Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, Shropshire to the west; the largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield has city status, although this is a smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Tamworth. Smaller towns include Stone, Uttoxeter, Burntwood/Chasetown, Eccleshall and the large villages of Wombourne, Tutbury, Barton-under-Needwood and Abbots Bromley. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest and the Peak District national park. Wolverhampton, West Bromwich and Smethwick are within the historic county boundaries of Staffordshire, but since 1974 have been part of the West Midlands county. Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Staffordshire Moorlands, Tamworth.
Staffordshire was divided into five hundreds: Cuttlestone, Pirehill and Totmonslow. The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton and West Bromwich in the south, Hanley in the north; the Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united in Staffordshire. In 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county corporate, meaning it was administered separately from the rest of Staffordshire, it remained so until 1888. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.
A significant boundary change occurred in 1926 when the east of Sedgley was transferred to Worcestershire to allow the construction of the new Priory Estate on land purchased by Dudley County Borough council. A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs; the County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley a detached part of Worcestershire and became associated with Staffordshire instead; this reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protrusion passing between the county boroughs and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire. Under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands.
County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more. In July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield; the artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society, based in Leek. JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and Bet365, based in Stoke-on-Trent.
The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the world's largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent. Staffordshire has a comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared. There are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury; the modern county of Staffordshire has three professional football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent. Stoke City, one of the oldest professional football clubs in existence, were founded in 1863 and played at the Victoria Ground for 119 years from 1878 until their relocation to the Britannia Stadium in 1997, they were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888. By the late 1930s, they were establi
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west; the county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance motorsport companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of publishing firms; as well as the city of Oxford, other centres of population are Banbury, Bicester and Chipping Norton to the north of Oxford. The areas south of the Thames, the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire, are in the historic county of Berkshire, as is the highest point, the 261 metres White Horse Hill. Oxfordshire's county flower is the snake's-head fritillary. Oxfordshire was recorded as a county in the early years of the 10th century and lies between the River Thames to the south, the Cotswolds to the west, the Chilterns to the east and the Midlands to the north, with spurs running south to Henley-on-Thames and north to Banbury.
Although it had some significance as an area of valuable agricultural land in the centre of the country, it was ignored by the Romans, did not grow in importance until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the 8th century. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Vale of White Horse; the University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until on. The university in the county town of Oxford grew in importance during the Middle Ages and early modern period; the area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds. Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing heavy industry to an otherwise agricultural county; the importance of agriculture as an employer has declined in the 20th century though. Nonetheless, Oxfordshire remains a agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller.
Throughout most of its history the county was divided into fourteen hundreds, namely Bampton, Binfield, Bullingdon, Dorchester, Langtree, Pyrton, Ploughley and Wootton. The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the main army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green, Cowley; the Vale of White Horse district and parts of the South Oxfordshire administrative district south of the River Thames were part of Berkshire, but in 1974 Abingdon, Faringdon and Wantage were added to the administrative county of Oxfordshire under the Local Government Act 1972. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch, now administratively in Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire includes parts of three Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In the north-west lie the Cotswolds, to the south and south-east are the open chalk hills of the North Wessex Downs and wooded hills of the Chilterns; the north of the county contains the ironstone of the Cherwell uplands.
Long-distance walks within the county include the Ridgeway National Trail, Macmillan Way, Oxfordshire Way and the D’Arcy Dalton Way. Northernmost point: 52°10′6.58″N 1°19′54.92″W, near Claydon Hay Farm, Claydon Southernmost point: 51°27′34.74″N 0°56′48.3″W, near Thames and Kennet Marina, Playhatch Westernmost point: 51°46′59.73″N 1°43′9.68″W, near Downs Farm, Westwell Easternmost point: 51°30′14.22″N 0°52′13.99″W, River Thames, near Lower Shiplake The central part of Oxfordshire contains the River Thames with its flat floodplains. The Thames Path National Trail parallels the river as it crosses Oxfordshire, continuing towards London. There are many smaller rivers that feed into the Thames such as the Thame, Windrush and Cherwell; some of these rivers have trails running along their valleys. The Oxford Canal follows the Cherwell from Banbury to Kidlington. Oxfordshire contains a green belt area that envelops the city of Oxford, extends for some miles to afford a protection to surrounding towns and villages from inappropriate development and urban growth.
