The Flash is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, the original Flash first appeared in Flash Comics #1. Nicknamed the "Scarlet Speedster", all incarnations of the Flash possess "super speed", which includes the ability to run and think fast, use superhuman reflexes, violate certain laws of physics, thus far, at least four different characters—each of whom somehow gained the power of "the speed force"—have assumed the mantle of the Flash in DC's history: college athlete Jay Garrick, forensic scientist Barry Allen, Barry's nephew Wally West, Barry's grandson Bart Allen. Each incarnation of the Flash has been a key member of at least one of DC's premier teams: the Justice Society of America, the Justice League, the Teen Titans; the Flash is one of DC Comics' most popular characters and has been integral to the publisher's many reality-changing "crisis" storylines over the years. The original meeting of the Golden Age Flash Jay Garrick and Silver Age Flash Barry Allen in "Flash of Two Worlds" introduced the Multiverse storytelling concept to DC readers, which would become the basis for many DC stories in the years to come.
Like his Justice League colleagues Wonder Woman and Batman, the Flash has a distinctive cast of adversaries, including the various Rogues and the various psychopathic "speedsters" who go by the names Reverse-Flash or Zoom. Other supporting characters in Flash stories include Barry's wife Iris West, Wally's wife Linda Park, Bart's girlfriend Valerie Perez, friendly fellow speedster Max Mercury, Central City police department members David Singh and Patty Spivot. A staple of the comic book DC Universe, the Flash has been adapted to numerous DC films, video games, animated series, live-action television shows. In live action, Barry Allen has been portrayed by Rod Haase for the 1979 television special Legends of the Superheroes, John Wesley Shipp in the 1990 The Flash series and Grant Gustin in the 2014 The Flash series, by Ezra Miller in the DC Extended Universe series of films, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. Shipp portrays a version of Jay Garrick in the 2014 The Flash series.
The various incarnations of the Flash feature in animated series such as Superman: The Animated Series, Justice League, Batman: The Brave and the Bold and Young Justice, as well as the DC Universe Animated Original Movies series. The Flash first appeared in the Golden Age Flash Comics #1, from All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, this Flash was Jay Garrick, a college student who gained his speed through the inhalation of hard water vapors; when re-introduced in the 1960s Garrick's origin was modified gaining his powers through exposure to heavy water. Jay Garrick was a popular character in the 1940s, supporting both Flash Comics and All-Flash Quarterly. With superheroes' post-war decline in popularity, Flash Comics was canceled with issue #104 which featured an evil version of the Flash called the Rival; the Justice Society's final Golden Age story ran in All Star Comics #57. In 1956, DC Comics revived superheroes, ushering in what became known as the Silver Age of comic books.
Rather than bringing back the same Golden Age heroes, DC rethought them as new characters for the modern age. The Flash was the first revival, in the tryout comic book Showcase #4; this new Flash was, a police scientist who gained super-speed when bathed by chemicals after a shelf of them was struck by lightning. He adopted the name The Scarlet Speedster after reading a comic book featuring the Golden Age Flash. After several more appearances in Showcase, Allen's character was given his own title, The Flash, the first issue of, #105. Barry Allen and the new Flash were created by writers Robert Kanigher and John Broome and cartoonist Carmine Infantino; the Silver Age Flash proved popular enough that several other Golden Age heroes were revived in new incarnations. A new superhero team, the Justice League of America, was created, with the Flash as a main, charter member. Barry Allen's title introduced a much-imitated plot device into superhero comics when it was revealed that Garrick and Allen existed on fictional parallel worlds.
