Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Swimming at the 1996 Summer Olympics
The swimming competition at the 1996 Summer Olympics was held at the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center in Atlanta, United States. There were 762 competitors from 117 countries; this was the last Olympics. At the time of the games, the facility had a temporary 50m warm-up pool located behind the locker rooms and entry concourse; the open walls allowed for temporary seating to be in place during the games. A wall and new roof have since been placed on the facility. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. 762 swimmers from 117 nations competed. Swim rankings results
Lorne is a seaside town on Louttit Bay in Victoria, Australia. It is situated about the Erskine River and is a popular destination on the Great Ocean Road tourist route. Lorne is in the Surf Coast Shire and at the 2016 census had a population of 1,114 but this figure grows during the holiday season. Prior to European settlement, Lorne was part of the traditional lands of the Gadubanud or King Parrot people of the Cape Otway coast according to Ian Clark, although many popular websites report that the area was occupied by the Kolakngat Aborigines. Lorne is situated on a bay named after Captain Louttit, who sought shelter there in 1841 while supervising the retrieval of cargo from a nearby shipwreck; the coast was surveyed five years in 1846. The first European settler was William Lindsay, a timber-cutter who began felling the area in 1849; the first telegraph arrived in 1859. Subdivision began in 1869 and in 1871 the town was named after the Marquess of Lorne from Argyleshire in Scotland on the occasion of his marriage to Princess Louise, one of Queen Victoria's daughters.
The Post Office opened on 29 April 1874. In 1891, the area was visited by Rudyard Kipling, inspired to write the poem Flowers, which includes the lines: By 1922 the Great Ocean Road was extended to Lorne, making the town much more accessible; the first passenger road service to Geelong was established in 1924 and guesthouses began to appear after 1930. The local fishing industry expanded in the 1930s and 1940s; the Ash Wednesday bushfires swept through the area in 1983. Popular local activities include traditional beach pursuits such as family bathing and surfing, as well as pier fishing for barracuda and trevally. Teddy's Lookout lies at the end of George Street on the town's southern outskirts and offers fine views over the town and Great Ocean Road; the Great Otway National Park is nearby. The town's population swells to around 13,000 each New Year's Eve when the Falls Festival takes place. During the first weekend of January over 20,000 spectators visit Lorne when the town hosts the 1.2 km Pier to Pub swim, the 8 km Mountain to Surf run, the Lorne Surf Boat Race.
Terminating in Lorne on the Queen's Birthday was the Great Otway Classic Foot Race. Fair on the Foreshore occurs on the first weekend in November; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the District Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Lorne Golf Club on Holiday Road; the town has two pubs and a number of cafes and bakeries located along Mountjoy Parade. The town is serviced by one supermarket with a reasonable range of products, given the wide range of needs from locals to camping families to passing motorists, they preserves. Other stores sell more local fruits, vegetables and there are bakeries. At the pier is the fish co-op, selling fresh fish, including local catches; as usual in a tourist town, there are a large number of boutiques and clothing stores, as well as a good book store, a second hand book store, a some art galleries/craft shops. There are more regular shops such as a pharmacy and post office. Telstra and Vodafone all have mobile towers in Lorne, providing a decent 3G and 4G signal.
Mobile coverage and speeds may be affected during summertime as Lorne is an popular tourist destination. Lorne contains a number of heritage listed sites, including: 35 Mountjoy Parade, Erskine House Great Ocean Road 242-244 Mountjoy Parade, Jura 222 Mountjoy Parade, Leighwood 76-80 Mountjoy Parade, Lorne Cinema 18 Smith Street and 15 Grove Road, Lorne Primary School Pier to Pub Falls Festival Great Ocean Road Marathon Lorne Festival of Performing Arts Lorne Film Lorne Sculpture Biennale Schoolies Week Swing Bridge Model Boat Regatta Caulfield Cup Punting Bonanza Lorne Tourist Information Great Ocean Road info Lorne Visitor Guide - Lorne.com.au
Swimming at the 2000 Summer Olympics
The swimming competitions at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney took place from 16 to 23 September 2000 at the Sydney International Aquatic Centre in Homebush Bay. It featured 32 events, a total of 954 swimmers from 150 nations; the swimming program for 2000 was expanded from 1996, with the inclusion of the semifinal phase in each of the events except for some special cases. Long-distance swimming events and all relays still maintained the old format with only two phases: heats and final; because of the radical changes in the competition format, it was extended into an eight-day program and thereby continued into the present era. Swimmers from the United States were the most successful, winning 14 golds, 8 silver, 11 bronze to lead the overall medal count with 33. Meanwhile, Australia had produced a total of 18 medals to claim the second spot in the tally. A total of fourteen world records and thirty-eight Olympic records were set during the competition; the following events were contested: Freestyle: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500.
