Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino was an Italian sculptor and architect, known best for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice. Andrea Palladio, in the Preface to his Quattro Libri was of the opinion that Sansovino's Biblioteca Marciana was the best building erected since Antiquity. Giorgio Vasari uniquely printed his Vita of Sansovino separately, he was born in Florence and apprenticed with Andrea Sansovino whose name he subsequently adopted, changing his name from Jacopo Tatti. In Rome he attracted the notice of Bramante and Raphael and made a wax model of the Deposition of Christ for Perugino to use, he returned to Florence in 1511 where he received commissions for marble sculptures of St. James for the Duomo and a Bacchus, now in the Bargello, his proposals for sculpture to adorn the façade of the Church of San Lorenzo, were rejected by Michelangelo, in charge of the scheme, to whom he wrote a bitter letter of protest in 1518. In the period of 1510-17 he shared a studio with the painter Andrea del Sarto, with whom he shared models.
Like all sixteenth-century Italian architects, Sansovino devoted considerable energy to elaborate but temporary structures related to courtly ritual. The triumphant entry of Pope Leo X into Florence in 1515 was a highpoint of this genre, he subsequently returned to Rome where he stayed for nine years, leaving for Venice in the year of the Sack of Rome. In 1529, Sansovino became chief architect and superintendent of properties to the Procurators of San Marco, making him one of the most influential artists in Venice; the appointment came with a salary of an apartment near the clocktower in San Marco. Within a year his salary was raised to 180 ducats per year, his masterworks embody prominent structures and buildings in central Venice found near Piazza San Marco the rusticated Zecca, the decorated Loggetta and its sculptures adjoining the Campanile, various statues and reliefs for the Basilica of San Marco. He helped rebuild a number of buildings, churches and institutional buildings including the churches of San Zulian, San Francesco della Vigna, San Martino, San Geminiano, Santo Spirito in Isola, the church of the Incurabili.
Among palaces and buildings are the Scuola Grande della Misericordia, Ca' de Dio, Palazzo Dolfin Manin, Palazzo Corner, Palazzo Moro, the Fabbriche Nuove di Rialto. His masterpiece is the Library of Saint Mark's, the Biblioteca Marciana, one of Venice's most richly decorated Renaissance structures, which stands in front of the Doge's palace, across the piazzetta. Construction spanned fifty years and cost over 30,000 ducats. In it he made the architectural language of classicism, traditionally associated with severity and restraint, palatable to the Venetians with their love of surface decoration; this paved the way for the graceful architecture of Andrea Palladio. He died in Venice and his sepulchre is in the Baptistery of St. Mark's Basilica, his most important follower in the medium of sculpture was Alessandro Vittoria. Jacopo Sansovino's works Bruce; the Sculpture of Jacopo Sansovino. 2 vols. 1991. Monograph and catalogue raisonné of the sculpture. Tafuri, Manfredo. Venice and the Renaissance. 1989.
Sansovino's cultural context. Deborah Howard. Jacopo Sansovino Architecture and Patronage in Renaissance Venice. Yale University Press 1975. Http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522717/Jacopo-SansovinoHart, Hicks, Sansovino's Venice 2017
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
Alessandro Vittoria was an Italian Mannerist sculptor of the Venetian school, "one of the main representatives of the Venetian classical style" and rivalling Giambologna as the foremost sculptors of the late 16th century in Italy. Vittoria was born in what is now northern Italy, the son of a tailor. Vittoria was trained in the atelier of the architect-sculptor Jacopo Sansovino, he was a virtuoso in terracotta presented with gilded surfaces and bronze. Like all Italian sculptors of his generation, Vittoria was influenced by Michelangelo and by the Florentine Mannerist, Bartolomeo Ammanati; the closeness of his associations in projects by architects Sansovino and Palladio, working with painters Titian and Veronese placed him squarely among the protagonists of the art world in late 16th-century Venice. Vittoria was first trained in his native city, Trento moved to Venice in 1543, where he trained and worked with Jacopo Sansovino, his long artistic relationship with Sansovino was a stormy one. After one quarrel with Sansovino, he removed from Venice and worked in Vicenza, where he collaborated with Veronese on the decorations of the Villa Barbaro at Maser before returning.
