In fish anatomy and turtle anatomy, a barbel is a slender, whiskerlike sensory organ near the mouth. Fish that have barbels include the catfish, the carp, the goatfish, the hagfish, the sturgeon, the zebrafish, the black dragonfish and some species of shark such as the sawshark. Barbels are used to search for food in murky water; the word "barbel" comes from the Middle Latin barbula, for "little beard." Barbels are sometimes erroneously referred to as barbs. Barbels may be located in a variety of locations on the head of a fish. "Maxillary barbels" refers to barbels on either side of the mouth. Barbels may be nasal, extending from the nostrils. Barbels are mandibular or mental, being located on the chin. Adriaens, D. and Verraes, W.. Ontogeny of the maxillary barbel muscles in Clarias gariepinus, with some notes on the palatine-maxillary mechanism. Journal of Zoology 241, 117-133. Eakin, R. R. Eastman, J. T. and Vacchi, M.. Sexual dimorphism and mental barbel structure in the South Georgia plunderfish Artedidraco mirus.
Polar Biology 30, 45-52. Fadaee, B. Pourkazemi, M. Tavakoli, M. Joushideh, H. Khoshghalb, M. R. B. Hosseini, M. R. and Abdulhay, H.. Tagging and tracking juvenile sturgeons in shallow waters of the Caspian Sea using CWT and barbel incision. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22, 160-165. Fox, H.. Barbels and barbel-like tentacular structures in sub-mammalian vertebrates: A review. Hydrobiologia 403, 153-193. Grover-Johnson, N. and Farbman, A.. Fine structure of taste buds in the barbel of the catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Cell Tissue Res 169, 395-403. Joyce, E. C. and Chapman, G. B.. Fine structure of the nasal barbel of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Morphology 158, 109-153. LeClair, E. E. and Topczewski, J.. Methods for the study of the zebrafish maxillary barbel. J Vis Exp, http://www.jove.com/video/1558/methods-for-the-study-of-the-zebrafish-maxillary-barbel?id=1558, doi:10.3791/1558. LeClair, E. E. and Topczewski, J.. Development and regeneration of the zebrafish maxillary barbel: a novel study system for vertebrate tissue growth and repair.
PLoS One 5, e8737. Ogawa, K. Marui, T. and Caprio, J.. Bimodal fibers innervate the maxillary barbel in the channel catfish. Chem Senses 22, 477-82
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows and relatives. This order contains 11-12 families, over 400 genera, more than 4,250 species, with new species being described every few months or so, new genera being recognized frequently, they are most diverse in southeastern Asia, are absent from Australia and South America. Their closest living relatives are the Gymnotiformes and the Siluriformes. Like other orders of the Ostariophysi, fishes of cypriniformes possess a Weberian apparatus, they differ from most of their relatives in having only a dorsal fin on their back. Further differences are the Cypriniformes' unique kinethmoid, a small median bone in the snout, the lack of teeth in the mouth. Instead, they have convergent structures called pharyngeal teeth in the throat. While other groups of fish, such as cichlids possess pharyngeal teeth, the cypriniformes' teeth grind against a chewing pad on the base of the skull, instead of an upper pharyngeal jaw; the most notable family placed here is Cyprinidae.
This is one of the largest families of fish, is distributed across Africa and North America. Most species are freshwater inhabitants, but a considerable number are found in brackish water, such as roach and bream. At least one species is found in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. Brackish water and marine cyprinids are invariably anadromous, swimming upstream into rivers to spawn. Sometimes separated as family Psilorhynchidae, they seem to be specially-adapted fishes of Cyprinidae. Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are families of mountain stream fishes feeding on algae and small invertebrates, they are found only in subtropical Asia. While the former are a speciose group, the latter contain only a handful of species; the suckers are found in temperate North eastern Asia. These large fishes are similar to carps in ecology. Members of Cobitidae common across Eurasia and parts of North Africa. A mid-sized group like the suckers, they are rather similar to catfish in appearance and behaviour, feeding off the substrate and equipped with barbels to help them locate food at night or in murky conditions.
Fishes in the families Cobitidae, Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are called loaches, although it seems that the last do not belong to the lineage of "true" loaches but are related to the suckers. These included all the forms now placed in the superorder Ostariophysi except the catfish, which were placed in the order Siluriformes. By this definition, the Cypriniformes were paraphyletic, so the orders Gonorhynchiformes and Gymnotiformes have been separated out to form their own monophyletic orders; the families of Cypriniformes are traditionally divided into two superfamilies. Superfamily Cyprinioidea contains the carps and minnows and the mountain carps as the family Psilorhynchidae. In 2012 Maurice Kottelat reviewed the superfamily Cobitoidei and under his revision it now consists of the following families: hillstream loaches, Botiidae, true loaches, Gastromyzontidae, sucking loaches, stone loaches, Serpenticobitidae and long-finned loaches. Catostomoidea is treated as a junior synonym of Cobitoidei.
