In the sport of curling, the skip is the captain of a team. The skip determines strategy, holds the broom in the house to indicate where a teammate at the other end of the curling sheet should aim the stone; the skip throws the last two stones in the fourth position, but may play in any other position. Overall, the skip provides strategic direction; the skip calls shots teammates to play, through physical gestures. In many cases, skips communicate the planned trajectory of the shot by tapping their broom on the ice, motion to other stones in the playing area if those are involved in the planned shot; the skip determines the required weight and line of the stone, holds the broom for the throwing player to aim at. As each stone is delivered, the skip calls the line of the shot and communicates with the sweepers as the stone travels down the sheet; the skip calls to the sweepers to sweep to maintain the stone's path. In most cases, the skip, playing the fourth stones, must be able to deliver these last stones comfortably—a difficult task in that the last stones are the most crucial to the end.
As the person throwing last stones, the skip must have a good repertoire of shots and the ability to execute many types of shots at will. As the game progresses, the skip must assess different aspects of the game, such as timing of the rocks and characteristics of the curling sheet—and use these to choose the most optimal shots and tactics; the skip should be able to read the ice and call the game accordingly, taking into consideration the ice conditions. Moreover, the skip must understand the playing style and strengths of each player on his or her team; as captain of the team, the skip uses knowledge of the teammates to call shots according to their abilities and orients the team's strategy towards its strengths. The skip must observe the opposition's gameplay and pinpoint their strengths and weakness to shape the team's strategy to put the opposition at the least advantage. Weeks, Bob. Curling for Dummies, 2nd Edition. Mississauga, Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-83828-0
World Curling Championships
The World Curling Championships are the annual world championships for curling, organized by the World Curling Federation and contested by national championship teams. There are men's, women's and mixed doubles championships, as well as junior and senior championships for each gender. There is a world championship for wheelchair curling; the men's championship started in 1959, while the women's started in 1979. The mixed doubles championship was started in 2008. Since 2005, the men's and women's championships have been held in different venues, with Canada hosting one of the two championships every year: the men's championship in odd years, the women's championship in years. Canada has dominated both the men's and women's championships since their inception, although Switzerland, Denmark, Scotland, the United States and China have all won at least one championship; the World Curling Championships began in 1959 as the Scotch Cup. The Scotch Cup was created by Toronto public relations executive and former sports journalist Stanley D. Houston on behalf of the Scotch Whisky Association, a client of Houston's agency Public Relations Services Limited, looking to generate increased North American exposure for its products.
The first three Cups were contested between men's teams from Canada. The United States joined the Scotch Cup in 1961, Sweden joined the next year. Canada won the first six world titles, of which the legendary rink skipped by Ernie Richardson earned four; the United States was the first country to break Canada's streak, winning their first world title in 1965. By 1967, Switzerland and Germany were added to the Scotch Cup, Scotland won their first title, while Canada finished without a medal for the first time; the tournament was renamed the Air Canada Silver Broom the year after that, Canada strung together five consecutive world titles starting in that year. In 1973, the competing field was expanded to ten teams, Italy and Denmark were introduced to the world stage. Sweden and Norway won their first titles in the following years, Canada continued to win medals of all colours. In 1979, the first edition of the women's World Curling Championships was held; the championships were held separately from the men's championships for the first ten years.
During this time, Canada, Sweden and Germany won world titles. Bronze medals were not awarded until 1985 for the women's tournament and 1986 for the men's tournament. Between 1989 and 1994, the bronze medal was shared by the semifinals losers. Beginning in 1989, the men's and women's championships were held together. Norway won their first world women's title. In 1995, Ford Canada and the World Curling Federation reached an agreement to make Ford the sponsor of the World Curling Championships. Japan, the first nation from Asia to compete in the worlds, made their debut in 1990 at the women's championship, in 2000 at the men's championship. South Korea and China followed suit in the 2000s. Scotland won their first women's title in 2002, the United States won their first women's title the next year. In 2005, the men's and women's championships were separated, an agreement was made between the World Curling Federation and the Canadian Curling Association that Canada would host one of the tournaments annually each year, all of which are title sponsored by Ford of Canada.