The two masters worked jointly on great sculptural commissions until Sansovino's death. Vittoria completed Sansovino's unfinished commissions, his pupils included Andrea di Alessandro. He died at Venice in 1608, his tomb, with his self-portrait bust, is in the church of San Zaccaria. Vittoria is known for his classicising portrait busts, a genre that scarcely existed in Venice before him, for medals as well as for his full-length figures, some of which surmount Sansovino's Biblioteca Marciana, his diary is an important source for the details of his career, as is his will, of 29 July 1576. An exhibition at Trento, 1999 is memorialised in a catalogue by Andrea Bacchi, Lia Camerlengo and Manfred Leithe-Jasper, "La Bellissima Maniera": Alessandro Vittoria e la Scultura Veneta del Cinquecento, the basic text for its introductory essays on Vittoria's art and career, by Manfred Leithe-Jasper. J. Paul Getty Museum: vita Web Gallery of Art Biography Portrait of the artist by Paolo Veronese. Relief of Annunciation at Art Institute of Chicago
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism. Devices that focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses; the word lens comes from lēns, the Latin name of the lentil, because a double-convex lens is lentil-shaped. The lentil plant gives its name to a geometric figure; some scholars argue that the archeological evidence indicates that there was widespread use of lenses in antiquity, spanning several millennia. The so-called Nimrud lens is a rock crystal artifact dated to the 7th century BC which may or may not have been used as a magnifying glass, or a burning glass.
Others have suggested that certain Egyptian hieroglyphs depict "simple glass meniscal lenses". The oldest certain reference to the use of lenses is from Aristophanes' play The Clouds mentioning a burning-glass. Pliny the Elder confirms. Pliny has the earliest known reference to the use of a corrective lens when he mentions that Nero was said to watch the gladiatorial games using an emerald. Both Pliny and Seneca the Younger described the magnifying effect of a glass globe filled with water. Ptolemy wrote a book on Optics, which however survives only in the Latin translation of an incomplete and poor Arabic translation; the book was, received, by medieval scholars in the Islamic world, commented upon by Ibn Sahl, in turn improved upon by Alhazen. The Arabic translation of Ptolemy's Optics became available in Latin translation in the 12th century. Between the 11th and 13th century "reading stones" were invented; these were primitive plano-convex lenses made by cutting a glass sphere in half. The medieval rock cystal Visby lenses may not have been intended for use as burning glasses.
Spectacles were invented as an improvement of the "reading stones" of the high medieval period in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century. This was the start of the optical industry of grinding and polishing lenses for spectacles, first in Venice and Florence in the late 13th century, in the spectacle-making centres in both the Netherlands and Germany. Spectacle makers created improved types of lenses for the correction of vision based more on empirical knowledge gained from observing the effects of the lenses; the practical development and experimentation with lenses led to the invention of the compound optical microscope around 1595, the refracting telescope in 1608, both of which appeared in the spectacle-making centres in the Netherlands. With the invention of the telescope and microscope there was a great deal of experimentation with lens shapes in the 17th and early 18th centuries by those trying to correct chromatic errors seen in lenses. Opticians tried to construct lenses of varying forms of curvature, wrongly assuming errors arose from defects in the spherical figure of their surfaces.
Optical theory on refraction and experimentation was showing no single-element lens could bring all colours to a focus. This led to the invention of the compound achromatic lens by Chester Moore Hall in England in 1733, an invention claimed by fellow Englishman John Dollond in a 1758 patent. Most lenses are spherical lenses: their two surfaces are parts of the surfaces of spheres; each surface can be concave, or planar. The line joining the centres of the spheres making up the lens surfaces is called the axis of the lens; the lens axis passes through the physical centre of the lens, because of the way they are manufactured. Lenses may ground after manufacturing to give them a different shape or size; the lens axis may not pass through the physical centre of the lens. Toric or sphero-cylindrical lenses have surfaces with two different radii of curvature in two orthogonal planes, they have a different focal power in different meridians. This forms an astigmatic lens. An example is eyeglass lenses. More complex are aspheric lenses.
