click links in text for more info

Land Public Transport Agency (Malaysia)

The Land Public Transport Commission, Abbr.: SPAD, was a Malaysian statutory body set up to plan for and enforce rules concerning land-based public and freight transport in Malaysia from 2010 to 2018. In 2018, the SPAD was dissolved and rebranded as the Land Public Transport Agency, absorbed into Ministry of Transport; the commission was set up through the Public Land Transport Commission Act of 2010, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in May 2010. The commission's powers are derived from the Public Land Transport Act of 2010, passed at the same time; the Public Land Transport Act was gazetted on 3 June 2010, making it the official day of establishment of the Commission. The first Chairman of the Commission was Syed Hamid Albar while the Chief Executive Officer of the Commission was Mohd Nur Ismal Mohamed Kamal. Both were appointed by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Abdul Razak and their appointments were effective 3 June 2010. On 19 June 2017 the controversial Mohd Isa Abdul Samad was picked as the new acting SPAD chairman after he has resigned as Felda Global Ventures Holdings chairman.

SPAD plans and enforces all matters relating to Public Land transport and has jurisdiction over Peninsula Malaysia. The Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board, Department of Railways and the Ministry of Tourism continue to exercise their respective powers in Sabah and Sarawak; the Policy and Research Division’s main function is to motivate demand in public transport among the masses through the provision of a user-friendly and sustainable public transport ecosystem. SPAD's National Public Land Transport Master Plan was released in September 2012. SPAD has its own enforcement officers, their powers to carry out enforcement work are derived from the Public Land Transport Act 2010. The duties of SPAD enforcement officers include inspection of public transport and freight vehicles to ensure that they are road worthy, have valid licenses and other documents. SPAD enforcement officers work hand-in-hand with enforcement officers from other agencies such as the Road Transport Department and the Royal Malaysian Police.

SPAD released the National Public Land Transport Master Plan in September 2012. It is a 20-year master plan aimed at both the regional levels; the strategic objectives outlined in the master plan are as follows: Physical connectivity to encourage the use of public transport. After the 2018 general election that saw the downfall of BN government, on 23 May 2018 new Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad of the new Pakatan Harapan coalition federal government announced that the SPAD was among few government departments that to be abolished. Transport Minister Anthony Loke told Mohd Isa to resign from SPAD chairman within a week. Mohd Isa resigned as SPAD chairman on 29 May 2018. SPAD was dissolved and rebranded as Agensi Pengangkutan Awam Darat, absorbed into Ministry of Transport. Official website

Annona glabra

Annona glabra is a tropical fruit tree in the family Annonaceae, in the same genus as the soursop and cherimoya. Common names include pond apple, alligator apple, swamp apple, corkwood and monkey apple; the tree is native to Florida in the United States, the Caribbean and South America, West Africa. It is common in the Everglades; the A. glabra tree is considered an invasive species in Sri Australia. It grows in swamps, is tolerant of saltwater, cannot grow in dry soil; the trees grow to up to 12 m. They sometimes grow in clumps; the leaves are ovate to oblong, each with an acute tip, 8–15 cm long and 4–6 cm broad with a prominent midrib. The upper surface is light to dark green. Leaves of the A. glabra are said to have a distinct smell, similar to green apples, that can distinguish it from mangroves. The fruit is oblong through spherical and apple-sized or larger, 7–15 cm long and up to 9 cm diameter, falls when it is green or ripening yellowish, it disperses by floating to new locations, it is food for many animal species such as wild boar.

Reproduction begins around two years of age. A fruit contains light yellow-brown seeds, about 1 cm long. A. glabra flowers have a short life-span, have a diameter of 2-3cm. The flowers have three outer petals as well as three inner petals. Compared to the pale yellow or cream color of the petals, the inner base of the A. glabra flower is a bright red. Its pollen is shed as permanent tetrads. A. glabra thrives in wet environments. The seeds and fruit of this plant can be dispersed during wet seasons where they fall into swamps and rivers; this allows the fruits to spread to coastlines. A 2008 study found that A. glabra seeds can withstand floating in salt water and fresh water for up to 12 months. About 38% of those seeds can germinate in soil, though A. glabra roots do not do well with constant flooding. Another study in 1998 found that under intense flooding, the 12-month lifespan of A. glabra seedlings was unaffected. Compared to other Annona seeds and trees, the A. glabra is still more resilient to instances of flooding.

