Grandma is a 2015 American comedy-drama film written and produced by Paul Weitz. It stars Lily Tomlin as Elle, a lesbian poet and widow whose teenage granddaughter visits her to ask for money for an abortion. Over the space of a day, they visit numerous people from Elle's past to call in favors in an effort to raise the money. Weitz wrote the script with Tomlin in mind after working with her on the 2013 film Admission. After she agreed to star, they edited the script together. Most of the other cast members were actors with whom Weitz had collaborated; the film was shot over 19 days in Los Angeles in 2014 with a budget of less than $600,000. The film premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival as the closing night feature and was released on August 21, 2015, by Sony Pictures Classics, it was well received by critics. The film was named among the top ten independent films of 2015 by the National Board of Review, Tomlin was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance. Elle is a lesbian poet coping with the recent death of her long-term life partner.
She ends a four-month relationship with a younger admirer, telling her their relationship meant nothing, before receiving a visit from her 18-year-old granddaughter Sage. Sage is pregnant and requests $630 for an abortion, scheduled for that afternoon; as Elle is broke and Sage has had her credit card confiscated by her overbearing mother, the two embark on a road trip across Los Angeles to try and come up with the money. Elle forcefully extorts $50 from the father of the child, tries to call in a $400 debt from her friend Deathy, a tattoo artist; because she is broke at the time, Deathy cannot help them beyond some $60 she borrows from the register, but gives Elle a new tattoo that looks like the letter "O". Sage presumes this to be Olivia's initial. Elle tries to sell some of her rare books to an acquaintance, who owns a café, but gets into a fight with Olivia, working there. Elle storms out when Carla, much more tech-savvy than Elle, gauges the price of the books on eBay and offers her a paltry $60, Olivia berates her as they leave.
Becoming desperate and Sage visit Elle's ex-husband Karl, whom Elle has not seen in decades. She tells him she needs to borrow the money for rent, he requests a kiss in return; this leads to an argument over how Elle ended their relationship, but when she pleads with him, he agrees to hand over the cash. When he asks her to be honest about the reason for needing the money, she tells him that Sage needs an abortion, Karl becomes angry and emotional. Elle once aborted his child without telling him, yet went on to give birth to a baby born from a one-night stand, she explains that she wanted a child but not a husband, Karl angrily insists he will not pay for an abortion. Sage and Elle work up the courage to visit Sage's busy single mother, furious to learn Sage is pregnant. Judy reluctantly produces the money and Elle drives Sage to the abortion clinic. After the procedure, Judy takes her home. On her own way home, Elle rejoices at memories of her partner Violet. Before reaching home, she makes a short stop at Olivia's house to apologize for saying their relationship meant nothing.
Afterwards, Elle walks down the sidewalk. Numerous commentators have labelled Grandma a feminist film. Bustle writer Rachel Simon commented on the unusual fact that the film centers on two women – a septuagenarian lesbian and a pregnant teenager seeking an abortion – and features a supporting cast of characters including "another lesbian, a trans woman, a single mom who got pregnant using a sperm donor". Writer-director Paul Weitz said that he wanted to explore different eras of women's history through the three generations of Elle's family. While Elle was a fighter for women's equality, he saw Judy as "a product of it", he said that Sage, ignorant of the feminist movement, represented the "erasure of women's history in the minds of young people now". Variety critic Scott Foundas described Grandma as "an unforced but unmistakably political survey of three generations of independent womanhood in America"; the film has been described as pro-choice because of its portrayal of abortion. Weitz was influenced by the lack of mainstream films that depict abortion, saying, "there have been a lot of movies in the past which were unwilling to use the word, despite millions of women having abortions...
So I just wanted it to be real." Several critics praised the film's balanced treatment of abortion: Ty Burr of The Boston Globe wrote that it was "neither minimized nor built up into a Major Statement", while the Financial Times' Danny Leigh appreciated that "the sad gravity of the premise is not underplayed". The Independent critic Geoffrey McNab found it "heartening to see a film that tackles unintended pregnancy and abortion in a humorous and sensitive way". Paul Weitz conceived the idea for the story of Grandma, he never completed the story until he had met and worked with Tomlin on the 2013 film Admission, saying that "After meeting Lily, the voice and the character clicked, I had thought about it for years, so I had a lot of it worked out in my head, I just went to a coffee shop and wrote it longhand." He said that, as he wrote, he could hear her "performing it in head". After writing the script, he was afraid to present it to Tomlin in case she turned down the lead role. Tomlin said that she connected with the character and the story.