M = Morning session, E = Evening session A total of 954 swimmers from 150 nations would compete in swimming events at these Olympic Games. Aruba, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Laos, Federated States of Micronesia, Niger, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Tajikistan made their official debut in swimming. Nations with swimmers at the Games are: * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. Official Olympic Report 2000 Sydney Olympics Coverage – ABC News Australia
Werner Lampe is a retired German swimmer and Olympic medalist. He is father of Oliver Lampe, he participated at the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics, winning a silver medal in 4 × 200 m freestyle relay, a bronze medal in 200 m freestyle in 1972. Lampe shaved off his hair before the 200 m Olympic race in 1972 to reduce the water drag, wore a wig at the award ceremony. After retiring from competitions Lampe worked as a swimming coach. In 2005, aged 52, he defended a PhD at the University of Hannover on the role of exercise in diabetics and overweight persons
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 Commonwealth Games known as the XVI Commonwealth Games, was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event; the 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time the games included team sports; the other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Wales and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals. Kuala Lumpur was selected to stage the games at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games Federation in Barcelona, Spain during the 1992 Summer Olympics.
The 16th Commonwealth Games opening ceremony took place on 11 September 1998 at 20:00 MST. During the ceremony 4,840 Soka Gakkai volunteers displayed coloured flip cards which depicted sporting images, flags of the Commonwealth nations and messages that heralded the first games in Asia in the 68 years since their inception; the ceremony was preceded by a pre-show concert by Malaysian pop singers such as Norzila Binti Haji Aminuddin, Shahrul Anuar Zain, Siti Roziana Binti Zain, Shaheila binti Abdul Majid, Amy Mastura Binti Suhaimi, Ning Baizura binti Sheikh Hamzah and Siti Nurhaliza Binti Tarudin, performance by local comedian Harith Iskander and 16 paratroopers who descended down the stadium. The ceremony began with the arrival of dignitaries including the Chairman of Commonwealth Games Federation Mr Michael Fennel, Prince Edward, Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah, Prime Minister Dato Seri, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the Yang Dipertuan Agong and Malaysian minister of Youth and Sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin.
This was followed by the parade of nations — 69 participating nations, led by mascot Wira and previous games' mascots. The Singaporean delegation was jeered by the crowd during the parade of nations. Came a performance about a Malaysian rainforest by 2,000 school children who dressed as birds and flowers. After the performance, the Queen's message was delivered in the Queen's Baton, which arrived in the main stadium of Kuala Lumpur on elephant-back, was run in relay to the stadium while the athletes marched in. 1978 Commonwealth Games badminton gold medal winner Sylvia Ng took the last lap with the baton and handed it off to Koh Eng Tong, a weightlifter who won a gold medal in weightlifting for Malaya in the 1950 British Empire Games, to take the final few feet to Prince Edward. Contrary to tradition, the games were opened by the Malaysian head of state, Yang di Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar by striking the gong three times. A burst of fireworks and blurring of the giant bunga raya and a 16-gun salute which represents 1998 Commonwealth Games being the 16th-edition games, signified the beginning of the games.
The Commonwealth Games flag was brought into the stadium raised to the theme song of the Games Forever As One written by local composer, Goh Boon Hoe. Malaysian bowler Shalin Zulkifli take the oath on behalf of the athletes; the ceremony concluded with a 40-minute performance, titled "Aur di Tebing" with the theme'Unity towards Progress', conveyed through dance and intricate human graphics. 2,000 performers swirled and danced carrying trays of bunga emas on their heads during a mass silat display. The show told the Malaysian history from ancient Malacca to the present development in Malaysia, its political and technological achievements as well as its people's vision of peace and unity and lifestyle; the logo of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an image of the national flower of Malaysia, the hibiscus, the first games logo to introduce the colour yellow. The red, blue and yellow colours represents the colours of the Malaysian national flag and Malaysia as a confident, dynamic nation; the yellow pollens represent the six regions of the world that includes the 68 Commonwealth member nations.
