Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality; the city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry, it has several nicknames such as: "Sweden's Manchester", "Peking" and "Surbullestan". The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Norrköping twin city with Linköping Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills; the stream was full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, it was dedicated to Norway's patron. The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sophia of Denmark donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery.
The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today. Köping means there was a market there, while Nörr or Norr means "north". There is a smaller town nearby named Söderköping, or "South market"; the city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War, the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt, it was rebuilt by John III of Sweden. In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus; the harbour attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer. At De Geer's death, Norrköping was Sweden's second largest city; the city again burnt in 1655, again in 1719 during the Russian Pillage of 1719-21 when the Russians burnt it to the ground.
Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, today only a few stones remain. During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boasted three sugar refineries. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, several other old houses. In 1762, the first theater in Sweden outside of Stockholm was established in the city, the Egges Teater. Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 King Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof. In the 18th and early 19th Centuries, Norrköping was one of the three Swedish cities where Jews were allowed to live; the city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding.
The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, is still today exporting to customers around the world. The industry, including textile manufacturers expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See Braviken Paper Mill; as of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of education. The Norrköping symbol represents the "new" Norrköping; the Motala ström river flows through the city. In connection to the latter is the industrial landscape where the old textile industries once were situated.
In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25,000 cacti planted there every summer. Kolmårdens Djurpark is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. In connection to the large outdoor zoo, there is Tropicariet, an aquarium, where for example snakes and sharks can be seen; the archipelagos 50 km away from Norrköping are called St Gryt. A campus of Linköping University, its own symphonic orchestra, an airport called Kungsängen with 170,000 traveling, a high-tech industry park called Norrköping Science Park, Petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age. Norrköping had a humid continental climate for the reference period of 1961–1990, but it was borderline four-season oceanic during that period and has since more resembled the latter, with somewhat warmer temperatures year-round. In spite of it being located near the Baltic Sea, Norrköping has a dry climate with precipitation levels averaging 508.2 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. That would in turn be low for a mar
Sommen is a Swedish lake. Its area is 132 km² and its greatest depth is 60 m; the lake is located in southern Sweden, is bounded by the provinces of Östergötland and Småland. The lake is a clear-water lake, with a visibility of 9–11 m in the eastern parts of the lake; this makes Sommen one of the greatest clear-water lakes in Sweden. According to tradition Sommen has 365 one for each day of the year; the actual number is around 350. Geographically the lakes lies within the South Swedish highlands at a place where the Sub-Cambrian peneplain is uplifted and up-broken; the present landscape is one of a hilly joint valley terrain. Relative to other areas of southern Sweden Sommen stands out for its low precipitation and low humidity. Sommen information
Battle of Axtorna
The Battle of Axtorna or Axtorna, was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Kingdom of Denmark 20 October 1565 at Axtorna, a small village in what is today Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County in south-western Sweden. The Danish commander Daniel Rantzau had been forced to yield the fortress Varberghus to the Swedes on 15 September 1565, after they had taken Ny Varberg Halland's largest city. Rantzau received the news that a Swedish army of superior strength led by Jacob Henriksson Hästesko was approaching from the east forced him to move his forces toward Falkenberg. Rantzau had decided to commit to combat since the Swedish force had just arrived from its march and hadn't rearranged into a militarily cohesive unit; the Danes won as a consequence of their superior cavalry tactic and Rantzau became a renowned general after the battle and throughout the war. Despite the victory and the capture of the Swedish artillery, the Danish had suffered great losses and stayed near the battlefield for a week, while large portions of the Swedish army were intact.
The Axtorna project arkeologiuv.se
Linköping is a city in southern Sweden, with 158,841 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the 7th largest city in Sweden, it is the capital of Östergötland County. Linköping is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Linköping and is well known for its cathedral. Linköping is the center of an old cultural region and celebrated its 700th anniversary in 1987. Dominating the city's skyline from afar is the steeple of the cathedral, Domkyrka. Nowadays Linköping is known for its high-technology industry. Linköping wants to create a sustainable development of the city and therefore plans to become a carbon neutral community by 2025. Located on the Östergötland Plain, Linköping is linked to Norrköping 40 kilometres to the east near the sea; the city is named after the Lionga ting assembly which according to Medieval Scandinavian laws was the most important thing in Östergötland. Exact location of the Lionga ting is not known; the term" - köping" means. Linköping is famed for being an early diocese, second in Sweden only to Skara.