Its border in the east extends to the Buckinghamshire county boundary, while part of its southern border is shared with the North Wessex Downs AONB. It was first drawn up in the 1950s, all the county's districts contain some portion of the belt; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Oxfordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling. The Oxfordshire County Council, since 2013 under no overall control, is responsible for the most strategic local government functions, including schools, county roads, social services; the county is divided into five local government districts: Oxford, Vale of White Horse, West Oxfordshire and South Oxfordshire, which deal with such matters as town and country planning, waste collection, housing. In the 2016 European Union referendum, Oxfordshire was the only English cou
Southwark Cathedral or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. It is the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of Southwark, it has been a place of Christian worship for more than 1,000 years, but a cathedral only since the creation of the diocese of Southwark in 1905. Between 1106 and 1538 it was the church of an Augustinian priory, Southwark Priory, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Following the dissolution of the monasteries, it became a parish church, with the new dedication of St Saviour's; the church was in the diocese of Winchester until 1877, when the parish of St Saviour's, along with other South London parishes, was transferred to the diocese of Rochester. The present building retains the basic form of the Gothic structure built between 1220 and 1420, although the nave is a late 19th-century reconstruction; the 16th-century London historian John Stow recorded an account of the origins of the Southwark Priory of St Mary that he had heard from Bartholomew Linsted, the last prior when the priory was dissolved.
Linsted claimed it had been founded as a nunnery "long before the Conquest" by a maiden named Mary, on the profits of a ferry across the Thames she had inherited from her parents. It was converted into a college of priests by "Swithen, a noble lady". In 1106 it was refounded as an Augustinian priory; the tale of the ferryman's daughter Mary and her benefactions became popular, but historians tried to rationalise Linsted's story. Thus the author of an 1862 guidebook to the St Saviour's church suggested it was probable that the "noble lady" Swithen had in fact been a man – Swithun, Bishop of Winchester from 852 or 853 until his death in 863. In the 20th century this identification was accepted by Thomas P. Stevens and Sacrist, Honorary Canon, of Southwark Cathedral, who wrote a number of guidebooks to the cathedral, a history, revised and reprinted many times, he went on to date the foundation of the supposed original nunnery to "about the year 606", although he provided no evidence to support the date.
Although recent guidebooks are more circumspect, referring only to "a tradition", an information panel at the east end of the cathedral still claims that there had been "A convent founded in 606 AD" and "A monastery established by St Swithun in the 9th century". It is unlikely that this minster pre-dated the conversion of Wessex in the mid-7th century, or the foundation of the "burh" c. 886. There is no proof for suggestions that a convent was founded on the site in 606 nor for the claim that a monastery was founded there by St Swithun in the 9th century; the earliest reference to the site was in the Domesday Book survey of 1086, when the "minster" of Southwark seems to have been under the control of William the Conqueror's half-brother, Bishop Odo of Bayeux. The Old English minster was a collegiate church serving an area on the south side of the Thames. In 1106, during the reign of Henry I it became an Augustinian priory, under the patronage of the Bishops of Winchester, who established their London seat Winchester Palace to the west in 1149.
A remaining wall of the palace refectory, survives in Clink Street. The Priory was dedicated to the Virgin Mother as'St Mary' but had the additional soubriquet of "Overie" to distinguish it from the many churches in the City of London with the same name; some fragments of 12th century fabric survive. The church in its present form, dates to between 1220 and 1420, making it the first Gothic church in London; the church was damaged in the Great Fire of 1212. Rebuilding took place during the thirteenth century. In its reconstructed state – the basic layout of which survives today – the church was cruciform in plan, with an aisled nave of six bays, a crossing tower, a five bay choir. Beyond the choir stood a lower retrochoir or Lady chapel, the form of which can be interpreted as group of four chapels with separate gabled roofs, two opening from the choir, two from each aisle. There was a chapel dedicated to Mary Magdalen, for the use of the parishioners, in the angle between the south transept and the choir, another chapel was added to the east of the retrochoir.
This was to become known as the "Bishop's chapel". In the 1390s, the church was again damaged by fire, in around 1420 the Bishop of Winchester, Henry Beaufort, assisted with the rebuilding of the south transept and the completion of the tower. During the 15th century the parochial chapel was rebuilt, the nave and north transept were given wooden vaults following the collapse of the stone ceiling in 1469; some of the carved bosses from the vault are preserved in the cathedral. The 14th-century poet John Gower lived in the priory precinct and is entombed in the church, with a splendid memorial, with polychrome panels. There is a recumbent effigy of a knight in timber and it is suggested by the church that this dates from the 13th century. If so this is one of the oldest such memorials and some credence can be given to the suggestion by its lack of heraldic emblems. In around 1520 the Bishop of Winchester, Richard Foxe, carried out a programme of improvement, installing a stone altar screen, a new west doorway with a window above and a new window in the east gable of the choir.