The film marked To
Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck
Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck is a 2015 documentary film about Nirvana lead singer Kurt Cobain. The film premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival, it received a limited theatrical release worldwide and premiered on television in the United States on HBO on April 24, 2015. The documentary chronicles the life of Kurt Cobain from his birth in Aberdeen, Washington in 1967, through his troubled early family life and teenage years and rise to fame as front man of Nirvana, up to his death in April 1994 in Seattle at the age of 27; the film includes artwork by Cobain as well as sound collages composed by him. Much of music and sound collages were released on the film's soundtrack, Montage of Heck: The Home Recordings. A companion book was released containing animation stills from the film as well as transcripts of interviews and Cobain's artwork that were not featured in the film. After Kurt Cobain is born in 1967, his parents move to Aberdeen and shortly after his sister Kim is born. Kurt lives a normal childhood.
At the age of nine, his parents are divorced. He lives with Don for a while until they have kids together, he moves back in with his mom and as a teenager he becomes unruly and starts smoking pot with friends. He and his friends start to visit the home of a developmentally challenged high school classmate to steal her father's alcohol, it becomes a hard time for Cobain. After he attempts to have sex with the girl, his classmates begin insulting and shaming him. Cobain, unable to take the ridicule, lies down on train tracks with the intention of ending his life, but the train travels on a different railway. After becoming homeless and living with friends, he gets his own place at 17 and starts a band with Krist Novoselic. Chad Channing joins the band on drums and they choose the band name "Nirvana". Nirvana's first "shows" consists of playing for a few friends and random passersby at local house parties, they start playing at clubs and radio stations and Kurt starts dating Tracy Marander. The band signs onto Sub Pop record company and they release their first album, Bleach.
The band starts doing tours. After a short while, Kurt breaks up with Tracy. Chad leaves the band, Nirvana leaves the label to sign onto DGC Records and Dave Grohl becomes the new drummer. After recording their next album, their song "Smells Like Teen Spirit" becomes a hit and the band is launched into the mainstream. Kurt meets Courtney Love and they start dating. In 1992, they get married after they find out she is pregnant, but at the same time Kurt gets into heroin. In an interview with Vanity Fair, Courtney mentions Kurt's heroin habit and that Courtney tried it as well. Shortly after Frances is born but they are confronted by the Los Angeles County Department of Children's Services, who take the Cobains to court, claiming that the couple's drug usage makes them unfit parents. Due to the claims made in the Vanity Fair article, Seattle child welfare agents remove the couple's baby daughter for around four weeks; the couple obtain custody in an exchange for agreeing to provide urine tests and receive regular visits from a social worker.
After months of legal negotiations, the couple are granted full custody of their daughter. Kurt's heroin use continues as the band records their new album In Utero in 1993. Pat Smear joins the band and they start doing arena tours. Cobain starts to turn pale while suffering withdrawal. Not long after returning home, Cobain's heroin use resumes; the band goes on to do an MTV Unplugged performance and they continue touring again in early 1994. After being diagnosed with bronchitis and severe laryngitis, he flies to Rome the next day for medical treatment, is joined there by Courtney, on March 3, 1994; the next morning, Love awakes to find that Cobain has overdosed on a combination of champagne and Rohypnol. Cobain is rushed to the hospital, spends the rest of the day unconscious. After five days in the hospital, Cobain returns to Seattle; the screen cuts to black and a text appears stating "One month after returning from Rome, Kurt Cobain took his own life. He was 27 years old." Before the credits start to play.
The documentary is directed by Brett Morgen who began work on it in 2007 when Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, approached him with the idea. It is the first documentary about Kurt Cobain to be made with the cooperation of his family. Morgen and his team were given access to the entirety of Cobain's family archives; the documentary includes footage from various Nirvana performances and unheard songs, as well as unreleased home movies, artwork, journals and songbooks. Morgen used the interviews in the film Lenny as a model for the interviews in the film; the film's title, Montage of Heck, takes its name from a musical collage, created by Cobain with a 4-track cassette recorder in about 1988, of which there are two versions. Several of the film's scenes were animated by Hisko Hulsing. Jeff Danna wrote an original score for the film; the film was co-produced by HBO Documentary Films and Universal Pictures International Entertainment Content Group. Cobain and Courtney Love's only daughter, Frances Bean Cobain, was a co-executive producer on the film.