These are lenses where one or both surfaces have a shape, neither spherical nor cylindrical. The more complicated shapes allow such lenses to form images with less aberration than standard simple lenses, but they are more difficult and expensive to produce. Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces. A lens is biconvex. If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens is equiconvex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave. If one of the surfaces is flat, the lens is plano-convex or plano-concave depending on the curvature of the other surface. A lens with one convex and one concave side is meniscus, it is this type of lens, most used in corrective lenses. If the lens is biconvex or plano-convex, a collimated beam of light passing through the lens converges to a spot behind the lens. In this case, the lens is called a
Orto botanico di Padova
The Orto Botanico di Padova is a botanical garden in Padua, in the northeastern part of Italy. Founded in 1545 by the Venetian Republic, it is the world's oldest academic botanical garden, still in its original location; the garden, affiliated with the University of Padua covers 22,000 square meters, is known for its special collections and historical design. The Garden of Padua was founded upon deliberation of the Senate of the Venetian Republic, it was devoted to the growth of medicinal plants, the so-called "simple plants" which produced natural remedies, to help students distinguish genuine medicinal plants from false ones. A circular wall enclosure was built to protect the garden from the frequent night thefts which occurred in spite of severe penalties; the Botanical Garden was enriched with plants from all over the world from the countries that participated in trade with Venice. Padua had a leading role in the introduction and study of many exotic plants, a herbarium, a library and many laboratories were added to its Botanical Garden.
At present, the Botanical Garden allows for intensive didactic activity as well as important research to be conducted on its grounds. It cares for the preservation of many rare species. In 1997, it was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site on the following grounds: The Botanical Garden of Padua is the original of all botanical gardens throughout the world, represents the birth of science, of scientific exchanges, understanding of the relationship between nature and culture, it has made a profound contribution to the development of many modern scientific disciplines, notably botany, chemistry and pharmacy. The design of the Botanical Garden is attributed to Andrea Moroni, who created some of the most important public monuments in Padua, such as the Basilica of Santa Giustina in Prato della Valle, the town hall and the university in the first half of the 16th century. However, the real architect was Daniele Barbaro, a Venetian nobleman, a man of vast learning and translator of Vitruvius' De Architectura.
He followed the example of the medieval Horti Conclusi, marking the architecture by a perfect pattern of a square within a circle, divided into four parts by two paths oriented according to the cardinal points. The Botanical Garden was inaugurated in 1545, used as a teaching facility by the University of Padua in the following year; the current appearance of the principal palace dates back to the 18th centuries. By the end of the 16th century, the garden was enriched with many fountains fed by a gigantic wheel hydrophore, to ensure proper irrigation. In 1704, four gates and gateways were built with huge embellished acroterions in red stone, decorated with plants made of wrought iron. During the first half of the 18th century, the wall was refined along the external perimeter by a balustrade made of Istria Stone on which vases and half-length portraits of important persons were placed. A statue of Theophrastus was built beside the south door, as well as a statue of Solomon, local point for the east door and the four seasons fountain, enriched with 18th-century portraits made of Carrara marble.
In the first half of the 19th century, greenhouses and a botanic theatre were built and half-length portraits of eminent botanists such as Carl Linnaeus were placed on the cornice. One of the greenhouses still maintains small cast-iron columns. In the garden there are three sundials: a cubic one, a circular one and a cylindrical one. On the inside, four glacises are divided into collections of flower-beds. At the center, a pool of water for the aquatic plants is fed by a continuous jet of hot water which comes from a water-bearing stratum of earth located three-hundred meters below the level of the garden; until 1984, the Botanical Garden boasted a Vitex agnus-castus that dated from at least 1550. At present, the oldest plant is a palm planted in 1585 called the "Goethe palm", because the poet referred to it in his essay "Geschichte meines botanisches Studiums". A gigantic plane tree in the outside Arboretum dates from 1680. In the Arboretum there is a sectioned trunk of an elm tree, which died in 1991, with marked year rings.
Owing to a shortage of hothouses, the plants are located outdoors. Six thousand types of plants are being cultivated and arranged according to taxonomic, ecological-environmental and historical standards; the systematic collection is concentrated in the four biggest central flowerbeds. Among the utilitarian collections, the medicinal plants are the most important; these are classified according to the Engler system, based on evolutionary relationships among the families. Each plant is labelled with its principal therapeutical properties. A poisonous plants collection has been set up with didactic aims: many of these poisonous plants are found in the medicinal plants sector because in suitable quantities they can be used to treat illness and diseases. Collections of the garden include: Insectivorous plants: found in nitrogen-poor soils, these plants must use the proteins of some small insects captured with their leaves to avoid deficiencies. Medicinal and Poisonous plants: plants representing the original purpose of the Botanical Garden.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A