Canada began a streak of top two finishes in the men's tournament, China won their first world title in the women's tournament in 2009. In 2008, a world championship for mixed doubles curling was created. Switzerland won the first world mixed doubles title, proceeded to win four of the first five titles. Russia and Hungary won their first world curling titles in the mixed doubles championship, New Zealand, France and the Czech Republic won their first world curling medals. In 2015, a world championship for mixed curling was created, replacing the European Mixed Curling Championship and supplanting the European Mixed and Canadian Mixed curling championships as the highest level of mixed curling in the world. In 2019, the World Qualification Event was introduced, to qualify the final two teams in the men's and women's championships. A mixed doubles qualification event will be added in the 2019–20 curling season, qualifying the final four teams of the twenty-team mixed doubles championship; the World Curling Championships have been known by a number of different names over the years.
Men 1959–1967: Scotch Cup 1968–1985: Air Canada Silver Broom 1986–1988: IOC President's Cup 1989–1990: WCF Championships 1991–1992: Safeway World Curling Championship 1993–1994: WCF Championships 1995–2004: Ford World Curling Championship 2005–2017: Ford World Men's Curling Championship 2006–present: World Men's Curling Championship 2019: Pioneer Hi-Bred World Men's Curling ChampionshipWomen 1979–1981: Royal Bank of Scotland World Curling Championships 1982: World Curling Championships 1983: Pioneer Life World Curling Championships 1984: World Curling Championships 1985: H&M World Curling Championships 1986–1990: World Curling Championships 1991–1992: Safeway World Curling Championships 1993–1994: World Curling Championships 1995–2004: Ford World Curling Championships 2005–2017: World Women's Curling Championship 2006–present: Ford World Women's Curling Championship 2019: LGT World Women's Curling Championship The first two world championships, held as competitions between Scotland and Canada, were held as five-game series between the two nations.
Upon the addition of the United States in 1961, the format was changed to a double round robin preliminary round with a three-team knockout round at the conclusion of the round robin. The knockout
Füssen is a town in Bavaria, Germany, in the district of Ostallgäu, situated 1 kilometre from the Austrian border. It has a population of 15,558; the town is known for its violinmaking industry, as the closest transportation hub for the castles Neuschwanstein and Hohenschwangau. Its coat of arms depicts a triskelion. Füssen was settled in Roman times, on the Via Claudia Augusta, a road that leads southwards to northern Italy and northwards to Augusta Vindelicum, the former regional capital of the Roman province Raetia; the original name of Füssen was "Foetes", or "Foetibus", which derives from Latin "Fauces", meaning "gorge" referring to the Lech gorge. In Late Antiquity Füssen was the home of a part of the Legio III Italica, stationed there to guard the important trade route over the Alps. Füssen became the site of the "Hohes Schloss", the former summer residence of the prince-bishops of Augsburg. Below the Hohes Schloss is the Baroque complex of the former Benedictine monastery of St. Mang, whose history goes back to the 9th century.
Füssen has Saint Mang as its patron saint. He and his Benedictine brother Theodor were two monks from the Abbey of Saint Gall and are considered to be its founders, in addition to the Monastery of Kempten. Magnus' original burial place was in the small chapel, his bones were transferred to the crypt of the church built in 850. Around the year 950 all his bones disappeared.. In 1745, the Treaty of Füssen was signed between the Electorate of Bavaria and Habsburg Austria, ending Bavaria's participation in the War of the Austrian Succession. During the 19th century, composer Richard Wagner used to come to Füssen by railway when he visited King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Since the 1950s the town has been familiar to travellers as the southern terminus of the Romantic Road. Füssen was host to the 1988 World Junior Curling Championships. Füssen is located on the banks of the Lech River; the Forggensee is a man-made lake, built to prevent flooding. It is the catchment area for all the melting snow in the spring, is drained after the middle of October.
