Uganda People's Defence Force
The Uganda Peoples' Defence Force known as the National Resistance Army, is the armed forces of Uganda. From 2007 to 2011, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the UPDF had a total strength of 40,000–45,000 and consisted of land forces and an air wing. After Uganda achieved independence in October 1962, British officers retained most high-level military commands. Ugandans in the rank and file claimed this policy blocked promotions and kept their salaries disproportionately low; these complaints destabilized the armed forces weakened by ethnic divisions. Each post-independence regime expanded the size of the army by recruiting from among people of one region or ethnic group, each government employed military force to subdue political unrest; the origins of the present Ugandan armed forces can be traced back to 1902, when the Uganda Battalion of the King's African Rifles was formed. Ugandan soldiers fought as part of the King's African Rifles during the First World War and Second World War.
As Uganda moved toward independence, the army stepped up recruitment, the government increased the use of the army to quell domestic unrest. The army was becoming more involved in politics, setting a pattern that continued after independence. In January 1960, for example, troops were deployed to Bugisu and Bukedi districts in the east to quell political violence. In the process, the soldiers killed twelve people, injured several hundred, arrested more than 1,000. A series of similar clashes occurred between troops and demonstrators, in March 1962 the government recognized the army's growing domestic importance by transferring control of the military to the Ministry of Home Affairs. On 9 October 1962, Uganda became independent from the United Kingdom, with 4th Battalion, King's African Rifles, based at Jinja, becoming the Uganda Rifles; the traditional leader of the Baganda, Edward Mutesa, became president of Uganda. Milton Obote, a northerner and longtime opponent of autonomy for the southern kingdoms including Buganda, was prime minister.
Mutesa recognized the seriousness of the rank-and-file demands for Africanising the officer corps, but he was more concerned about potential northern domination of the military, a concern that reflected the power struggle between Mutesa and Obote. Mutesa used his political power to protect the interests of his Baganda constituency, he refused to support demands for Africanization of the officer ranks. On 1 August 1962, the Uganda Rifles became the Uganda Army; the armed forces more than doubled, from 700 to 1,500, the government created the 2nd Battalion stationed at the north-eastern town of Moroto on 14 November 1963. Omara-Otunnu wrote in 1987 that "a large number of men had been recruited into the Army to form this new battalion, and... the new recruits were not given proper training" because the Army was heavily committed in its various operations. In January 1964, following a mutiny by Tanganyikan soldiers in protest over their own Africanisation crisis, unrest spread throughout the Uganda Army.
On 22 January 1964, soldiers of the 1st Battalion in Jinja mutinied to press their demands for a pay raise and a Ugandan officer corps. They detained their British officers, several noncommissioned officers, Minister of Interior Felix Onama, who had arrived in Jinja to represent the government's views to the rank and file. Obote appealed for British military support, hoping to prevent the mutiny from spreading to other parts of the country. About 450 British soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, The Scots Guards and Staffordshire Regiment responded, they surrounded the First Battalion barracks at Jinja, seized the armory, quelled the mutiny. The government responded two days by dismissing several hundred soldiers from the army, several of whom were subsequently detained. Although the authorities released many of the detained soldiers and reinstated some in the army, the mutiny marked a turning point in civil-military relations; the mutiny reinforced the army's political strength. Within weeks of the mutiny, the president's cabinet approved a military pay raise retroactive to 1 January 1964, more than doubling the salaries of those in private to staff-sergeant ranks.
Additionally, the government raised defense allocations by 400 percent. The number of Ugandan officers increased from 18 to 55. Two northerners, Shaban Opolot and Idi Amin, assumed command positions in the Uganda Rifles and received promotions to Brigadier and commander in chief, army chief of staff, respectively. Following the 1964 mutiny, the government remained fearful of internal opposition. Obote moved the army headquarters 87 kilometres from Jinja to Kampala, he created a secret police force, the General Service Unit to bolster security. Most GSU employees guarded government offices in and around Kampala, but some served in overseas embassies and other locations throughout Uganda; when British training programs ended, Israel started training Uganda's army, air force, GSU personnel. Several other countries provided military assistance to Uganda. Decalo writes that:... using classic'divide and rule' tactics, he appointed different foreign military missions to each battalion, scrambled operational chains of command, played the police off against the army, encouraged personal infighting between his main military'proteges' and removed from operational command of troops officers who appeared unreliable or too authoritative."