Along with all the other religious houses in England, the priory was dissolved by Henry VIII, being surrendered to the Crown in 1540. The receiver in charge of dissolving St Marie Overie was William Saunders. In that
Alton Towers Resort shortened to Alton Towers, is a theme park resort located in Staffordshire, England. It is in the parishes of Denstone and Farley; the resort, operated by Merlin Entertainments Group, incorporates a theme park, water park, mini golf and hotel complex. A private estate, Alton Towers grounds opened to the public in 1860 to raise funds for the estate. In the late 20th century, it was transformed into a theme park and opened a number of new rides from 1980 onwards. In 2017, it was the second most visited theme park in the UK after Legoland Windsor; the park features a range of major attractions, such as Congo River Rapids, Runaway Mine Train, Oblivion, The Smiler, Wicker Man. It operates a total of ten roller coasters; the first hotel accommodation opened in 1996 as the Alton Towers Hotel. The Alton Towers Waterpark and a Caribbean-themed Splash Landings Hotel were added in 2003; the Enchanted Village opened in 2015, a new hotel based on the CBeebies brand opened in July 2017. The complex includes conference facilities, a crazy golf course, a high ropes course.
The theme park is open from mid-March to early November, whilst many of its hotels and amenities are open year-round. The theme park is closed midweek during the season during the quieter months. Special events are hosted throughout the year, including Alton Towers Scarefest, a season-ending fireworks display held on the last two days of the season. Alton Towers first opened to the public on a regular basis following the opening of Alton railway station. Money raised from railway excursions was paid to the Earl and helped to maintain the upkeep of the grounds. In 1924, a group of local businessmen formed Alton Towers Ltd and began to restore the gardens as a tourist attraction. In the 1950s, this included the operation of a fairground, by the 1970s included a boating lake and chairlift. After millionaire property developer John Broome married the daughter of majority shareholder Denis Bagshaw in 1973, he bought out the controlling stake in Alton Towers. Over the next few years, he laid the foundation for the modern theme park by installing various permanent rides and developing areas of the grounds in progressive stages.
In the 1980s, Broome opened a succession of rides and roller coasters around the park, including Corkscrew, Pirate Ship, Alpine Bobsleigh, The Flume, The Black Hole. Broome sold Alton Towers to The Tussauds Group a division of Pearson plc, in 1990, after encountering financial troubles in attempting to develop the former Battersea Power Station into a similar theme park; the change of ownership brought an era of major redevelopment and promotion, involving the opening of large themed areas and new attractions, such as Runaway Mine Train, The Haunted House, Toyland Tours, Nemesis. Oblivion and Air saw the park sustain its reputation for major roller coasters, both marketed as'World First' rides. Tussauds' park development team from 1990 to 2002 included well-known attraction producer John Wardley, among experienced others; the Tussauds Group was sold to venture capitalist firm Charterhouse in 1998 to Dubai International Capital for £800 million in 2005. The Tussauds Group was bought by Merlin Entertainments in March 2007 for over £1billion from DIC, placing Alton Towers under their control.
In May 2007, The Blackstone Group purchased The Tussauds Group for US$1.9 billion and merged it into Merlin Entertainments with management by Merlin. Dubai International Capital gained 20% of Merlin Entertainment. On 17 July 2007, Alton Towers was sold to private investor Nick Leslau's investment firm Prestbury under a sale and leaseback agreement. Merlin continues to operate the site under a renewable 35-year lease. Key: * = recorded for an average of the whole of 2018 Alton Towers had leases with High Street outlets, which have since been replaced by in-house brands such as Explorers Pizza & Pasta, Just Chicken and Burger Kitchen. McDonald's Burger King Pizza Hut KFC Fried Chicken Co. Forest Feasts The Alton Towers Theme Park is divided into areas: Towers Street, Mutiny Bay, Katanga Canyon, Gloomy Wood, Forbidden Valley, Dark Forest, The Gardens, The Towers, Cloud Cuckoo Land, X-Sector and CBeebies Land; the SkyRide cable car system travels between Towers Street, Forbidden Valley, Cloud Cuckoo Land and takes in views of the gardens.
The park's maximum capacity at any one time is set at 28,000 guests. According to the TEA attendance report, the park was estimated to have attracted 2,000,000 people in 2017, a 1% increase on 2016's figure of 1,980,000; this makes Alton Towers Britain's 2nd most visited theme park after Legoland Windsor and the joint 12th most visited theme park in Europe. The launch of the Thirteen rollercoaster saw the theme park attract 3 million admissions in the 2010 season, a number equalled only by the launch of Nemesis in 1994. Annual park attendance figures are not released by the park itself outside of planning applications for new attractions, therefore the figures listed below are sourced from various estimates from organisations such as the Themed Entertainment Association. Due to conflicting figures from various sources, some of the figures listed here are not sourced from the TEA. Previous themed area Current themed area Opened in 1986, Towers Street is the first area that visitors to the park encounter.