Ahead of screenings of the film on both HBO and international cinema releases, director Brett Morgen stated in an inter
Sony Pictures Classics
Sony Pictures Classics is an American film production and distribution company, a division of Sony Pictures. It was founded in 1992 by former Orion Classics heads Michael Barker, Tom Bernard, Marcie Bloom, it distributes and acquires specialty films such as documentaries and art films in the United States and internationally. As of 2015, Barker and Bernard are co-presidents of the division. Sony Pictures Classics was founded in 1992, by Michael Barker, Tom Bernard, Marcie Bloom, set up as an autonomous division of Sony Pictures; the model of the company is to produce, acquire and/or distribute independent films from the United States and internationally. Sony Pictures Classics has a history of making reasonable investments for small films, getting a decent return, it has a history of not overspending. Its largest commercial success of the 2010s is Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris, which grossed over $56 million in the U. S. becoming Allen's highest-grossing film in the United States. Sony Pictures Classics agrees to release films for all other film studio divisions of Sony.
The following films have been announced by Sony Pictures Classics, but have "to be determined" release dates. Where's My Roy Cohn? John Prine: Hello in There Mongrel Media, the exclusive theatrical Canadian distributor for Sony Pictures Classics films Official website Sony Pictures Classics on IMDb
The Queen of Versailles
The Queen of Versailles is a 2012 American documentary film by Lauren Greenfield. The film depicts Jackie Siegel and David Siegel, owners of Westgate Resorts, their family as they build their private residence — Versailles, one of the largest and most expensive single-family houses in the United States — and the crisis they face as the U. S. economy declines. David Siegel is the wealthy owner of a timeshare company in Florida, his wife Jackie Siegel, thirty years his junior, was the winner of the Mrs. Florida pageant in 1993, they begin construction on the Versailles house, a vast mansion named after the Palace of Versailles. Located on the outskirts of Orlando, it would be one of the largest single-family detached homes in the United States if completed. However, Siegel's company is badly affected by the Great Recession in 2008 and his family struggles to cope with their reduced income. Construction on the new house is halted, most of their servants are laid off and their pets are neglected. David retreats into his office, determined to save his Las Vegas property venture: PH Towers.
Jackie struggles to rein in her compulsive shopping habits. The children and their nanny are interviewed; the film ends with none of their issues resolved. The film was reviewed positively; the film-critics aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported 94% of critics gave a positive review, with an average score of 8/10 and the consensus, "The Queen of Versailles is a timely and richly drawn portrait of the American Dream improbably composed of equal parts compassion and schadenfreude." The New York Times' A. O. Scott called the film "A gaudy guilty pleasure, a piece of trenchant social criticism", said, "the movie starts out in the mode of reality television, resembling the pilot for a new "Real Housewives" franchise or a reboot of "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous." Before long, though, it takes on the coloration of a Theodore Dreiser novel — not quite an American tragedy but a sprawling, richly detailed study of ambition and the wild swings of fortune that are included in the price of the capitalist ticket."
The Economist called it "an uncomfortably intimate glimpse of a couple's struggle with a harsh new reality," concluding that "the film's great achievement is that it invites both compassion and Schadenfreude. What could have been a silly send-up manages to be a meditation on marriage and a metaphor for the fragility of fortunes and small." Allmovie.com gave the film four stars out of five. The documentary won the U. S. Directing Award at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival, the Grand Jury Prize from the Brisbane International Film Festival, a Best Director Award from the RiverRun Film Festival. "The Queen of Versailles" was nominated for Best Documentary Film, 2012, by the International Documentary Association. It was broadcast on BBC Four as part of the Storyville series, it was nominated for the Critics' Choice Award for Best Documentary Feature. In January 2012, before the film's premiere at the Sundance Film Festival, David Siegel filed a civil action based on the way the film had been described in promotional materials.