Füssen is 808 meters above sea level. The castles of Neuschwanstein and Hohehschwangau are located near the town.. The High Castle houses a branch gallery of the Bavarian State Collections of Paintings, which focuses on late Gothic and Renaissance works of art; the oldest fresco in Germany can be found in the crypt of St Mang's Basilica. It dates back to about the year 980. St Mang's Feast Day is commemorated with a Holy Mass followed by a procession by torchlight through the old part of the city. During the week of the Saint's Feast a special'Magnus Wine' is sold, with only 500 bottles produced. Known beyond Füssen is the success of EV Füssen, the local Oberliga ice hockey club; the Musiktheater Füssen is close to the lake Forggensee. The local newspaper for Füssen is the Allgäuer Zeitung, printed daily except Sundays and on Holy Days of Obligation, it contains a special section with news from Füssen and the surrounding towns and villages called the Füssener Blatt. Paul Ambros, Olympic ice hockey player Oliver Axnick, former curler and curling coach for the German men's team Johann Baptist Babel, sculptor Richard Bletschacher and former chief dramatic advisor at Vienna State Opera Patrick Einsle, professional snooker player Michael Endrass, professional hockey player Günther Förg, sculptor and graphic designer Michael Greis, triple Olympic gold medalist in biathlon Thomas Greiss, National Hockey League goaltender Jennifer Harß, goaltender and Olympian for the Germany women's national ice hockey team Uli Hiemer, former NHL and Deutsche Eishockey Liga professional hockey player Holger Höhne, curler playing for the German national team and a medalist at several World Curling Championships Max Koegel, Nazi SS commandant of several concentration camps Julia Manhard, freestyle skier representing Germany at the 2010 Winter Olympics Volker Prechtel, best known for his roles in The Name of the Rose and several films by Werner Herzog Francis Xavier Seelos, son of the sacristan at'St Mang's Basilica and a priest of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer.
Wüst, Wolfgang: "Füssen", in: Werner Paravicini, ed.: Höfe und Residenzen im spätmittelalterlichen Reich: ein dynastisch-topographisches Handbuch, 2 Teilbde Ostfildern 2003, Bd. 1, pp. 204–205 Füssen travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Füssen website Local news for Füssen in the Allgäuer Zeitung
2015 World Women's Curling Championship
The 2015 World Women's Curling Championship was held from March 14 to 22 at the Tsukisamu Gymnasium in Sapporo, Japan. It marks the second time that a world championship has been held in Japan, after the 2007 World Women's Curling Championship in Aomori; the following nations are qualified to participate in the 2015 World Women's Curling Championship: Japan Two teams from the Americas zone Canada United States Eight teams from the 2014 European Curling Championships Russia Finland Denmark Scotland Sweden Switzerland Germany Norway One team from the 2014 Pacific-Asia Curling Championships China World Curling Tour Order of Merit ranking of national teams Final Round Robin Standings All draw times are listed in Japan Standard Time. Saturday, March 14, 14:00 Saturday, March 14, 19:00 Sunday, March 15, 9:00 Sunday, March 15, 14:00 Sunday, March 15, 19:00 Monday, March 16, 9:00 Monday, March 16, 14:00 Monday, March 16, 19:00 Tuesday, March 17, 9:00 Tuesday, March 17, 14:00 Tuesday, March 17, 19:00 Wednesday, March 18, 9:00 Wednesday, March 18, 14:00 Wednesday, March 18, 19:00 Thursday, March 19, 9:00 Thursday, March 19, 14:00 Thursday, March 19, 19:00 Friday, March 20, 9:00 Friday, March 20, 19:00 Saturday, March 21, 9:00 Saturday, March 21, 17:00 Sunday, March 22, 9:00 Sunday, March 22, 15:00 Final Round Robin Percentages General"2015 World Women's Curling Championship".
World Curling Federation. Specific Official website
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
2018 European Curling Championships
The 2018 Le Gruyère AOP European Curling Championships were held from November 16 to 24 in Tallinn, Estonia. The C Division competitions were held in April in Denmark; the top seven men's teams will qualify for the 2019 World Men's Curling Championship. Additionally, the top two teams in the B division and the top two teams in the A division not qualified for the World Men's Curling Championship will qualify for the 2019 World Qualification Event, a further chance to qualify for the Worlds; the top six women's teams, not including the hosts, who automatically qualify, will qualify for the 2019 World Women's Curling Championship. Additionally, the top two teams in the B division and the top two teams in the A division not qualified for the World Women's Curling Championship will qualify for the 2019 World Qualification Event, a further chance to qualify for the Worlds. Final Round Robin Standings Saturday, November 17, 09:00 Saturday, November 17, 20:00 Sunday, November 18, 14:00 Monday, November 19, 08:00 Monday, November 19, 16:00 Tuesday, November 20, 09:00 Tuesday, November 20, 19:00 Wednesday, November 21, 14:00 Thursday, November 22, 09:00 Thursday, November 22, 19:00 Friday, November 23, 19:00 Saturday, November 24, 15:00 Round Robin only Friday, November 23, 08:30 Friday, November 23, 14:00 Friday, November 23, 20:00 Friday, November 23, 20:00 Winner advances to Group B competitions.