The diocese is first mentioned in 1104 in the so-called "List of Florence". The monastery of Vreta Kloster near Roxen north of Linköping was established in 1128, the oldest parts of the cathedral are from the 12th century. On several occasions attempts to achieve a separate Swedish archdiocese were based in Linköping, when they were successful in 1164, Uppsala was chosen instead. Religious centers tend to become educational centers, Linköping was no exception. A cathedral school can be traced from 1266. In 1627 the current Linköping cathedral school was established, making it the third oldest gymnasium in Sweden. Linköping was the site for the final settlement of the dispute between king Sigismund III Vasa and his uncle Duke Charles, the latter prevailing in the battle of Stångebro on 25 September 1598; this led to the rise to the throne of Charles and the end of the short-lived Swedish-Polish personal union, as well as the execution of five of Charles's political opponents on the main square of Linköping on 20 March 1600.
Linköping was a small town until 1937, when the Saab aircraft industry was formed, starting a period of rapid expansion. Linköping University was established in the 1960s. Today the city is a center of software industry. Linköping has a humid continental climate, though with maritime influences, retaining the large differences between seasons but being comparatively mild when measured against other areas of the world on similar latitudes. Linköping tends to be cooler in summer than nearby areas in the Mälar valley, but still is the weather station in Sweden among the listed for monthly statistics, that has come the closest to a subtropical month, with July 1914 having a mean temperature of 21.8 °C, with the subtropical border being at 22 °C for the warmest month. Summer highs average in the low 20' and winter temperatures hover just above the freezing point during the day falls below it at night. Top 5 largest immigrant communities: 1. Iraq – 3800 2. Somalia 2345 3. Eritrea 1129 4. Iran 988 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 667 Linköping offers a wealth of leisure activities to people of all ages.
Residents and visitors are able to enjoy art, history, markets and sporting events. Special sights of interests are: the locks of Berg on the Göta Canal, the locks of the Kinda Canal, Gamla Linköping, Valla skogen and Valla fritidsområde, Flygvapen museum, Linköping's domkyrka, Slotts- och domkyrkomuseet and Östergötlands Länsmuseum. Konsthallen Passagen is an art gallery located in the main square. Tornby, to the north of the city centre, is a vast shopping area with huge retail outlets and immense parking lots; the city and its environs offer all sorts of green landscapes to experience. Two examples are a park named after the group responsible for it, Trädgårdsföreningen, the Tinnerö area with its oak woodland. Local bodies of water include the lakes Roxen, Rängen and Järnlunden, the River Stångån/Kinda Canal and the Göta Canal with the Berg locks; these areas can be accessed by bicycle, or boat. Linköping is the home of the Linköping Symphony Orchestra; the city is one of the sites of the Östergötland Music Days each summer, the host of the Student Orchestra Festival in May every other year.
One of the most notable choirs in Linköping is the Linköping University Male Voice Choir. Linköping is the home of theatrical heavy metal band Ghost and rock band the Pusjkins; the area around the main square was re-planned in the 1960s, many old houses were destroyed. Some, were moved to Gamla Linköping, in the city's western part, neighbouring the university's main campus, it is a popular site with both residents and tourists. NärCon, the largest anime and gaming convention in the Nordic countries, is held in Linköping. Teams from Linköping are prominent in floorball and ice hockey; the hockey team all
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Jönköping is a city in southern Sweden with 93,797 inhabitants. Jönköping is situated at the southern end of Sweden's second largest lake, Vättern, in the province of Småland; the city is the seat of Jönköping Municipality, which has a population of 134,785 and is Småland's most populous municipality. Jönköping is the seat of Jönköping County which has a population of 341,235. Jönköping is the seat of a district court and a court of appeal as well as the Swedish National Courts Administration, it is the seat of the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Jönköping is an old trading centre situated at a natural crossroads for routes following the rivers Nissan and Lagan, the road connecting the provinces of Östergötland and Västergötland, a result of the town's geographical position at the southern end of lake Vättern, which divides the two provinces. On 18 May 1284 Jönköping became the first City in Sweden to be granted its rights by king Magnus Ladulås, who ruled from Vättern's largest island Visingsö.