Their powers allowed them to cross the dimensional boundary between worlds, the men became good friends. Flash of Two Worlds was the first crossover in which a Golden Age character met a Silver Age character. Soon, there were crossovers between the Justice Society. Allen's adventures continued in his own title until the event of Crisis on Infinite Earths; the Flash ended as a series with issue #350. Allen's life had become confused in the early 1980s, DC elected to end his adventures and pass the mantle on to another character. Allen died heroically in Crisis on Infinite Earths #8. Thanks to his ability to travel through time, he would continue to appear oc
Mirror Master is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. He is a recurring foe of the Flash with considerable technical expertise and skills involving the use of mirrors. Four individuals have donned the guise of Mirror Master. In 2009, Mirror Master was ranked as IGN's 79th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time. Mirror Master made his live appearance on The CW television series The Flash played by Grey Damon in the third season; the Sam Scudder version of Mirror Master first appeared in The Flash #105 and was created by John Broome and Carmine Infantino. The Evan McCulloch version of Mirror Master first appeared in Animal Man #8 and was created by Grant Morrison and Chas Truog. Samuel Joseph "Sam" Scudder was a simple convict, but had the goal to learn how to get inside the reflection of a mirror. Stumbling into a hall of mirrors, he discovered a way to get in his own reflection, he used this power to become the criminal Mirror Master, was a frequent foe of The Flash.
Scudder died around the same time as Barry Allen, alongside the Icicle during the Crisis on Infinite Earths. Captain Boomerang assumed Scudder's identity, becoming the second Mirror Master, he used this as an alternate identity with which to commit crimes, thus not alerting his teammates in the Suicide Squad to his extracurricular activities. Pre-Crisis, he studied mirrors after someone's reflection was held inside a mirror he was working on in the prison workshop, he learned how to create creatures of light. In Blackest Night crossover, Sam Scudder was reanimated as an undead Black Lantern during the Blackest Night and was preparing an attack on the Rogues with the other deceased members who were reanimated; the Rogues visit Sam Scudder's old hideout and unveil a giant mirror with the words In Case of Flash: Break Glass. It has been shown in several past incidents that something lives in the mirror universe, deadly; the Rogues learn that the giant mirror is a slow acting poison. In The New 52, a 2011 reboot of the DC Comics universe, Sam Scudder is the current Mirror Master.
It's revealed that a year prior he, Captain Cold, Heat Wave and Weather Wizard underwent a procedure at an unknown facility that would merge them with their weapons, giving them superpowers. The procedure went awry. Golden Glider, at the facility, was caught in the explosion; the five were each in a twisted manner. Heat Wave gains pyrokinesis but at the cost of his body being burned, Weather Wizard becomes tied to his weather wand causing constant depression, Sam would be forever trapped in Mirror World, Golden Glider becomes an astral projection of herself, it is implied. The Rogues have turned against him because of it; as a baby, Scottish mercenary Evan McCulloch is left on the doorstep of an orphanage run by a Mrs. McCulloch, with nothing but his first name and a photograph of his parents, he grows up normal and around age 8, Evan is sexually assaulted by an older boy. Evan, in self-defense, drowns the boy in a creek. Never caught, Evan leaves the orphanage at 16 with his parents' photograph.
He settles in Glasgow, taking up a life that leads to crime and takes up employment as an assassin. He becomes one of the most renowned mercenaries in the United Kingdom. One day, he has two hits scheduled, due to an eye injury is able to make out his second target. After firing his shot, he recognizes the target as his father. At the funeral, Evan sees his mother. Over the next few days, he tries to work up the courage to see her, but visits her too late, discovering that she has committed suicide. Stricken with grief at the loss of both parents, Evan decides to turn himself in but is instead picked up by a consortium of U. S. government and big business interests, who offer him the costume and weapons of the original Mirror Master in exchange for his services. His first assignment is to scare Animal Man into abandoning his animal-rights stance, a mission he fails thanks to the hero's wife. After he is fired and replaced for refusing to kill Animal Man's wife and children, McCulloch helps Animal Man track and fight the same men who gave McCulloch his weapons, but his heroism is short lived.
He continued to work as a supervillain-for-hire. On occasion, he has worked out of costume as a mercenary in Britain, he comes into conflict with Wally West, now the third Flash. He discovers a "Mirror Dimension". During the events of Underworld Unleashed, the Rogues accept him as Scudder's successor. After being betrayed by Neron, McCulloch and four of the other Rogues die and go to Hell, only to return after a confrontation between Neron and the Flash. For a brief time, McCulloch is a member of Lex Luthor's initial Injustice Gang and fights the Justice League, but abandons the team when Batman offers to pay him twice what Luthor was offering. During a brief team-up with Captain Cold, Mirror Master was contacted by Brother Grimm about a plan to permanently get rid of the Flash, but when Grimm betrayed Cold and McCulloch by trapping them in a pocket mirror universe in Linda Park's diamond ring, they joined forces with Wally to escape this dimension and confront Grimm's theft of Keystone City, Wally briefly lending speed to the two Rogues so that they could ensure that Keystone's citizens were all in the city when it returned to Earth while Wally fought Grimm.