Themed loosely as a town street, it leads to views of the gardens and the Towers across the lake in the distance. Along the pathway are the park's jumping frog fountains and a lawn where seasonal events take pla
Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire, MP, KG was a distinguished English Tudor courtier. His public career was impeded by being a Roman Catholic. Born by 1513, Robert Throckmorton was the eldest son and heir of Sir George Throckmorton by Katherine Vaux, daughter of Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden, he had several notable brothers, in descending seniority: Sir Kenelm Throckmorton, Sir Clement Throckmorton MP, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, Sir John Throckmorton and George. Robert Throckmorton may have trained at the Middle Temple, the inn attended by his father. At least three of his younger brothers and his own eldest son studied at Middle Temple, but as the heir to extensive estates, he had little need to seek a career at court or in government, he was joined with his father in several stewardships from 1527 and was the servant of Robert Tyrwhitt, a distant relative by marriage of the Throckmortons, who in 1540 took an inventory of Cromwell's goods at Mortlake. He attended the reception of Anne of Cleves and with several of his brothers took part in the French war of 1544.
Three years he was placed on the Warwickshire bench, in 1553 appointed High Sheriff of Warwickshire. He was elected as a knight of the shire for Warwickshire in 1553 and 1555. Three of his brothers sat for Parliament, Nicholas as knight of the shire for Northamptonshire. Throckmorton's role in the succession crisis of 1553 is unknown, but his standing with Queen Mary is shown by her reputed answer to the news of Edward VI's death sent her by four of his brothers: "If Robert had been there she durst have gaged her life and hazarded the hap." In the autumn of 1553, Throckmorton was appointed constable of Warwick Castle. He continued to sit as MP for the shire until 1558, when he resigned in favour of his eldest son, Thomas, his Catholicism explains his disappearance from the Commons in the new reign, although the most Catholic of his brothers, Anthony Throckmorton, was to sit in the Parliament of 1563. Judged an "adversary of true religion" in 1564, Throckmorton remained active in Warwickshire until his refusal to subscribe to the Act of Uniformity led to his removal from the commission of the peace.
In 1577, the Bishop of Worcester, John Whitgift, listed Throckmorton as a Catholic and reckoned him to be worth 1,000 marks a year in lands and £1,000 in goods. Sir Robert Throckmorton's mother was the daughter of Elizabeth FitzHugh, mother of Sir Thomas Parr, by her first marriage to William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal; this connection made Throckmorton a first cousin to Queen Consort Catherine Parr and her brother William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton. Throckmorton continued the family in the Catholic tradition, he married his children into leading Catholic families, in these generations the increased persecution of the Catholics led to many of his relatives becoming involved in plots against the throne. The sons of his daughters Anne and Muriel, were Robert Catesby and Francis Tresham of Gunpowder Plot fame. and a third daughter, was married to Edward Arden, convicted of treason and executed for his part in a plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth in 1583. Mary Arden kept an excellent record of a woman persecuted for recusancy, documenting the fines and searches made at Coughton Court, still in the family archives.
A nephew, Francis Throckmorton, was executed in 1584 for acting as a go-between for Mary, Queen of Scots and the Spanish Ambassador in an attempt to invade England and place Mary on the throne. A niece Elizabeth known as Bess, the daughter of Sir Nicholas, a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth got into trouble by secretly marrying Sir Walter Raleigh. Robert Throckmorton died on 12 February 1581, six days after making a will in which he styled himself as being of Weston Underwood, but asked to be buried at Coughton, where an alabaster and marble tomb was accordingly erected to his memory. There is a portrait of him at Coughton Court, he named as executors his eldest son Thomas, his sons-in-law, Sir John Goodwin and Ralph Sheldon, as overseers another son-in-law Sir Thomas Tresham and his "loving friend" Edmund Plowden. Throckmorton married firstly Muriel Berkeley, the daughter of Thomas Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley, by his first wife, Eleanor Constable, daughter of Sir Sir Marmaduke Constable, by whom he had a son and four daughters: Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton, who married, about 1556, Mary Whorwood, by whom he had two sons, including John Throckmorton, father of Robert Throckmorton, 1st Baronet, five daughters.
Elizabeth Throckmorton, who married Sir John Goodwin of Winchendon, Buckinghamshire. Catherine Throckmorton, who married firstly Henry Norwood or Northwood, son of Ralph Norwood of Leckhampton and secondly John Williams. Mary Throckmorton, who married Sir Edward Arden of Park Hall, executed at Smithfield 20 December 1583, by whom she had a son, Robert Arden, two daughters: Margaret Arden, who married John Somerville, Catherine Arden, who married Edward Devereux, 1st Baronet Devereux of Castle Bromwich, son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford. Anne Throckmorton, who in 1557 married Ralph Sheldon of Beoley. Throckmorton married, secondly in about 1542, Elizabeth Hussey, widow of Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury, by whom she had been notoriously ill-treated, daughter of John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (14
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website