On January 24, 2013, the United States District Court, Middle District of Florida, stayed the suit pending arbitration. Siegel claimed Greenfield had not obtained a proper release from the subjects of the film, in particular David Siegel and Westgate Resorts. In staying the lawsuit, Judge Anne C. Conway found David Siegel's testimony to be "inconsistent and incredible and thus lacking weight." She disagreed with Siegel's position, which she deemed to be "quite bizarre" in light of his subsequent conduct. Directing that the case be administratively closed, Conway ordered the defendants to file and serve, on or before May 1, 2013, every three months thereafter, a status report regarding the arbitration proceedings; the subsequent arbitration was heard by Roy Rifkin of the Independent Film and Television Alliance in July 2013. On March 13, 2014, he returned his ruling, he elaborated, "having viewed the egregious portions of the Motion Picture numerous times does not find that any of the content of the Motion Picture was false,".
Furthermore, he wrote that "There is nothing taken away by the viewer of the Motion Picture, inconsistent with the fundamental reality that the global recession created a crisis for Westgate causing it to have to reluctantly give up its interest in PH Towers," and "To a great extent this is derived from the words of David and Richard Siegel themselves. The clearest example of this is David referring to the story being told as a'rags-to-riches-to-rags story.'" Lastly, Mr. Rifkin found that Westgate failed to show how it was damaged from the documentary, saying that the company "did not remotely establish the type of malice required for a defamation claim on behalf of a public figure", he subsequently ordered David Siegel and Westgate Resorts to pay the filmmakers $750,000 for legal fees. In a separate arbitration, Greg Derin of the American Arbitration Association ruled on February 28, 2014 that the filmmakers' agreement with the family, pertaining to certain life rights, was "invalid and unenforceable".
The Siegels' attempt to sue for $5 million in damages was dismissed by Mr. Derin; as Westgate Resorts' finances have improved since 2013, Siegel now owns the Versailles property outright. Construction has resumed. Expected to be valued at over $100 million, the project will be the fourth most expensive house in the United States. David Siegel and Westgate Resorts continue to operate a timeshare business, but without the PH Towers featured in the documentary; as a pri
Quentin Jerome Tarantino is an American filmmaker and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, an aestheticization of violence, extended scenes of dialogue, ensemble casts consisting of established and lesser-known performers, references to popular culture and a wide variety of other films, soundtracks containing songs and score pieces from the 1960s to the 1980s, features of neo-noir film, his career began in the late 1980s when he wrote and directed My Best Friend's Birthday, the screenplay of which formed the basis for True Romance. In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with the release of Reservoir Dogs in 1992, funded by money from the sale of his script Natural Born Killers to Oliver Stone. Empire deemed Reservoir Dogs the "Greatest Independent Film of All Time", its popularity was boosted by his second film, Pulp Fiction, a black comedy crime film, a major success both among critics and audiences. For his next effort, Tarantino paid homage to the blaxploitation films of the 1970s with Jackie Brown, an adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel Rum Punch.
Kill Bill, a stylized "revenge flick" in the cinematic traditions of Kung fu films, Japanese martial arts, Spaghetti Westerns and Italian horror, followed six years and was released as two films: Volume 1 in 2003 and Volume 2 in 2004. Tarantino next directed Death Proof in 2007, as part of a double feature with Robert Rodriguez, under the collective title Grindhouse, his long-postponed Inglourious Basterds, which tells an alternate history of Nazi Germany, was released in 2009 to positive reviews. After that came critically acclaimed Django Unchained, a Western film set in the Antebellum South, his eighth film, The Hateful Eight, was released in its roadshow version in 70 mm film format, with opening "overture" and halfway-point intermission. His ninth film, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, is scheduled to be released in 2019; the film, set in Los Angeles in 1969, is his first based on true events. Tarantino's films have garnered both commercial success, he has received many industry awards, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two BAFTA Awards and the Palme d'Or, has been nominated for an Emmy and a Grammy.
