Allen Raine was the pseudonym of the Welsh novelist Anne Adaliza Beynon Puddicombe. She sold two million copies of the novels, she was born Anne Adaliza Evans in Newcastle Emlyn, the eldest daughter of a lawyer Benjamin and Letitia Grace Evans. Her father was the grandson of David Davis. In 1849, she was sent to be educated with the family of a Unitarian minister, Henry Solly, at Cheltenham; the family included literati such as George Eliot, Mrs Henry Wood, Bulwer-Lytton. She lived in the suburbs of London with her sister Lettie. Returning to Wales in 1856 she married the banker Beynon Puddicombe at Penbryn Church, Cardiganshire, on 10 April 1872, they lived in the London area until February 1900. They retired to Bronmôr, a house in Tresaith, until his death in 1906. Ynysoer A Welsh Singer Torn Sails By Berwen Banks Garthowen A Welsh Witch Republished by Honno Classics, 2013 On the Wings of the Wind Hearts of Wales Queen of the Rushes Republished by Honno Classics, 1998 Neither Storehouse nor Barn All in a Month Where Billows Roll Under the Thatch - unfinished at her death completed by Lyn Evans Torn Sails, A Welsh Singer and By Berwen Banks.
Thomas, Daniel Lleufer. "Puddicombe, Anne Adalisa". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Jones, Sally Roberts. "Puddicombe, Anne Adalisa". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35628. "Puddicombe, Anne Adalisa". Welsh Biography Online. Sally Roberts Jones - Allen Raine Katie Gramich - Twentieth-Century Women's Writing in Wales: Land, Belonging University of Wales Press: Cardiff, 2007. Allen Raine website Works by Allen Raine at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Allen Raine at Internet Archive
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Llangeitho is a village and community in Ceredigion, Wales. It lies on the upper River Aeron, about 6 kilometres west of Tregaron and 11 kilometres north of Lampeter; the population of 874 in 2001 fell to 819 at the time of the 2011 Census. The village is associated in history with the name of Daniel Rowland and the Welsh Methodist revival of the 18th century. Rowland served as curate at Llangeitho; the village's chapel, built in 1760, became famous throughout Wales as a Calvinistic Methodist centre, thousands of people visited it to listen to the preaching. Rowland was buried in the village and there is a memorial column to him. Two more chapels were built, in 1814, to replace the original one; the village witnessed many periods of religious revival throughout that century, but the most powerful was that of 1762, when rejoicing and jumping for joy were seen. This event earned the Welsh Methodists the name "Jumpers". William Williams Pantycelyn wrote in defence of the celebrations; the village was long considered a stronghold of the Welsh language, but in the 1970s it received an influx of people from outside Wales from England, the percentage of native Welsh speakers declined from 83 per cent in 1971 to 55 per cent ten years later.
The census figure for Welsh speakers in 2001 was 57 per cent. The noted 17th-century poet and minstrel Dafydd Llwyd Mathau is thought to have come from the Llangeitho area. At the edge of the village is the mansion of Cwrt Mawr, where the antiquary J. H. Davies assembled a valuable collection of Welsh language manuscripts known as the Cwrtmawr manuscripts, which Davies gave to the National Library of Wales, where it can now be found; the village church, situated on the north side of the village, is an ancient one, but the first substantive reference to it is from around 1900: the pretty medieval double screen and the old wooden stairs leading up to the gallery were destroyed. The church and parish are named after St Ceitho, St Ceitho's Spring is nearby: its water is said to be cool in summer and warm in winter. Llangeitho gained a seat on Cardiganshire County Council in 1889. An electoral ward of the same name exists; this extends to part of the neighbouring communities, with a total population of 1,459.
Media related to Llangeitho at Wikimedia Commons Welsh revivals by D. Geraint Jones. At the Heath Christian Bookshop website Statistics about Llangeitho www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llangeitho and surrounding area Map sources for Llangeitho
William Williams Pantycelyn
William Williams, Pantycelyn known as William Williams, Williams Pantycelyn, Pantycelyn, is regarded as Wales's most famous hymn writer. As a writer of poetry and prose, he is considered today as one of the great literary figures of Wales. In religious matters he was one of the leaders, along with Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, of the 18th-century Welsh Methodist revival. Williams was born at Cefn-coed farm in the parish of Llanfair-ar-y-bryn, near the town of Llandovery, in 1717, the son of John and Dorothy Williams. John died in 1742, Dorothy moved to the nearby farm of Pantycelyn and he himself is referred to as Pantycelyn; the family were Nonconformists and he was educated locally and at a nonconformist academy near Talgarth. He had intended to become a doctor, but this changed in 1737/38, when he was converted by the preaching of the evangelical Methodist revivalist Howell Harris in Talgarth. For much of his life, Williams lived in the parish of Llanfair-ar-y-bryn, near the town of Llandovery.
