Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
The Magus (novel)
The Magus is a postmodern novel by British author John Fowles, telling the story of Nicholas Urfe, a young British graduate, teaching English on a small Greek island. Urfe becomes embroiled in the psychological illusions of a master trickster, which become dark and serious. Considered an example of metafiction, it was the first novel written by Fowles, but the third he published. In 1977 he published a revised edition. In 1999 The Magus was ranked on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 93 on the editors' list, 71 on the readers' list. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 67 on the BBC's survey The Big Read; the Magus was the first novel John Fowles wrote, but his third to be published, after The Collector and The Aristos. He started writing it in the 1950s, under the original title of The Godgame, he based it on his experiences on the Greek island of Spetses, where he taught English for two years at the Anargyrios School. He worked on it for twelve years before its publication in 1965.
Despite gaining critical and commercial success, he continued to rework it, publishing a final revision in 1977. The story reflects the perspective of a young Oxford graduate and aspiring poet. After graduation, he works as a teacher at a small school, but becomes bored and decides to leave England. While looking for another job, Nicholas takes up with Alison Kelly, an Australian girl he met at a party in London, he still accepts a post teaching English at the Lord Byron School on the Greek island of Phraxos. After beginning his new post, he becomes bored, depressed and overwhelmed by the Mediterranean island. While habitually wandering around the island, he stumbles upon an estate and soon meets its owner, a wealthy Greek recluse, Maurice Conchis, they develop a sort of friendship, Conchis reveals that he may have collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. Nicholas is drawn into Conchis's psychological games, his paradoxical views on life, his mysterious persona, his eccentric masques. At first, Nicholas takes these posturings of Conchis, what the novel terms the "godgame", to be a joke, but they grow more elaborate and intense.
Nicholas loses his ability to determine what is artifice. Against his will and knowledge, he becomes a performer in the godgame. Nicholas realises that the re-enactments of the Nazi occupation, the absurd playlets after Sade, the obscene parodies of Greek myths are not about Conchis's life, but his own. Nicholas Urfe – The protagonist, a 25-year-old Englishman who goes to Greece to teach English and one day stumbles upon'the waiting room.' Alison Kelly – Nicholas' recent Australian girlfriend, whom he abandons to go to Greece. Maurice Conchis – Wealthy intellectual, a main player in the masques. Lily Montgomery / Julie Holmes / Vanessa Maxwell – Young woman, involved in the masques and with whom Nicholas falls in love. Joe – young black gypsy, involved in the masques. Maria – Conchis's maid. Demetriades – fellow teacher at the school. Lily de Seitas – Lily's mother. Rose de Seitas – Lily's identical twin sister. Benji de Seitas – the younger brother of the Seitas twins. Kemp – Unmarried woman who rents Nicholas a room in London.
Jojo – Young girl whom Nicholas pays to accompany him. De Deukans Gustav Nygaard Henrik Nygaard Anton Wimmel The book ends indeterminately. Fowles received many letters from readers wanting to know which of the two possible outcomes occur, he refused to answer the question conclusively, sometimes changing his answer to suit the reader. The novel ends quoting the refrain of the Pervigilium Veneris, an anonymous work of fourth-century Latin poetry, taken as indicating the possible preferred resolution of the ending's ambiguity. John Fowles wrote an article about his experiences in the island of Spetses and their influence on the book, he acknowledged some literary works as influences in his foreword to the 1977 revised edition of The Magus. These include Alain-Fournier's Le Grand Meaulnes, for showing a secret hidden world to be explored, Richard Jefferies' Bevis, for projecting a different world. In the revised edition, Fowles referred to a "Miss Havisham," a reference to a character in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations.'A major work of mounting tensions in which the human mind is the guinea-pig...
Mr Fowles has taken a big swing at a difficult subject and his hits...are on the bull's eye"A deliciously toothsome celebration of wanton story-telling... Before one quite realises what is happening, one finds oneself no less avid for meanings and no less starving amid a plethora of clues than is Nicholas himself"A splendidly sustained piece of mystification… such as could otherwise only have been devised by a literary team fielding the Marquis de Sade, Arthur Edward Waite, Sir James Frazer, Madame Blavatsky, C. G. Jung, Aleister Crowley and Franz Kafka; the novel in 1999 was featured on the Modern Library List of Best 20th-Century Novels: It ranked as No. 71 on the Readers' List and 93 on the Critics' List of the top 100 novels. In Jasper Fforde's comic detective novel, The Well of Lost Plots, The Magus wins the "Most Incomprehensible Plot" Award at the annual "Bookie" Awards, the awards programme that characters in literature give one another; the novel was adapted for film with a screenplay by Fowles, directed by Guy Green, released in 1968.
It starred Michael Caine as Nicholas Urfe, Anthony Quinn as Maurice Conchis, Anna Karina as Alison, Candice Bergen as Lily/Julie, Julian Glover as Anton. It was filmed in the island
The Tree (book)
The Tree is an autobiographical book by John Fowles. In it, Fowles discusses the essence of nature and its relation to the creative arts writing, which he describes as “siblings, branches of the one tree.”
The Collector is the 1963 debut novel by English author John Fowles. He wrote it between November 1960 and March 1962, it was adapted as a feature film of the same name in 1965. The novel is about a lonely young man, Frederick Clegg, who works as a clerk in a city hall and collects butterflies in his spare time; the first part of the novel tells the story from his point of view. Clegg is obsessed with a middle-class art student at the Slade School of Fine Art, he admires her from a distance but is unable to make any contact with her because he is underdeveloped. One day, he wins a large prize in the football pools, he buys an isolated house in the countryside. He feels lonely and wants to be with Miranda. Unable to make any normal contact, Clegg decides to add her to his "collection" of pretty, preserved objects, in the hope that if he keeps her captive long enough, she will grow to love him. After careful preparations, he kidnaps Miranda by drugging her with chloroform and locks her up in the cellar of his house.