Loser advances to Second place game. Winner advances to Second place game. Winner advances to Group B competitions. Final Round Robin Standings
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area, segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice; each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game. A game consists of eight or ten ends; the curler can induce a curved path by causing the stone to turn as it slides, the path of the rock may be further influenced by two sweepers with brooms, who accompany it as it slides down the sheet and sweep the ice in front of the stone. "Sweeping a rock" decreases the friction, which makes the stone travel a straighter path and a longer distance. A great deal of strategy and teamwork go into choosing the ideal path and placement of a stone for each situation, the skills of the curlers determine the degree to which the stone will achieve the desired result.
This gives curling its nickname of "chess on ice". Evidence that curling existed in Scotland in the early 16th century includes a curling stone inscribed with the date 1511 uncovered when an old pond was drained at Dunblane, Scotland; the world's oldest curling stone and the world's oldest football are now kept in the same museum in Stirling. The first written reference to a contest using stones on ice coming from the records of Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, in February 1541. Two paintings, "Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap" and "The Hunters in the Snow" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder depict Flemish peasants curling, albeit without brooms; the word curling first appears in print in 1620 in Perth, Scotland, in the preface and the verses of a poem by Henry Adamson. The sport was known as "the roaring game" because of the sound the stones make while traveling over the pebble; the verbal noun curling is formed from the Scots verb curl. Kilsyth Curling Club claims to be the first club in the world, having been formally constituted in 1716.
Kilsyth claims the oldest purpose-built curling pond in the world at Colzium, in the form of a low dam creating a shallow pool some 100 by 250 metres in size. The International Olympic Committee recognises the Royal Caledonian Curling Club as developing the first official rules for the sport. In the early history of curling, the playing stones were flat-bottomed stones from rivers or fields, which lacked a handle and were of inconsistent size and smoothness; some early stones had holes for the thumb, akin to ten-pin bowling balls. Unlike today, the thrower had little control over the'curl' or velocity and relied more on luck than on precision and strategy; the sport was played on frozen rivers although purpose-built ponds were created in many Scottish towns. For example, the Scottish poet David Gray describes whisky-drinking curlers on the Luggie Water at Kirkintilloch. In Darvel, East Ayrshire, the weavers relaxed by playing curling matches using the heavy stone weights from the looms' warp beams, fitted with a detachable handle for the purpose.
Many a wife would keep her husband's brass curling stone handle on the mantelpiece, brightly polished until the next time it was needed. Central Canadian curlers used'irons' rather than stones until the early 1900s. Outdoor curling was popular in Scotland between the 16th and 19th centuries because the climate provided good ice conditions every winter. Scotland is home to the international governing body for curling, the World Curling Federation in Perth, which originated as a committee of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, the mother club of curling. Today, the sport is most established in Canada, having been taken there by Scottish emigrants; the Royal Montreal Curling Club, the oldest established sports club still active in North America, was established in 1807. The first curling club in the United States was established in 1830, the sport was introduced to Switzerland and Sweden before the end of the 19th century by Scots. Today, curling is played all over Europe and has spread to Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Korea.
The first world championship for curling was limited to men and was known as the Scotch Cup, held in Falkirk and Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. The first world title was won by the Canadian team from Regina, skipped by Ernie Richardson. Curling was one of the first sports, popular with women and girls. Curling has been a medal sport in the Winter Olympic Games since the 1998 Winter Olympics, it includes men's, women's and mixed doubles tournaments. In February 2002, the International Olympic Committee retroactively decided that the curling competition from the 1924 Winter Olympics (originally called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver, or Int