He died at Pantycelyn in January 1791, at the age of 74, is buried in Llanfair-ar-y-bryn churchyard. He is commemorated by a memorial chapel in Llandovery. William Williams felt called to the priesthood, his first appointment was as curate to Theophilus Evans in the parishes of Llanwrtyd, Llanfihangel Abergwesyn and Llanddewi Abergwesyn. Around this time he became involved in the Methodist movement and in June 1742 his disapproving parishioners reported his activities to the Archdeacon's Court in Brecon. Methodism was a reformist faction within the Church of England and was not intended to be a separatist movement or church, it was seen as a threat to the Anglican establishment and in 1743, when Williams duly applied for ordination as a priest, his application was refused because of his Methodist connexion. His choice was between a comfortable but conformist career in the Anglican Church or the financially precarious, but spiritually richer life of a Methodist preacher outside of the Church, he chose the latter.
The key years in the foundation of English Methodism were between 1739, when the brothers Charles and John Wesley, both themselves Anglican priests, broke with the Moravian church and set up their own first chapel in Bristol, 1743, when they drew up their General Rules. This was the time that Williams was beginning his own career in the Church and explains the hostility he experienced from his congregation and from the hierarchy. Williams paid a higher price for his beliefs. Williams was shut out of the Establishment at the start of his career, whilst the Wesleys had been ordained. Welsh Methodism predates 1739 and can be traced back to the conversions of the two main leaders of the Welsh Methodists, Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, in 1735, it was an indigenous, parallel movement to its sister movement in England, the Welsh Methodists were Calvinists, who worked much more with George Whitefield than they did with John Wesley. Charles Wesley declared that his own Methodism was not incompatible with his Anglicanism, he was buried as an Anglican.
John Wesley's doctrine was more favourable to Arminianism than to Calvinism. In Wales, most Methodists followed Calvinist teaching, this led to great tensions between the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists and the Wesleyan Methodists after the Wesleyan Methodists began evangelising in Welsh-speaking Wales from 1800 onward. In 1811, the Welsh Calvinist Methodists, who are now called the Presbyterian Church of Wales, seceded from the Anglican Church and ordained their own ministers. Had he lived a little longer, Williams Pantycelyn would no doubt have approved these moves because, as a Methodist, he himself became a firm advocate of Calvinist Reformation doctrine and invoked stern warnings against Arminianism, Socinianism and other teachings.. Williams Pantycelyn travelled throughout Wales preaching the doctrine of Calvinistic Methodism, he needed to be not only a theologian and an advocate for the new Connexion, but an organiser and administrator. His converts gathered in seiadau. Williams had to organise, maintain, these seiadau as he went around the country.
Each successful visit to a new locality in turn required a new seiat. Although he was not alone in his mission, the workload and mental burden must have been considerable. By the same token, it must have been rewarding to see the community grow and thrive over the years and to reflect on the alternative life he had forsaken, as the priest of some obscure rural Anglican parish in mid-Wales. Together with Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, William Williams "Pantycelyn" is acknowledged as a leader of the Methodist Revival in Wales in the 18th century and he is the "literary voice" par excellence of that movement. William Williams Pantycelyn was not an important figure in the religious life in Wales, he was one of the most important influences on Welsh language culture, not just in his own lifetime, but on into the 19th and 20th centuries, he is known as a hymn writer and his ability earned him the accolade "Y pêr ganiedydd" - echoing the description of King David as "the sweet psalmist of Israel".
His literary output ha
Ceredigion is a county in Wales, known prior to 1974 as Cardiganshire. During the second half of the first millennium Ceredigion was a minor kingdom, it has been administered as a county since 1282. Welsh is spoken by more than half the population. Ceredigion is considered to be a centre of Welsh culture; the county is rural with over 50 miles of coastline and a mountainous hinterland. The numerous sandy beaches, together with the long-distance Ceredigion Coast Path provide excellent views of Cardigan Bay. In the 18th and early 19th century, Ceredigion had more industry; the economy became dependent on dairy farming and the rearing of livestock for the English market. During the 20th century, livestock farming became less profitable, the county's population declined as people moved to the more prosperous parts of Wales or emigrated. However, there has been a population increase caused by elderly people moving to the county for retirement, various government initiatives have encouraged tourism and other alternative sources of income.
Ceredigion's population at the 2011 UK census was 75,900. Its largest town, Aberystwyth, is one of the other being Aberaeron. Aberystwyth houses Bronglais Hospital and the National Library of Wales. Lampeter is home to part of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Ceredigion has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A total of 170 hill forts and enclosures have been identified across the county and there are many standing stones dating back to the Bronze Age. Around the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, the area was between the realms of the Demetae and Ordovices; the Sarn Helen road ran through the territory, with forts at Bremia and Loventium protecting gold mines near present-day Llelio. Following the Roman withdrawal, Irish raids and invasions were repulsed by the forces under a northerner named Cunedda; the 9th-century History of the Britons attributed to Nennius records that Cunedda's son Ceredig settled the area around the Teifi in the 5th century. The territory remained a minor kingdom under his dynasty until its extinction upon the drowning of Gwgon ap Meurig c.