He is convinced. However, when she wakes up, she confronts him with his actions. Clegg promises to let her go after a month, he promises to show her "every respect", pledging not to sexually molest her and to shower her with gifts and the comforts of home, on one condition: she can't leave the cellar. The second part of the novel is narrated by Miranda in the form of fragments from a diary that she keeps during her captivity. Miranda reminisces over her previous life throughout this section of the novel. P. whom she admired as an artist. Miranda reveals that G. P. fell in love with her and severed all contact with her. At first, Miranda thinks, she begins to pity her captor, comparing him to Caliban in Shakespeare's play The Tempest because of his hopeless obsession with her. Clegg tells Miranda. Miranda tries to escape several times, she tries to seduce him to convince him to let her go. The only result is that he becomes angry; when Clegg keeps refusing to let her go, she starts to fantasize about killing him.
After a failed attempt to do so, Miranda passes through a phase of self-loathing. She decides, she refrains from any further attempts to do so. Before she can try to escape again, she becomes ill and dies; the third part of the novel is narrated by Clegg. At first, he wants to commit suicide, he buries her corpse in the garden. The book ends with his announcement; the Collector has been adapted as a dramatic play. The Collector is referred to in various songs, television episodes, books; the novel was adapted as a feature film by the same name in 1965. The screenplay was by Stanley Mann and John Kohn, it was directed by William Wyler, who turned down The Sound of Music to direct it, it starred Samantha Eggar. The 1980 Tamil language film Moodu Pani, according to its director Balu Mahendra, is 60% based on The Collector; the novel was loosely adapted into a Filipino film as a Bilanggo sa Dilim in 1986. Commissioned by Sony Entertainment as a full-length video, it was directed by Mike de Leon, who co-wrote the screenplay with Jose Almojuela and Bobby Lavides.
It starred Joel Torre, Cherie Gil, Rio Locsin. The novel was loosely adapted into a Mexican film called Honeymoon. David Parker's adaptation of the novel was performed at the St Martin's Theatre in London. Marianne Faithfull starred as Miranda, it was poorly received by the critics. The script is available from Samuel French. Adapted, again with permission from Fowles Estate, by Tim Dalgleish and Caz Tricks for Bare Bones Theatre Company, Milton Keynes, 1999 Another adaption was written by Mark Healy and first performed at Derby Playhouse in October 1998; this adaption was performed at Gothenburg English Studio Theatre in Sweden in April 2007.. This adaptation was performed at the'Arcola Theatre' in Hackney, London from 26 August to 20 September 2008, at the 2009 Edinburgh Fringe by'Vivid Theatre Company', at the 2016 Edinburgh Fringe Festival by'Arkle Theatre Company'. Http://blinktheatre.wix.com/blink Blink. Theatre] produced the play at The Space from 3–14 March 2015, it has been performed at the Camden's People Theatre..
The adaptation had its 2016 American premiere at 59E59 Street Theater in Manhattan, running from October 26th to November 13th. "The Collector", a song inspired by the novel, was written by Sonny Curtis. It was included on their album Two Yanks in England; the song was recorded by'The No. 1' band in 1967 on Kapp records b/w "Cracks in the Sidewalk". The song "The Butterfly Collector" by The Jam was said to be inspired by the book, it was about Soo Catwoman who, upon the implosion of the Sex Pistols, attempted to become part of The Jam's entourage. The song "Purity" by metal band Slipknot has lyrics related to the novel; the song "Prosthetics" by Slipknot recount a story similar to that in the novel. The Smiths song "Girl afraid", B-side of their single Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now and includ
The Aristos: A Self-Portrait in Ideas is a 1964 collection of several hundred philosophical aphorisms by English author John Fowles. A revised edition, without the subtitle, shorter but incorporated new material, was published in hardcover in 1968 and in paperback in 1970; the principal theme in The Aristos is that most achievements, most great steps forward, have come from individuals. In the book's Appendix, Fowles included what he called the "main fragments" of Heraclitus's doctrine
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Syria the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Armenians, Kurds, Circassians and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Isma'ilis, Shiites, Salafis and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria. Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism, it is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. In English, the name "Syria" was synonymous with the Levant, while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The modern Syrian state was established in mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces, it gained de-jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état; the republic was renamed into the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, was unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power.
Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011 suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, in office from 1971 to 2000. Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise; as a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world due to the war, although life continues for most of its citizens as of December 2017; the war caused more than 470,000 deaths, 7.6 million internally displaced people and over 5 million refugees, making population assessment difficult in recent years. Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, both of which derived from Aššūrāyu in northern Mesopotamia.
However, from the Seleucid Empire, this term was applied to The Levant, from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant. Mainstream modern academic opinion favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria derived from the Akkadian Aššur; the Greek name appears to correspond to Phoenician ʾšr "Assur", ʾšrym "Assyrians", recorded in the 8th century BC Çineköy inscription. The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Arabia to the south and Asia Minor to the north, stretching inland to include parts of Iraq, having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene and Adiabene. By Pliny's time, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire: Judaea renamed Palaestina in AD 135 in the extreme southwest.
Since 10,000 BC, Syria was one of the centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone and burnt lime. Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during Bronze Age. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth preceded by only those of Mesopotamia; the earliest recorded in