But it seems that it could be split off the Catostomidae and Gyrinocheilidae in a distinct superfamily. While the Cyprinioidea seem more "primitive" than the loach-like forms, they were successful enough never to shift from the original ecological niche of the basal Ostariophysi. Yet, from the ecomorphologically conservative main lineage at least two major radiations branched off; these diversified from the lowlands into torrential river habitats, acquiring similar habitus and adaptations in the process. The mountain carps are apomorphic Cyprinidae close to true carps, or maybe to the danionins. While some details about the phylogenetic structures of this massively diverse family are known – e.g. that Cultrinae and Leuciscinae are rather close relatives and stand apart from Cyprininae – there is no good consensus yet on how the main lineages are interrelated. A systematic list, from the most ancient to the most modern lineages, can thus be given as: Superfamily Cyprinoidei Family Cyprinidae Bonaparte, 1840 and minnows incl.
Psilorhynchidae) Superfamily Cobitoidei Superfamily Catostomoidea Family Catostomidae Agassiz 1850 Superfamily Gyrinocheiloidea Family Gyrinocheilidae Gill 1905 Superfamily Cobitoidea Family Barbuccidae Kottelat 2012 Family Serpenticobitidae Kottelat 2012 Family Botiidae Berg 1940 Family Vaillantellidae Nalbant & Bănărescu 1977 Family Cobitidae Swainson 1838 Family Balitoridae Swainson 1839 Family Gastromyzontidae Fowler 1905 Family Ellopostomatidae Bohlen & Šlechtová 2009 Family Nemacheilidae Regan 1911 Phylogeny based on the work of the following works Cypriniformes include the most primitive of the Ostariophysi in the narrow sense. This is evidenced n
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, their relatives. Called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera.. They range from about 12 mm to the 3-meter Catlocarpio siamensis; this family of fish is one of the few. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make more than two-thirds; the family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. So, food can be chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow; these pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a bony process of the skull. The pharyngeal teeth are used by scientists to identify species. Strong pharyngeal teeth allow fish such as the common carp and ide to eat hard baits such as snails and bivalves.
Hearing is a well-developed sense in the cyprinids since they have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebral processes that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. The vertebral processes of the Weberian organ permit a cyprinid to detect changes in motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes; the cyprinids are considered physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder, or they can dispose excess gas to the gut. Cyprinids are native to North America and Eurasia; the largest known cyprinid is the giant barb, which may grow up to 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight. Other large species that can surpass 2 m are the golden mahseer and mangar; the largest North American species is the Colorado pikeminnow, which can reach up to 1.8 m in length. Conversely, many species are smaller than 5 cm; the smallest known fish is Paedocypris progenetica, reaching 10.3 mm at the longest. All fish in this family most do not guard their eggs.
The bitterlings of subfamily Acheilognathinae are notable for depositing their eggs in bivalve molluscs, where the young develop until able to fend for themselves. Most cyprinids feed on invertebrates and vegetation due to the lack of teeth and stomach. Many species, such as the ide and the common rudd, prey on small fish when individuals become large enough. Small species, such as the moderlieschen, are opportunistic predators that will eat larvae of the common frog in artificial circumstances; some cyprinids, such as the grass carp, are specialized herbivores. For this reason, cyprinids are introduced as a management tool to control various factors in the aquatic environment, such as aquatic vegetation and diseases transmitted by snails. Unlike most fish species, cyprinids increase in abundance in eutrophic lakes. Here, they contribute towards positive feedback as they are efficient at eating the zooplankton that would otherwise graze on the algae, reducing its abundance. Cyprinids are important food fish.
In land-locked countries in particular, cyprinids are the major species of fish eaten because they make the largest part of biomass in most water types except for fast-flowing rivers. In Eastern Europe, they are prepared with traditional methods such as drying and salting; the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products made this less important now than it was in earlier times. Nonetheless, in certain places, they remain popular for food, as well as recreational fishing, have been deliberately stocked in ponds and lakes for centuries for this reason. Cyprinids are popular for angling for match fishing and fishing for common carp because of its size and strength. Several cyprinids have been introduced to waters outside their natural ranges to provide food, sport, or biological control for some pest species; the common carp and the grass carp are the most important for example in Florida. In some cases, such as the Asian carp in the Mississippi Basin, they have become invasive species that compete with native fishes or disrupt the environment.