871, after which it was administered by Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd before passing to his son Cadell, whose son Hywel Dda inherited its neighbouring kingdom Dyfed and established the realm of Deheubarth. Records are obscure. Many pilgrims passed through Cardiganshire on their way to St Davids; some came by sea and made use of the churches at Mwnt and Penbryn, while others came by land seeking hospitality at such places as Strata Florida Abbey. Both the abbey and Llanbadarn Fawr were important monastic sites of education. Place names including ysbyty denote their association with pilgrims. In 1282, Edward I of England divided the area into counties. One of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five hundreds of Genau'r-Glyn, Moyddyn and Troedyraur. Pen-y-wenallt was home to seventeenth Theophilus Evans. In the 18th century there was an evangelical revival of Christianity, non-conformism became established in the county as charismatic preachers like Daniel Rowland of Llangeitho attracted large congregations.
Every community built its own chapel or meeting house, Cardiganshire became one of the centres of Methodism in Wales with the Aeron Valley being at the centre of the revival. Cardigan was one of the major ports of southern Wales until its harbour silted in the mid-19th century; the Industrial Revolution passed by, not much affecting the area. In the uplands, wheeled vehicles were rare in the 18th century, horses and sleds were still being used for transport. On the coast, trade in herrings and corn took place across the Irish Sea. In the 19th century, many of the rural poor emigrated to the New World from Cardigan, between five and six thousand leaving the town between 1790 and 1860. Aberystwyth became the main centre for the export of lead and Aberaeron and Newquay did brisk coastal trade; the building of the railway from Shrewsbury in the 1860s encouraged visitors and hotels sprang up in the town to accommodate them. This area of the county of Dyfed became a district of Wales under the name Ceredigion in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, since 1996, has formed the county of Ceredigion.
According to the 2001 census, Ceredigion has the fourth highest proportion of Welsh speakers in the population at 61%. Ceredigion is a coastal county, bordered by Cardigan Bay to the west, Gwynedd to the north, Powys to the east, Carmarthenshire to the south and Pembrokeshire to the south-west, its area is 1,795 square kilometres. In 2010 the population was 76,938; the main settlements are Aberaeron, Aberystwyth, Cardigan, Llanarth, Llanddewi Brefi, Llanilar, Llanon, New Quay, Tregaron. The largest of these are Cardigan; the Cambrian Mountains cover much of the east of the county. In the south and west, the surface is less elevated; the highest point is Pumlumon at 2,467 feet, other Marilyns include Llan Ddu Fawr. On the slopes
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Presbyterian Church of Wales
The Presbyterian Church of Wales known as Calvinistic Methodist Church, is a denomination of Protestant Christianity in Wales. The church was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival and the preaching of Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in 1811. In 1823, a Confession of Faith was created and adopted, based on the standard Westminster Confession. Theological colleges for ministerial training were opened in Bala in Merionethshire, now Gwynedd, Trefeca in Brecnockshire, now Powys, Aberystwyth, in Ceredigion, it produces a monthly periodical the Treasury. It is distinguished from other forms of Methodism by the Calvinistic nature of its theology. For the history of the church, see Calvinistic Methodists. In 1840, the Foreign Missionary Society was formed in Liverpool to provide missionaries to India, it held its first General Assembly in 1864. In 1928 it adopted the name Presbyterian Church in Wales but still retained the name Welsh Calvinistic Methodism with equal standing.
In 1933 its constitution was modified as a result of the Presbyterian Church in Wales Act of Parliament in 1933, receiving Royal assent. In 1947 the Association in the East was established for English speaking churches. In 1978 Pamela Turner became the first woman to be ordained as a minister. In 2004 the central office moved to Cardiff. In 2007 new boundaries and structures was adopted for presbyteries, it claims to be the only Welsh denomination in Christianity, is rare among Presbyterian Churches, by originating in the Methodist Revival rather than deriving from the Calvinist Reformation. The Presbyterian Church of Wales has around 24,000 members. Most of these churches are in Wales, but due to strong historical links between the Welsh and certain English cities, there are churches using both the English and the Welsh languages in London, Birmingham and Liverpool. Churches belong to one of eighteen Presbyteries, grouped into three Provinces, the Association in the South, the Association in the North, the Association in the East, along with a General Assembly.
About 5% of the Welsh population have official membership. The Church offices are located at the Tabernacle Church, 81, Merthyr Road, Cardiff CF14 1DD; the Moderator is Professor John Gwynfor Jones. The church is active in discussing social issues within Wales. In 2014, the church opened up a discussion on whether to bless or recognise same-gender relationships. On women's issues, the church has ordained women as ministers since 1978. Map of pastors Cytûn – Churches Together in Wales Churches Together in Britain and Ireland Conference of European Churches World Communion of Reformed Churches World Council of Churches Religion in Wales Presbyterian Church of Wales website. Calvinistic Methodist confession of faith, 1823, Creeds of Christendom website