When Congolese aircraft bombed the West Nile villages of Paidha and Goli on 13 February 1965, President Obote again increased military recruitment and doubled the army's size to more than 4,500. Units established included a third battalion at Mubende
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
City, University of London
City, University of London is a public research university in London, United Kingdom. It has been a constituent college of the University of London since 2016, it was founded in 1894 as the Northampton Institute, became a university when The City University was created by royal charter in 1966. The Inns of Court School of Law, which merged with City in 2001, was established in 1852, making it the City University's oldest constituent part. City joined the federal University of London on 1 September 2016, becoming part of the eighteen colleges and ten research institutes that make up that university; the university has strong links with the City of London, the Lord Mayor of London serves as the university's rector. The university has its main campus in central London in the London Borough of Islington, with additional campuses in Islington, the City, the West End and East End, it is organised into five schools, within which there are around forty academic departments and centres, including the Department of Journalism, the Cass Business School, City Law School which incorporates the Inns of Court School of Law.
The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £227.0 million, of which £11.6 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £221.4 million. The Cass Business School is ranked 5th in the UK, in the top 40 in the world, in the Financial Times' 2017 Global MBA Rankings. City, University of London is a member of the Association of MBAs, EQUIS and Universities UK. City University traces its origin to the Northampton Institute, established in 1852 and named after the Marquess of Northampton who donated the land on which the institute was built, between Northampton Square and St John Street in Islington; the institute was established to provide for the welfare of the local population. It was constituted under the City of London Parochial Charities Act, with the objective of "the promotion of the industrial skill, general knowledge and well-being of young men and women belonging to the poorer classes". Northampton Polytechnic Institute was an institute of technology in Clerkenwell, founded in 1894.
Its first Principal was Robert Mullineux Walmsley. Alumni include Stuart Davies and Anthony Hunt. Arthur George Cocksedge, a British gymnast who competed in the 1920 Summer Olympics, was a member of the Northampton Polytechnic Institute's Gymnastics Club and was Champion of the United Kingdom in 1920. In 1937 Maurice Dennis of the was the 1937 ABA Middleweight Champion. Frederick Handley Page was a lecturer in aeronautics at the institute; the Handley Page Type A, the first powered aircraft designed and built by him, ended up as an instructional airframe at the school. The novelist Eric Ambler studied engineering at the institute; the six original departments at the institute were Electrical Engineering. A separate technical optics department was established in 1903–04. In 1909, the first students qualified for University of London BSc degrees in engineering as internal students; the Institute had been involved in aeronautics education since that year, the School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences celebrated the centenary of aeronautics at City in 2009.
The Institute was used for the 1908 Olympic Games. In 1957, the Institute was designated a "College of Advanced Technology"; the Institute's involvement in information science began in 1961, with the introduction of a course on "Collecting and Communicating Scientific Knowledge". City received its royal charter in 1966, becoming "The City University" to reflect the institution's close links with the City of London; the Apollo 15 astronauts visited City in 1971, presented the Vice-Chancellor, with a piece of heat shield from the Apollo 15 rocket. In October 1995, it was announced that City University would merge with both the St Bartholomew School of Nursing & Midwifery and the Charterhouse College of Radiography, doubling the number of students in City's Institute of Health Sciences to around 2,500; the University formed a strategic alliance with Queen Mary, University of London in April 2001. In May 2001, a fire in the college building gutted the fourth-floor offices and roof. In August 2001 City and the Inns of Court School of Law agreed to merge.