The first part of the city's name, "Jön", is derived from a creek, "Junebäcken", in Talavid, in what is now the western part of the city. The second part of the name "köping", is, as mentioned above, an old word for a trading centre or market place; the geographical position of the city left it vulnerable to attack via the river routes that led south from Danes. At that time the provinces of what is today southern Sweden — Scania and Blekinge — belonged to Denmark; the city was plundered and burned several times until it was fortified during the 16th and 17th centuries. Jönköping was known for its matchstick industry between 1845–1970. Today it is an important Nordic logistical center, with many companies' central warehouses situated there; the urban area of Jönköping today includes the eastern industrial town of Huskvarna, with which it has grown together. Elmia, a major trade fair and exhibition centre, is situated in Jönköping. Elmia Wood is the world’s largest forestry fair, those for subcontractors, trucks and railways are the biggest of their kind in Europe.
Since 2001, Elmia has been the site of the world's largest LAN party, DreamHack, with two events every year, Dreamhack Summer and Dreamhack Winter. John Bauer, painter Amy Diamond, singer Agnetha Fältskog, singer/songwriter and member of ABBA Carl Henrik Fredriksson, editor-in-chief and co-founder of Eurozine Anders Gustafsson, Olympian Dag Hammarskjöld, former United Nations Secretary-General I'm from Barcelona, 29-piece indie pop band Mona Johannesson, model Per G. Malm, leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Mary Onettes, indie rock band The Motorhomes, rock band Fredrik Neij, founder of The Pirate Bay BitTorrent-tracker Nina Persson, vocalist with The Cardigans Göran Kropp, mountaineer Sofia Paldanius, Olympian Johan Björnsson Printz, governor of the Swedish colony of New Sweden Viktor Rydberg, author Vladimir Oravsky, author Aurore Storckenfeldt, educator Swante M. Swenson, founder of the SMS ranches in Texas Carl Peter Thunberg, botanist Stefan Liv, ice hockey goaltender Martin Allwood, translator David F. Sandberg, film director Bäckadalsgymnasiet Erik Dahlbergsgymnasiet Per Brahegymnasiet Sandagymnasiet LBS: High School of Creativity Jönköping University Foundation Södra Vätterbygdens Folkhögskola The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education Jönköping's climate was humid continental bordering on subarctic with long, cold winters and short, warm summers during the 1961–1990 period.
However, the window between subarctic and oceanic is small in this marine-influenced climate type, in recent years the climate has more resembled cold oceanic. However, figures are skewed due to the weather station being located at the airport, at an elevation of 228 metres, whereas the city centre is at 100 metres; this renders up to between half a degree to a full degree milder temperatures in the urban centre. HV71, ice hockey team in Swedish Hockey League of ice hockey. Jönköpings IK, floorball team who has played several season in the men's Swedish Super League. Jönköpings Södra IF, football team in Superettan. Husqvarna FF, football team in Division 1. IK Tord, football team in Division 2 Västra Götaland. Jönköping Bandy IF, bandy team in Allsvenskan. Jönköpings SS, swimming society, with Swedish champions in both swimming and diving. There are three other water disciplines in the club and synchronized swimming. ATP Challenger Tour event, starting in 2016. Jönköping Municipality Swedish National Board of Agriculture International Ice Hockey Federation World Championships Jönköping travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website article Jönköping from Nordisk familjebok
Skänninge is a locality situated in Mjölby Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 3,140 inhabitants in 2010. It lies about 10 km north of the municipal seat Mjölby. Before the local government reform in 1971 the City of Skänninge was a municipal entity of its own. Skänninge is, despite its small population, for historical reasons still referred to as a city. Statistics Sweden, only counts localities with more than 10,000 inhabitants as cities; the town is located on the Skena river. The history of the town goes back to the 11th century; the town has changed little since and is still the same size as the same street structure. Many locations are recognizable since the Middle Ages. One of the older buildings in the medieval Brick Gothic Church of Our Lady, Sw. Vårfrukyrkan, constructed by the town's German population in honor of the Virgin Mary. Apart from the church, the town contains the remains of a monastery of the Dominican order. In 1250, the reigning family of Folkung had its main quarters near Skänninge, the town developed into something of the Götaland capital, the market place became one of the richest and most attended in the country.
However, in the 13th century, the nearby located city of Vadstena surpassed it in interest. Furthermore, Skännige suffered fires in 1477 and 1466; the annual Skänninge Market with its 1000-year-old tradition is still being held in August every year and visited by around 120,000 people. Article Skänninge from Nordisk familjebok Skänninge - Den lilla staden med de stora minnena