The official mascot of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an orangutan named Wira. It is said that the orangutan is the largest and the most intelligent primate in Asia which lives in the tropical rainforests of Malaysia; the adoption of orangutan as a games' mascot is to represent the friendly personality of Malaysia as the games' host as well as the charm and sporting ability of the participating athletes. The host nation achieved its best-ever haul of ten gold medals which has since been surpassed by its achievement in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, where Malaysia won twelve gold medals; the 16th Commonwealth Games host newly introduced team sports of cricket, field hockey and rugby sevens and individuals sports of ten-pin bowling and squash, while of athletics, boxing, gymnastics, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting to make a total of 15 sports contested. In front of 20,000 fans at the Petaling Jaya Stadium, rugby sevens in particular were an enormous success with New Zealand collecting its 100th Commonwealth Games
Bruce MacFarlane Furniss is an American former competition swimmer, Olympic gold medalist, former world record-holder in four events. At the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, he won the 200-meter freestyle and was a member of the winning U. S. team in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, both in world record time. Furniss broke ten world and nineteen American records, won eleven Amateur Athletic Union and six NCAA titles. Furniss was a member of the 1976 U. S. Olympic men's swimming team, a team regarded by most sports historians as the most dominating Olympic sports team assembled, winning 12 of 13 possible gold medals and 27 of 35 possible total medals. Furniss won Olympic gold in the 200-meter freestyle, the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, setting world records in each event. In the 200-meter freestyle he led an American sweep finishing ahead of fellow Americans John Naber and Jim Montgomery, he teamed up with Naber and Mike Bruner on the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. Furniss garnered two gold and two silver medals in the 1975 World Aquatics Championships in Cali, Colombia and 1978 World Aquatics Championships in West Berlin.
As a 7-year-old in 1964, Furniss was inspired by the four gold medal performance of American swimmer Don Schollander, who broke the 200-meter freestyle world record ten times during his career. Eleven years Furniss became the twelfth of fourteen Americans in history to break the 200-meter freestyle world record. During his career he broke the 200-meter freestyle world record four different times. Furniss laid claim to the 200-meter freestyle world record from 1975 to 1979. Furniss is the third of four successful aquatic brothers referred to as "Orange County California's First Family of Swimming." Older brother Steve Furniss, a two-time swimming Olympian, Bruce are among a rare group of siblings, in any sport, to make the same Olympic team. The decision by the International Olympic Committee to remove the 200-meter individual medley from the 1976 Summer Olympics robbed Bruce and Steve of the unique opportunity to compete against each other in an Olympic swimming event; however and Steve share the distinction as the only known brothers to have held and broken one another's world records consecutively.
Bruce broke Steve's 200-meter individual medley world record in August 1975, while competing in the U. S. National Championships. In that same meet and Steve, swimming for Long Beach Swim Club, shared the unique accomplishment, as the last club team to break a swimming relay world record. Earlier that same summer at the 1975 World Swimming Championships team trials, Furniss accomplished the rare feat of breaking the same world record twice in the same day in the 200-meter freestyle. Notably, Furniss's dream of winning a third, quite a fourth Olympic Gold Medal was thwarted when the International Olympic Committee removed the 200-meter individual medley and the 4×100-meter freestyle relay from the 1976 Summer Olympics; as the reigning 200-meter individual medley world record-holder from 1975 through 1977, Furniss was the apparent favorite for the event's 1976 Olympic gold medal. Furniss was United States' third fastest in the 100-meter freestyle in 1975, was a member of the world champion and world record-holding quartet in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, an event the Americans were favored to win in 1976 had the race been swum.
Both events were permanently reinstated into the Olympic program eight years later. Furniss was twice named World Swimmer of the Year by Swimming World magazine, once in 1975, again in 1976. In 1974 and 1975, he was the high point winner at the U. S. National Outdoor Championships, he was inducted into the Orange County Sports Hall of Fame in 1984, the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1987, the University of Southern California Athletic Hall of Fame in 2001. Furniss participated in carrying the Olympic flame as a participant of the 1984, 1996 and 2004 Olympic torch relays in the Los Angeles area. In April 2000, Furniss was selected to "USA Swimming's Swim Team of the 20th Century", an honor bestowed on only 26 U. S. male swimmers deemed to be the best of the best in the 20th century. In January 2004, Furniss received the NCAA's Silver Anniversary Award; the award is presented annually to six former collegiate athletes in recognition of their 25 years of post-graduate career achievements, contributions to professional organizations, charitable and civic activities within their community.
In February 2016, Furniss was selected as one of 32 Athletes named to the Pac-12 Conference's All-Century Men's Swimming and Diving Team, recognizing him as one of the Conference's best swimmers in the last 100 years. Furniss is a 1975 graduate of Tustin, California's Foothill High School, he attended the University of Southern California, he graduated in 1979 from USC's Annenberg School for Communication, where he received his bachelor's degree in journalism. Furniss worked in marketing and public relations, wrote for Swimming World. Throughout much of his prime swimming career, Furniss became noted for achieving athletic success in spite of waging a quiet and personal battle against the crippling arthritic disease, ankylosing spondylitis. List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of World Aquatics Championships medalists in swimming List of Uni