Following a donation from Sir John Cass's Foundation, a multimillion-pound building was built at 106 Bunhill Row for the Cass Business School. A new £23 million building to house the School of Social Sciences and the Department of Language and Communication Science was opened in 2004; the reconstruction and redevelopment of the university's Grade II listed college building was completed in July 2006. In 2007 the School of Arts received a £10m building refurbishment. A new students' union venue opened in October 2008 called "TEN squared", which provides a hub for students to socialise in during the day and hosts a wide range of evening entertainment including club nights, society events and quiz nights. In January 2010, premises were shared with the University of East Anglia London, following City's partnership with INTO University Partnerships. Since City has resumed its own International Foundation Programme to prepare students for their pre-university year. In April 2011, it was announced that the current halls of residence and Saddler's Sports Centre will be closed and demolished for rebuilding in June 2011.
The new student halls and sports facility, now known as CitySport, opened in 2015. In September 2016 City University, London became a member institution of the federal University of London and chan
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
Jinja is a city in Uganda, located on the shore of Lake Victoria. Jinja is in Busoga sub-region, in the Eastern Region of Uganda, it is 81 kilometres, by road, east of Kampala, the capital and largest city of Uganda. It sits near the source of the White Nile. According to the 2014 national population census data, Jinja is the largest metropolitan area in the Jinja District and the 14th-largest town in the country; the city was planned under colonial rule in 1948 by German architect and urban planner. May designed the urban planning scheme for Kampala, creating what he called "neighborhood units." Estates were built for the ruling elite in many parts outside the center city. This led to the area's ` slum clearance'. In 1954, the construction of the Owen Falls Dam submerged the Ripon Falls. Most of the "Flat Rocks" that gave the area its name disappeared under water as well. A description of what the area looked like can be found in the notes of John Hanning Speke, the first European to lay eyes on the source of the Nile: Though beautiful, the scene was not what I expected, for the broad surface of the lake was shut out from view by a spur of hill, the falls, about twelve feet deep and four to five hundred feet broad, were broken by rocks.
The roar of the waters, the thousands of passenger fish leaping at the falls with all their might, the fishermen coming out in boats, taking post on all the rocks with rod and hook and crocodiles lying sleepily on the water, the ferry at work above the falls, cattle driven down to drink at the margin of the lake, made in all, with the pretty nature of the country—small grassy-topped hills, with trees in the intervening valleys and on the lower slopes—as interesting a picture as one could wish to see." The national census of 2002 estimated Jinja's population to be 71,213 of which 36,325 were males and 34,888 were females. In 2010, the Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimated the population at 82,800. In 2011, UBOS estimated the population at 89,700. In 2014, the national population census put the population at 72,931 However, the Municipality Authority contested the recent census of 2014, saying it under-counted Jinja's population; the majority of the population are of Bantu origin. Lusoga is the main local language.
Jinja has a large population of inhabitants who are defined as "working urban poor". The average annual household income is estimated at US $100. Jinja had the second largest economy in Uganda. In the past, factories chose Jinja as their base because of the nearby electric power station at the Owen Falls Dam. Since the early 2000s, the economy of Jinja has picked up steadily; the main economic activities take place in the central business district. A new market for fresh produce was completed during the fourth quarter of 2014; the facility can accommodate up to 4,500 vendors and cost US$13.7 million to construct, with a loan from the African Development Bank from 2011 until 2014. The biggest local employer is a member of the Madhvani Group of companies. KSW is one of the largest sugar factories in East Africa, employing over 7,500; the factory burns bagasse byproducts from sugar manufacturing to generate 50 megawatts of electricity for internal use and sale to the national grid. Sugar cane cutting median wages are about UGX:1,000 per day.
The headquarters of Nile Breweries Limited are in Njeru, a suburb of Jinja, near the Source of the Nile, from which the brewery has been drawing its water since 1956. Building of the brewery was completed four years later. Bottles of Nile Beer, renamed Nile Special Lager, the company's flagship brand, were first consumed in 1956. In 2001, Nile Breweries Limited was acquired by South African Breweries. MM Integrated Steel Uganda Limited is one of the leading manufacturers of steel in the region, it has completed a $47 million plant to produce 50,000 tonnes of steel products a year and directly employs 1,800 people. The company has projected to invest US$600 million through 2018; the Bidco international oil refining company maintains a palm oil factory in the city. The palm oil fruits come from Bidco's 6,500 hectares plantation on Bugala Island in the Ssese Islands Archipelago, Kalangala District, in Lake Victoria; the factory in the islands crushes the fruit, the crude palm oil is transported to Jinja for refining into edible oil and other products.