Unlike the other Annona species, the pulp of the fruit when ripe is yellow through orange instead of whitish. The fruit is edible for humans and its taste is reminiscent of ripe Honeydew melon, it can be made into jam, it is a popular ingredient of fresh fruit drinks in Maldives. In the older days the seeds were crushed and cooked in coconut oil and applied to hair to get rid of lice The flesh is sweet-scented and agreeable in flavor, but it has never attained general popular use unlike soursop and other related fruits. Experiments in South Florida have been conducted to use it as a superior rootstock for sugar-apple or soursop. While the grafts appear to be effective, a high percentage of them fail over time. Soursop on pond-apple rootstock has a dwarfing effect. Recent research suggests that its alcoholic seed extract contains anticancer compounds that could be used pharmaceutically, it is a troublesome invasive species in northern Queensland in Australia and Sri Lanka, where it grows in estuaries and chokes mangrove swamps.

The A. glabra tree was introduced to North Queensland sometime around 1912 as both a rootstock for similar Annona species such as Annona atemoya, the custard apple. A. glabra seedlings prevent other species from germinating or thriving. It affects farms as it grows along fencelines and farm drains, it invades and transforms undisturbed areas. This can be observed in the case of Australia’s Eubenangee Swamp National Park where an outbreak occurred due to poor wetland management. In Australia, A. glabra seeds can be spread by the southern cassowary. Seeds of the fruit have been found in cassowary dung with dispersal distances of up to 5212 m recorded in one 2008 study in the journal Diversity and Distributions; the southern cassowary itself however is an endangered species in Australia. According to the Australian government’s Department of the Environment and Energy, there is only around 20-25% of cassowary habitat remaining. Additionally, part of the government’s recovery plan includes actions towards establishing nurseries filled with plants that the cassowary consumes.

Because the A. glabra is among the foods eaten by southern cassowary, revegetation may be necessary to ensure that cassowary have alternative food sources available. When the A. glabra population is controlled, natural vegetation can regenerate without human intervention. Because of its impact on the environment as an invasive weed, the Australian government classifies the A. glabra as a Weed of National Significance. Additionally, the A. glabra was considered the highest ranked species in 2003 in a Wet Tropics bioregion weed risk assessment. In Sri Lanka it was introduced as a grafting stock for custard apples and spread into wetlands around Colombo; the Australian government views the A. glabra as a weed, as such offers through its Department of the Environment and Energy a control plan created in 2001 for citizens that aims at eliminating the A. glabra by 20 years. The plan includes six steps that property owners can take to determine how to control and monitor an outbreak of A. glabra as well as how to minimize financial damage.

To disincentivize the cultivation and spread of A. glabra by humans, its sale and entry is banned throughout most of Australia. Options for the control of the A. glabra include fire and mechanical controls including combinations of the three types. The best time of year to do so according to the government of Australia is during the time between August to November, the

Arthur Tilford

Arthur Tilford was an English professional footballer who played as a full-back for various clubs in the 1920s and 1930s. Tilford was born in Ilkeston, Derbyshire and, after playing for a local village side, he joined First Division Nottingham Forest in May 1924, he made only one First Division appearance for Nottingham Forest as they were relegated at the end of the 1923–24 season. In the following season, he made only seven appearances at left-half, as stand-in for Bob Wallace. After two seasons at Forest, he was transferred to Blackpool where he was moved to left-back, replacing George Bradshaw. Tilford made a total of 55 appearances for Blackpool before being replaced in turn by Stan Ramsay. Tilford dropped down to the Third Division South when he joined Coventry City in May 1929, where he spent three seasons, before joining Fulham in February 1932. At the end of his first season with Fulham, they were promoted as champions to the Second Division. Tilford had established himself at left-back when the death of his young daughter in late 1932 caused a loss of form.

Manager Jimmy McIntyre had just agreed to sign Mike Keeping from Southampton and suggested that Tilford should move to The Dell temporarily to help him recover from his loss. During his short spell with Southampton, Tilford continued to train at Craven Cottage and made only ten appearances for the "Saints". In the summer of 1933, Tilford re-signed with Fulham but by now Keeping had established himself at left-back and Tilford was unable to force himself back into the side. After only five more appearances, he moved to Walsall where he spent the 1934–35 season before retiring from professional football


Idstein is a town of about 25,000 inhabitants in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. Because of its well preserved historical Altstadt it is part of the Deutsche Fachwerkstraße, connecting towns with fine fachwerk buildings and houses. In 2002, the town hosted the 42nd Hessentag state festival. Idstein lies in the Taunus mountain range, about 16 kilometres north of Wiesbaden; the town's landmark is a 12th-century bergfried and part of Idstein Castle. The Old Town is found between the two brooks running through town, the Wolfsbach in the east and the Wörsbach in the west, on a high ridge reaching up to 400 m above sea level; this comes to an end in the Old Town's north end with the castle and palace crags, behind which the two brooks run together. On the Wolfsbach, remnants of the like-named, now forsaken village can still be made out; the estate agent Gassenbach in the town's south goes back to an old settlement called Gassenbach. West of town, beyond the Wörsbach valley, lies another high ridge with peaks ranging from the Hohe Kanzel to the Roßberg and the Rügert to the Rosenkippel.