Carp in particular can stir up sediment, reducing the clarity of the water and making it difficult for plants to grow. Numerous cyprinids have become important in the aquarium and fishpond hobbies, most famously the goldfish, bred in China from the Prussian carp. First imported into Europe around 1728, it was much fancied by Chinese nobility as early as 1150 AD and after it arrived there in 1502 in Japan. In the latter country, from the 18th century onwards, the common carp was bred into the ornamental variety known as koi – or more nishikigoi, as koi means "common carp" in Japanese. Other popular aquarium cyprinids include danionins and true barbs. Larger species are bred by the thousands in outdoor ponds in Southeast Asia, trade in these aquarium fishes
Danio is a genus of small freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae found in South and Southeast Asia kept in aquaria. They are characterised by a pattern of horizontal stripes, rows of spots or vertical bars; some species have two pairs of long barbels. Species of this genus consume various small aquatic insects and worms; the name "danio" comes from the Bangla name dhani, meaning "of the rice field". Danio was described in the early 19th century by Francis Hamilton. Two of the species included by him in the genus, still remain valid -- D. D. rerio. About a century and with many more species described in the meantime, the genus was split. In 1991, the two genera were recombined. Brachydanio is now a junior synonym of Danio. There are 27 recognized species in this genus: Danio absconditus S. O. Kullander & Britz, 2015 Danio aesculapii S. O. Kullander & F. Fang, 2009 Danio albolineatus Danio annulosus S. O. Kullander, Norén & Mollah, 2015 Danio assamila S. O. Kullander, 2015 Danio catenatus S. O. Kullander, 2015 Danio choprae Hora, 1928 Danio concatenatus S. O. Kullander, 2015 Danio dangila Danio erythromicron Danio feegradei Hora, 1937 Danio flagrans S. O. Kullander, 2012 Danio htamanthinus S. O. Kullander & Norén, 2016 Danio jaintianensis Danio kerri H. M. Smith, 1931 Danio kyathit F. Fang, 1998 Danio margaritatus Danio meghalayensis N. Sen & S. C.
Dey, 1985 Danio muongthanhensis Nguyen, 2001 Danio nigrofasciatus Danio quagga S. O. Kullander, T. Y. Liao & F. Fang, 2009 Danio quangbinhensis Nguyen, Le & Nguyen, 1999 Danio rerio Danio roseus F. Fang & Kottelat, 2000 Danio sysphigmatus S. O. Kullander, 2015 Danio tinwini S. O. Kullander & F. Fang, 2009 Danio trangi Ngo, 2003
An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, aquatic plants; the term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large; the aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities.
This kind of aquarium is other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks have plants. An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are known as fish tanks or tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl, under a gallon in volume, to immense public aquaria of several thousand gallons. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. In 1369, the Hongwu Emperor of China established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish. Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts, it is sometimes held that the aquarium was invented by the Romans, who are said to have kept sea barbels in marble-and-glass tanks, but this is unlikely to be true. In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.
In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium. In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for three years, was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria; the aquarium principle was developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal; the keeping of fish in an aquarium spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851.
In 1853, the aquarium craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House. Gosse coined the word "aquarium", opting for this term in 1854 in his book The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea. In this book, Gosse discussed saltwater aquaria. In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fad in the United Kingdom. Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington cooperating with Gosse until his critical review of the tank water composition. Edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a "dark-water-chamber slope-back tank", with water circulating to a reservoir beneath. Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom: Die Gartenlaube entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.
In 1862 William Alford Lloyd bankrupt because of the craze in England being over, moved to Grindel Dammthor, Hamburg, to supervise the installation of the circulating system and tanks at the Hamburg Aquarium. During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany; the United States soon followed. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States about the aquarium. According to the July issue of The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, had as many as seven or eight; the first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others. The New York Aquarium Journal, first published in October 1876, is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine. In the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood; the bottom would be heated from below.
More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of
FishBase is a global species database of fish species. It is the most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web. Over time it has "evolved into a dynamic and versatile ecological tool", cited in scholarly publications. FishBase provides comprehensive species data, including information on taxonomy, geographical distribution and morphology, behaviour and habitats and population dynamics as well as reproductive and genetic data. There is access to tools such as trophic pyramids, identification keys, biogeographical modelling and fishery statistics and there are direct species level links to information in other databases such as LarvalBase, GenBank, the IUCN Red List and the Catalog of Fishes; as of November 2018, FishBase included descriptions of 34,000 species and subspecies, 323,200 common names in 300 languages, 58,900 pictures, references to 55,300 works in the scientific literature. The site has about 700,000 unique visitors per month; the origins of FishBase go back to the 1970s, when the fisheries scientist Daniel Pauly found himself struggling to test a hypothesis on how the growing ability of fish was affected by the size of their gills.
Hypotheses, such as this one, could be tested only if large amounts of empirical data were available. At the time, fisheries management used analytical models which required estimates for fish growth and mortality, it can be difficult for fishery scientists and managers to get the information they need on the species that concern them, because the relevant facts can be scattered across and buried in numerous journal articles, reports and other sources. It can be difficult for people in developing countries who need such information. Pauly believed that the only practical way fisheries managers could access the volume of data they needed was to assemble and consolidate all the data available in the published literature into some central and accessed repository; such a database would be useful if the data has been standardised and validated. This would mean that when scientists or managers need to test a new hypothesis, the available data will be there in a validated and accessible form, there will be no need to create a new dataset and have to validate it.
Pauly recruited Rainer Froese, the beginnings of a software database along these lines was encoded in 1988. This database confined to tropical fish, became the prototype for FishBase. FishBase was subsequently extended to cover all finfish, was launched on the Web in August 1996, it is now the most accessed online database for fish in the world. In 1995 the first CD-ROM was released as "FishBase 100". Subsequent CDs have been released annually; the software runs on Microsoft Access. FishBase does not detail the early and juvenile stages of fish. In 1999 a complimentary database, called LarvalBase, went online under the supervision of Bernd Ueberschär, it covers ichthyoplankton and the juvenile stage of fishes, with detailed data on fish eggs and larvae, fish identification, as well as data relevant to the rearing of young fish in aquaculture. Given FishBase's success, there was a demand for a database covering forms of aquatic life other than finfish; this resulted, in the birth of SeaLifeBase. The long-term goal of SeaLifeBase is to develop an information system modelled on FishBase, but including all forms of aquatic life, both marine and freshwater, apart from the finfish which FishBase specialises in.
Altogether, there are about 300,000 known species in this category. As awareness of FishBase has grown among fish specialists, it has attracted over 2,310 contributors and collaborators. Since 2000 FishBase has been supervised by a consortium of nine international institutions. To date, the FishBase consortium has grown to twelve members; the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research for Ocean Research Kiel in Germany, functions as the coordinating body. Catalog of Fishes List of online encyclopedias Bailly N Why there may be discrepancies in the assessment of scientific names between the Catalog of Fishes and FishBase Version 2, 6 May 2010. Bailly N, Reyes Jr R, Atanacio R and Froese R "Simple Identification Tools in FishBase" In: Nimis PL and Vignes Lebbe R. Tools for Identifying Biodiversity: Progress and Problems, pages 31–36. ISBN 978-88-8303-295-0. Christensen V, CJ Walters, R Ahrens, J Alder, J Buszowski, LB Christensen, WWL Cheung, J Dunne, R Froese, V Karpouzi, K Kaschner, K Kearney, S Lai, V Lam, MLD Palomares, A Peters-Mason, C Piroddia, JL Sarmiento, J Steenbeek, R Sumaila, R Watson, D Zeller and D Pauly Database-driven models of the world's Large Marine Ecosystems Ecological Modelling, 220: 1984–1996.
Froese R "The science in Fishbase" In: Villy Christensen and Jay Maclean Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press, pages 47–54. ISBN 978-0-521-13022-6. Froese R and Pauly D FishBase 2000: concepts and data sources ICLARM, Philippines. Froese R and Pauly D "Fishbase as a tool for comparing the life history patterns of flatfish" Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 32: 235–239. Nauen CE A public electronic archive on the world’s fishes in support of sustainable fisheries CTA/Commonwealth Secretariat Seminar, Expert Meeting on ACP-EU Fisheries Relations, Brussels. Palomares, M. L. D. N. Bailly and D. Pauly FishBase, SeaLifeBase and database-driven ecosystem modeling p. 156-158. In: M. L. D. Palomares, L. Morissette, A. Cisnero-Montemayor, D. Varkey, M. Coll and C. Piroddi Ecopath 25 Years Conference Proceedings: Extended Abstracts. UBC Fisheries Centre Resear