Kiira Motor Corporation known as the Kiira EV Project, a locally based startup car company, expects to set up the first car manufacturing facility in Uganda, based in Jinja. The Kiira EV Project received 40 hectares of land at the Jinja Business Park. Production is expected to start in 2018; the government of Uganda will provide funding to the initial production and setting up of a factory for the project. WIEGO, in collaboration with Nurturing Uganda, is conducting a project allowing women to be self sustaining, giving them the opportunity to cover their children's school expenses; the city has several educational establishments including the following: Royal Academy of Art and Design Eastern Campus of Makerere University Jinja Campus of the Makerere University Business School Jinja Campus of Busoga University Jinja Campus of Kampala University Nsaka University Civil Service College University International Institute of Health Sciences Jinja Vocational Institute YMCA College of Business Nile Vocational Institute JInja School of Nursing and Midwifery Hotel and Tourism Training Institute Jinja School of Ophthalmic Clinical Officers Medical Laboratory Technicians School, Jinja Pasty Helm Memorial Vocation
Politics of Uganda
Uganda is a presidential republic, in which the President of Uganda is both head of state and head of government. There is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly; the system is based on a democratic parliamentary system with universal suffrage for all citizens over 18 of years age. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Uganda as "hybrid regime" in 2016. In a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence, political parties were restricted in their activities from 1986. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by President Yoweri Museveni, political parties continued to exist but could not campaign in elections or field candidates directly. A constitutional referendum cancelled this 19-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005. Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, of whom the most prominent was the exiled Dr. Kizza Besigye. Museveni was declared the winner.
Besigye alleged fraud, rejected the result. The Supreme Court of Uganda ruled that the election was marred by intimidation, voter disenfranchisement, other irregularities. However, the Court voted 4-3 to uphold the results of the election; the head of state in Uganda is the President, elected by a popular vote to a five-year term. This is Yoweri Museveni, the head of the armed forces; the previous presidential elections were in February 2011, in the election of February 2016, Museveni was elected with 68 percent of the vote. The cabinet is appointed by the president from among the elected legislators; the prime minister, Ruhakana Rugunda, assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet. The Cabinet of Uganda, according to the Constitution of Uganda, "shall consist of the President, the Vice President and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State." On 4 May 2005, the Ugandan Parliament voted to conduct a referendum on the reintroduction of party politics in Uganda.
The referendum was held on July 28, 2005 and Ugandans voted for a return to multi-party politics. The Ugandan judiciary operates as an independent branch of government and consists of magistrate's courts, high courts, courts of appeal, the Supreme Court. Judges for the High Court are appointed by the president. A fight between Ugandan and Libyan presidential guards sparked chaos during a ceremony attended by the heads of state from 11 African nations on March 19, 2008. ACP African Development Bank Commonwealth of Nations East African Development Bank Food and Agriculture Organization Group of 77 Intelsat Intergovernmental Authority on Development International Atomic Energy Agency International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Civil Aviation Organization International Confederation of Free Trade Unions International Criminal Court International Development Association International Finance Corporation International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement International Olympic Committee International Organization for Migration International Organization for Standardization International Telecommunication Union Interpol Islamic Development Bank Non-Aligned Movement Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Organisation of African Unity Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Permanent Court of Arbitration United Nations United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Industrial Development Organization Universal Postal Union World Customs Organization World Federation of Trade Unions World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization World Tourism Organization World Trade Organization List of government ministries of Uganda Cabinet of Uganda Parliament of Uganda Supreme Court of Uganda Uganda's opposition join forces "Uganda'night commuters' flee rebel brutality" Tripp, Aili Mari, Museveni’s Uganda: Paradoxes of Power in a Hybrid Regime, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2010.
Parliament of Uganda State House of Uganda Constitution of the Republic of Uganda Party Politics in Uganda, 1963-2000, Christina Nyströmee Uganda Government at Curlie
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha