias E. & Ward, Ida C.
Handbook of English Intonation, B. G. Teubner, Germany Westermann, Diedrich Hermann & Ward, Ida C. Practical phonetics for students of African languages. London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute Ward, Ida C; the phonetic and tonal structure of Efik. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. An introduction to the Ibo language. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. Practical suggestions for the learning of an African language in the field, supplement, vol. 10, no. 2. London. Ward, Ida C; the Phonetics of English. Heffer, Cambridge. Ward, Ida C; the Pronunciation of Twi. Heffer, Cambridge. Ward, Ida C. Ibo dialects and the development of a common language. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C.'A phonetic introduction to Mende', in Crosby, K. H. An introduction to the study of Mende. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. An introduction to the Yoruba language. Cambridge: Heffer & Sons. Collins, B. S.. M.. "Ward, Ida Caroline". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. 14. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Pp. 520–521.
Doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02975-8. Forde, Daryll. "Ida Caroline Ward". Africa. 20: 1. Doi:10.1017/S0001972000012559. JSTOR 1156043. Green, M. M.. "Ward, Ida Caroline". In Cannadine, David. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Rev. by D. W. Arnott. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36731. Lasebikan, E. L.. "Ida Ward". African Affairs. 49: 30–32. Doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a093781. JSTOR 719354. Tucker, A. N.. "Ida Caroline Ward". Obituaries. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 13: 542–547. Doi:10.1017/S0041977X00083798. JSTOR 609308. Westermann, D.. "Ida Ward—An Appreciation". Africa. 20: 2–4. Doi:10.1017/S0001972000012560. JSTOR 1156044. "Professor Ida Ward". The Times. London. 14 October 1949. Col E, p. 7. "Memorial Service: Professor Ida C. Ward"; the Times. London. 27 October 1949. Col B, p. 7.\ "Ward, Ida Caroline". A Companion to Who's Who Containing the Biographies of Those Who Died During the Decade 1941–1950. Who Was Who. 4. London: Adam & Charles Black. 1952. P. 1200
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Alexander Melville Bell
Alexander Melville Bell was a teacher and researcher of physiological phonetics and was the author of numerous works on orthoepy and elocution. Additionally he was the creator of Visible Speech, used to help the deaf learn to talk, was the father of Alexander Graham Bell. Alexander Melville Bell was born in Edinburgh and studied under and became the principal assistant of his father, Alexander Bell, an authority on phonetics and speech disorders. From 1843 to 1865 he lectured on speech elocution at the University of Edinburgh, from 1865 to 1870 at the University of London. Melville married Eliza Grace Symonds, the only daughter of a British naval surgeon. In 1868, again in 1870 and 1871, Melville lectured at the Lowell Institute in Boston, Massachusetts after having moved to Canada. In 1870 he became a lecturer on philology at Queen's College, Ontario. C. at the suggestion of his son Graham, where he devoted himself to the education of the deaf by the use of Visible Speech in which the alphabetical characters of his linguistic invention were representative graphic diagrams for the various positions and motions of the lips, mouth, etc. as well as other methods of orthoepy.
Prior to departing Scotland for Canada Melville Bell had published at least 17 works on proper speech, vocal physiology and other works. Besides instructing at Queens College he lectured in Boston, Toronto and other universities including a series of 12 lectures at Boston's Lowell Institute; when the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall called on Brantford for a visit, Melville was asked to greet the dignitaries at the public event. He became a Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland, the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as obtaining memberships in other societies. Alexander Melville Bell was married twice, first to Eliza Grace Symonds in 1844 with whom he had three children, to Harriet G. Shibley. In 1864 Melville published his first works on Visible Speech, to help the deaf both learn and improve upon their aural speech. To promote the language, Bell created two written short forms using his system of 29 modifiers and tones, 52 consonants, 36 vowels and a dozen diphthongs: World English, similar to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Line Writing, used as a shorthand form for stenographers.
Melville's works on Visible Speech became notable, were described by Édouard Séguin as being "...a greater invention than the telephone of his son, Alexander Graham Bell". Melville saw numerous applications for his invention, including its worldwide use as a universal language. However, although promoted at the Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf in Milan, Italy in 1880, after a period of a dozen years or so in which it was applied to the education of the deaf, Visible Speech was found to be more cumbersome, thus a hindrance, to the teaching of speech to the deaf compared to other methods, faded from use. In 1887, his son, Alexander Graham Bell, sold off the intellectual assets owned by the Volta Laboratory Association. Graham used the considerable profits from the sale of his shares to found the Volta Bureau as an instrument "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf". Graham's scientific and statistical research work on deafness became so large that within the period of a few years his documentation engulfed an entire room of the Volta Laboratory in Melville's backyard carriage house.
Due to the limited space available at the carriage house, with the assistance of Melville who contributed US$15,000, Graham had his new Volta Bureau building constructed close by in 1893. Melville Bell died at age 86 in 1905 due to pneumonia after an operation for diabetes, was interred in Washington, D. C.'s Rock Creek Cemetery adjacent to the Hubbard • Bell • Grossman • Pillot Memorial, alongside his wife and other members of the Bell and Grosvenor families. The Bell House at Colonial Beach, Virginia was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987; the voice of Bell, citing a sentence from Hamlet, can be heard at the Smithsonian Institution, as extracted from an 1881 graphophone recording. The following are some of the more prominent of the 93 publications authored or co-authored by Melville Bell: Steno-Phonography Letters and Sounds The Standard Elocutionist, including a viewable 1878 edition published by William Mullan & Son, properly cited as: David Charles Bell, Alexander Melville Bell.
Bell's Standard Elocutionist: Principles And Exercises, W. Mullan, London, 1878. Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabetics Sounds and their Relations Lectures on Phonetics A Popular Manual of Visible Speech and Vocal Physiology World English: the Universal Language The Science of Speech The Fundamentals of Elocution Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8014-9691-8. Alexander Graham Bell, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010. Winzer, Margret A; the History Of Special Education: From Isolation To Integration, Gallaudet University Press, 1993, ISBN 1-56368-018-1, ISBN 978-1-56368-018-2. Curry, Samuel Silas. Alexander Melville Bell: Some Memories, With Fragments From A Pupil's Note-Book, School of Expression, 1906. Patt
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K