In 2005, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. Filmmaker and historian Peter Bogdanovich has called him "the single most influential director of his generation". In December 2015, Tarantino received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the film industry. Tarantino was born on March 27, 1963, in Knoxville, the only child of Connie McHugh and Tony Tarantino, an actor and producer, his father is of Italian descent, his mother has Irish and Cherokee ancestry. Quentin was named for Burt Reynolds' character in the CBS series Gunsmoke. Tarantino's mother met his father during a trip to Los Angeles, where Tony was a law student and would-be entertainer, she married him soon after, to gain independence from her parents. After the divorce, Connie Tarantino left Los Angeles and moved to Knoxville, where her parents lived. In 1966, Tarantino and his mother moved back to Los Angeles. Tarantino's mother married musician Curtis Zastoupil soon after arriving in Los Angeles, the family moved to Torrance, a city in Los Angeles County's South Bay area.
Zastoupil encouraged Tarantino's love of movies, accompanied him to numerous film screenings. Tarantino's mother allowed him to see movies with adult content, such as Carnal Knowledge and Deliverance. After his mother divorced Zastoupil in 1973, received a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Tarantino was sent to live with his grandparents in Tennessee, he remained there less than a year before returning to California. At 14 years old, Tarantino wrote one of his earliest works, a screenplay called Captain Peachfuzz and the Anchovy Bandit, based on Hal Needham's 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit starring Burt Reynolds; the summer after his 15th birthday, Tarantino was grounded by his mother for shoplifting Elmore Leonard's novel The Switch from Kmart. He was allowed to leave only to attend the Torrance Community Theater, where he participated in such plays as Two Plus Two Makes Sex and Romeo and Juliet. At about 15, Tarantino dropped out of Narbonne High School in Los Angeles, he worked as an usher at a porn theater in Torrance, called the Pussycat Theatre.
Tarantino attended acting classes at the James Best Theatre Company, where he met several of his eventual collaborators. While at James Best, Tarantino met Craig Hamann, with whom he collaborated to produce My Best Friend's Birthday. Throughout the 1980s, Tarantino worked a number of jobs, he spent time as a recruiter in the aerospace industry, for five years, he worked at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California. Former Buffy the Vampire Slayer actor Danny Strong described Tarantino as "such a movie buff, he had so much knowledge of films that he would try to get people to watch cool movies."After Tarantino met Lawrence Bender at a Hollywood party, Bender encouraged him to write a screenplay. His first attempted script, which he described as a "straight 70s exploitation action movie" was never published and was abandoned soon after. Tarantino co-wrote and directed his first movie, My Best Friend's Birthday, in 1987; the final reel of the film was completely destroyed in a lab fire that occurred during editing, but its screenplay formed the basis for True Romance.
In 1986, Tarantino got his first Hollywood job, working with Roger Avary as production assistants on Dolph Lundgren's exercise video, Maximum Potentia
Elizabeth Irene Banks is an American actress and producer. She is known for her starring role as Effie Trinket in The Hunger Games film series and as Gail Abernathy-McKadden in the Pitch Perfect film series, she made her directorial debut with Pitch Perfect 2, whose $69 million opening-weekend gross set a record for a first-time director. Banks made her film debut in the low-budget independent film Surrender Dorothy, she starred in the films Wet Hot American Summer, Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, Slither and Miri Make a Porno, Role Models, The Next Three Days, Man on a Ledge, What to Expect When You're Expecting, The Lego Movie, Love & Mercy, Magic Mike XXL, Power Rangers. On television, Banks had a recurring role as Avery Jessup on the NBC sitcom 30 Rock, which earned her two Primetime Emmy Award nominations, she had recurring roles on the comedy series Scrubs and Modern Family, the latter of which earned her a Primetime Emmy Award nomination. Banks starred in the Netflix miniseries Wet Hot American Summer: First Day of Camp and Wet Hot American Summer: Ten Years Later.
As of July 2018, Box Office Mojo ranked Banks as the 30th-highest-grossing actor of all time, the ninth-highest-grossing female actor. Banks was born in Pittsfield and grew up on Brown Street, the eldest of four children of Ann and Mark P. Mitchell, her father, a Vietnam veteran, was a factory worker for General Electric and her mother worked in a bank. She has said that she grew up "Irish + WASP + Catholic."Growing up, Banks played baseball and rode horses. She was in Little League, she tried out for the school play, her start in acting. She graduated from Pittsfield High School in 1992, is a member of the Massachusetts Junior Classical League, she attended the University of Pennsylvania, where she was a member of the Delta Delta Delta Sorority and was elected to the Friars Senior Society. She graduated magna cum laude in 1996 with a major in a minor in theater arts. In 1998, she completed schooling at the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco, where she earned an MFA degree. Banks changed her name to avoid confusion with actress Elizabeth Mitchell.