He works with Blacksmith in her takeover of Central City. When her plan fails, he joins Captain Cold's gang and battles a cocaine addictio
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Comic Book Resources
CBR, known as Comic Book Resources until August 2016, is a website dedicated to the coverage of comic book-related news and discussion. Comic Book Resources was founded by Jonah Weiland in 1995 as a development of the Kingdom Come Message Board, a message forum that Weiland created to discuss DC Comics's then-new mini-series of the same name. Comic Book Resources features weekly columns written by industry professionals that have included Warren Ellis, Erik Larsen, Steven Grant, Robert Kirkman, Gail Simone, Rich Johnston, Scott Shaw, Rob Worley, Rik Offenberger, Keith Giffen and Mark Millar. Other columns are published by comic book historians and critics such as George Khoury and Timothy Callahan. On April 4, 2016, Jonah Weiland announced that Comic Book Resources had been sold to Valnet Inc. a company, known for its acquisition and ownership of other media properties such as Screen Rant. The site was relaunched as CBR.com on August 2016 with the blogs integrated into the site. The company has hosted a YouTube channel since 2008, with 1.3 million subscribers as of September 12, 2018.
Comic Book Idol known as CBI, is an amateur comic book art competition created and hosted by comics writer J. Torres, sponsored by Comic Book Resources and its participating advertisers. Inspired by the singing contest American Idol, CBI is a five-week and five-round competition in which each contestant is given one week to draw a script provided by guest judges; these invited comic book professionals comment on the artists' work in each round. The contestants to move on to subsequent rounds are selected by fans. Patrick Scherberger won CBI1 and has since worked on a number of Marvel Comics titles like Marvel Adventures: Spider-Man, Marvel Adventures: Hulk and GeNext. Jonathan Hickman was the runner-up in CBI1 and went on to work for Virgin Comics, Image Comics and Marvel Comics. Carlos Rodríguez won CBI2 and went on to work on Shadowhawk for Image and Batman and the Outsiders for DC Comics. Billy Penn competed in CBI2 and went on to work on Savage Dragon. Joe Infurnari, another CBI2 contestant, went on a couple of titles from Oni Press, including Wasteland and Borrowed Time, as well as on the back-up feature of Jersey Gods with Mark Waid.
Dan McDaid and artist on various Doctor Who comics for Panini and IDW and Jersey Gods for Image Comics, as well as strips for DC Comics, competed in CBI3. Nick Pitarra competed in CBI3 and went on to do work for Marvel Comics on books such as Astonishing Tales. Charles Paul Wilson III, artist on The Stuff of Legend, competed in CBI3; the University at Buffalo's research library described Comic Book Resources as "the premiere comics-related site on the Web."In April 2013, comics writer Mark Millar said he read the site every morning after reading the Financial Times. 1999: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2000: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2001: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2004: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2005: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2006: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2007: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics Related Website" Eagle Award.
2008: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2009: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. 2010: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2011: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2011: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. 2013: Won the "Best Biographical, Historical or Journalistic Presentation" Harvey Award for its Robot 6 blog. 2014: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. In 2014, the site found itself at the center of a debate around the harassment of women trying to participate in the online comics community; the debate was sparked by the community's reactions to an article by guest author Janelle Asselin, which criticized the cover of DC Comics's Teen Titans. Following harassment and personal threats against the guest author, the site's main editor issued a statement condemning the way that some community members had reacted and rebooted the community forums in order to establish new ground rules.