After auditioning in New York, she was offered a role on the soap opera Santa Barbara. Taking the role would have required her to quit her education at the American Conservatory Theatre, Banks decided to forgo the offer due to having taken out student loans to complete her degree, she made her acting debut in the 1998 independent film Surrender Dorothy, as Elizabeth Casey, appeared in various films over the next seven years including Guy Ritchie's Swept Away before gaining more prominent widespread exposure through the 2005 comedy film The 40-Year-Old Virgin. In August 2005, at the Williamstown Theatre Festival, Banks starred in William Inge's Bus Stop as Cherie, the sexy blonde aspiring nightclub singer. Jeffrey Borak wrote that Banks' portrayal was acted "with poise, clarity and a shrewd feel for Cherie's complexities, her performance is all of a piece and in harmony, with the performances around her..." In 2005, she appeared on the series Stella, in May 2006, she had a role in the season five finale of the NBC sitcom Scrubs as Dr. Kim Briggs, the love interest of J.
D.. The character appeared throughout seasons six and eight as a recurring guest star. In 2006, Banks appeared in the American football drama film Invincible, in which she played Mark Wahlberg's love interest, she and co-star Wahlberg were nominated for the "Best Kiss" award at the MTV Movie Awards. That same year, she landed the starring role in the comedy-horror film Slither. In 2007, Banks played the female lead in the comedy film Meet Bill, alongside Aaron Eckhart and Jessica Alba; that same year, she had a small role in the Christmas comedy film Fred Claus, co-starring Vince Vaughn and Paul Giamatti as Santa's little helper, Charlyne. In 2008, she played the ex-wife and mother of the daughter of Ryan Reynolds lead in the comedy film Definitely, alongside Isla Fisher and Ryan Reynolds, starred with Seth Rogen as the eponymous female lead in the Kevin Smith comedy Zack and Miri Make a Porno, played United States First Lady Laura Bush in W. Oliver Stone's biopic of George W. Bush. In 2009, Banks appeared in the horror film The Uninvited, a remake of the South Korean film A Tale of Two Sisters.
The film was about an intrusive stepmother who makes life miserable for the teen daughters of her new husband. Banks based her character, Rachel, on Rebecca De Mornay's character in The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. "It was important to me that every line reading I gave could be interpreted two ways," says Banks of her role, "So that when you go back through the movie you can see that". Banks is a frequent co-star of actor Paul Rudd, the two having appeared in five films together to date, she is a frequent co-star of actor Tobey Maguire, the two having appeared in five films together. Banks was cast as a love interest for Jack Donaghy in the fourth season of the Emmy Award-winning sitcom 30 Rock. Intended to appear in four episodes in 2010, Banks went on to become a recurring character with 13 appearances by the end of the fifth season, including her marriage in the episode Mrs. Donaghy, her performance in season five earned her a nomination for Primetime Emmy Award f
Sundance Film Festival
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, the largest independent film festival in the United States with more than 46,660 attending in 2016. It is held in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, it is a showcase for new work from international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres; the 2019 Sundance Film Festival began January 24 and ran through February 3. Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978, as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah, it was founded by John Earle. The 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. With chairman Robert Redford, the help of Utah Governor Scott M. Matheson, the goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, to increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah.
At the time, the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, to celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system; the jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, included Verna Fields, Linwood G. Dunn, Katharine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr. Mark Rydell, Anthea Sylbert. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what was to become the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania as executive director. More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers; that year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart. The festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left the festival to pursue a production career in Hollywood. Several factors helped propel the growth of Utah/US Film Festival.
First was the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, who became the festival's inaugural chairman. By having Redford's name associated with the festival, it received great attention. Secondly, the country was hungry for more venues that would celebrate American-made films as the only other festival doing so at the time was the USA Film Festival in Dallas. Response in Hollywood was unprecedented, as major studios did all they could to contribute their resources. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.
The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.
The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena; the Sundance London 2015 Festival was cancelled in an announcement on 16 January 2015. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016 and again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Cinema in London's West End. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong took place from 22 September to 2 October 2016 and is scheduled again for 21 September to 1 October 2017, it is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City. M