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
A speedster is a character whose powers relate to superhuman speed. Primary abilities shared by all speedsters include running at speeds far in excess of human capability and resistance to the side effects that result from such velocity. In all cases, speedsters are able to physically attack opponents by striking them while at high speed to impart huge amounts of kinetic energy without suffering harm. A variety of other powers have been attributed to speedsters depending on the story, the origin of the power, the established continuity and rules of a given universe; the use of speedsters in fiction requires artistic license due to the laws of physics that would prohibit such abilities. Moving at the speed of sound, for example, would create sonic booms that are not heard in such stories. An enormous amount of energy would be required to achieve such speeds, as some speedsters can move close to or at the speed of light, this would cause them to gain near-infinite mass, according to the laws of relativity.
The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe states that the character Nova maintains speeds which can be considered "modest" when carrying a passenger. The Handbook concedes that a solid object moving in the Earth’s atmosphere at several times the speed of sound or faster would wreak havoc on the planet and that moving at such speeds would prohibit Northstar from breathing, while the generated wind/friction would ravage his body. On the other hand, the Handbook states that the character Quicksilver was born with adaptations that make higher speeds possible, such as enhanced cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems, a more efficient metabolism, better lubricated joints, tendons with the tensile strength of spring steel, unidentified bone composition that can withstand the dynamic shock of his touching the ground at speeds over 100 miles an hour, a brain that can process information fast enough for him to react to his surroundings at high speed. In DC Comics, the Flash family of speedsters derive their abilities from an extradimensional energy source known as the Speed Force, which grants them superspeed and various other abilities required to use it, such as durability.
However, the Speed Force is not the source from which other DC characters with superspeed such as Superman or Captain Marvel/Shazam derive their powers. Writer John Byrne maintained modest abilities for the speedster character Danny Hilltop in his series John Byrne’s Next Men. Although Danny can keep pace with a race car, the friction generated by his speed melts any footwear he wears, burning his feet, thus he runs barefoot, having toughened the soles of his feet through a regimen of pounding harder materials. Other writers choose not to offer any scientific explanations for the questions raised by the actual use of such abilities. Peter David, whose run on the series Young Justice included the junior speedster Impulse, has opined that speedsters are inherently difficult to write: "Speedsters make me nervous, because if you play them they're impossible to beat... I could deal with Impulse because he was distracted."Some speedsters may end up destroying their surroundings or entire astronomical structures around them by their sheer speed alone if they are not careful enough.
For example, Saitama from One-Punch Man accidentally destroyed a large portion of the moon when he jumped back to Earth from it within ten seconds during his battle with Boros. Speedster characters appear in other media such as film, video games and manga, the most notable being the video game character Sonic the Hedgehog, Looney Tunes characters Speedy Gonzales and the Road Runner. Others include: Daphne Millbrook from the NBC television superhero drama Heroes XLR8, Fasttrack from Ben 10 Rainbow Dash from My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic One-Punch Man characters Saitama, Speed o' Sound Sonic, Flashy Flash Dash Parr of the Pixar motion picture The Incredibles Bree Davenport, the superhero from Lab Rats
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft by its inherently violent nature. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment; the word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub -- "theft". Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a weapon, aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.
Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" or "stick-up", "steaming". In Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, seven years for subsequent offences. Robbery is a statutory offence in the Republic of Ireland, it is created by section 14 of the Criminal Justice Act, 2001, which provides: A person is guilty of robbery if he or she steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force. Robbery is a statutory offence in Wales, it is created by section 8 of the Theft Act 1968 which reads: A person is guilty of robbery if he steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, he uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force.
Aggravated theft Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery; this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was owed, his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB 166, 2 WLR 655, 131 JP 265, 111 SJ 72, 1 All ER 483, 51 Cr App R 167, CA. In R v Hale the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, it was not possible to establish the timing, it was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, R v Gomez, should apply. The threat or use of force must take place before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery; the words "or after" that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8.
The book "Archbold" said that the facts in R v Harman, which did not amount to robbery in 1620, would not amount to robbery now. It was held in R v Dawson and James that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury; this approach was confirmed in Corcoran v Anderton, both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child, not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order; the victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a mobile phone or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and took the phone; the person being threatened does not need to be the owner of the property. It is not necessary that the victim was frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force; the force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop.
Theft accompanied by a threat to damage property will not constitute robbery, but it may disclose an offence of blackmail. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling. Robbery is an indictable-only offence. Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Important is how much harm was caused to t