Just under the western heights run the Autobahn A 3 and the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. On the other side of the Rügert are the constituent communities of Oberauroff and Niederauroff in the valley of the Auroffer Bach. North of Idstein, the Wörsbach valley reaches into the Goldener Grund, fertile cropland that stretches all the way to the Lahn valley. Idstein borders in the north on the town of Bad Camberg and the community of Waldems, in the east on the community of Glashütten, in the southeast on the town of Eppstein, in the south on the community of Niedernhausen, in the southwest on the town of Taunusstein and in the west on the community of Hünstetten; the town is made up of a main town bearing the same name as the whole and eleven other independent villages: Until 1977, Idstein belonged to the Untertaunuskreis, which in the course of district reform was merged with the Rheingau-Kreis into the new Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis. With about 25,700 inhabitants, Idstein is the second biggest town in the district.

Idstein, which had its first documentary mention in 1102 as Etichenstein, was granted town and market rights in 1287 by King Rudolph of Habsburg. Besides the Hexenturm near the old Nassau castle, mentioned, the town has a mediaeval town centre with many timber-frame buildings; the town's oldest preserved house was built in 1410. From the documentary mention in 1102 until 1721, Idstein was, with interruptions, residence of the Counts of Nassau-Idstein and other Nassau lines. One of the Counts, Adolf of Germany, was, as a compromise candidate, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1292 to 1298 falling in battle against the anti-king Albrecht I of Habsburg; the Nassau Counts' holdings were subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. This yielded an older Nassau-Idstein line from 1480 to 1509 merging once again with Nassau-Wiesbaden and Nassau-Weilburg and, from 1629 to 1721, a newer Nassau-Idstein line. In the 17th century, Count Johann of Nassau-Idstein persecuted witches in Idstein.

In 1721, Idstein passed to Nassau-Ottweiler, in 1728 to Nassau-Usingen, thereby losing its status as a residence town, although it became the seat of the Nassau Archives and of an Oberamt. Nassau-Usingen was united with Nassau-Weilburg in 1806 into the Duchy of Nassau, becoming a member of the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Prussia annexed the Duchy as the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau; the residential palace from the 17th century is used by the Pestalozzischule as a school building. It was expanded with a new building below the palace. From the late 18th century to the mid 20th, Idstein was the centre of an important leather industry. During the Second World War, many women became forced labour for work in the tanneries. In 1959, the dominant tannery in the middle of the town core was shut down for economic reasons; the lands were used until the 1980s as a carpark. Today, new shops and apartments surround the Löherplatz, now a marketplace; the private Kalmenhof clinic in Idstein was drawn into the Nazi Euthanasia programme.

Under Action T4, the Kalmenhof served as a way station for the "killing institute" at Hadamar. After the gassings at Hadamar came to an end in the face of public protests from the churches, the Kalmenhof itself, in the course of Aktion Brandt, became a killing institute. Shortly after the war, reports of young wards being mishandled came to light. Eleven independent villages were merged as of 1971 into Idstein, under the framework of municipal reform; the town's arms might be described thus: Azure a round castle wall embattled with two portcullises open, the wall enclosing two towers, the whole Or, with peaked roofs gules, between the portcullises an inescutcheon azure with a lion rampant Or armed and langued gules among six billets Or. The inescutcheon is the arms borne by the House of Nassau; the town's flag bears this design set against oran

Paul Goodman

Paul Goodman was an American author and public intellectual best known for his 1960s works of social criticism. Born to a Jewish family in New York City, Goodman was raised by his aunts and sister and attended City College of New York; as an aspiring writer, he wrote and published poems and fiction before attending graduate school in Chicago. He returned to writing in New York City and took sporadic magazine writing and teaching jobs, many of which he lost for his outward bisexuality and World War II draft resistance. Goodman wrote for libertarian journals, he became one of the founders of gestalt therapy and took patients through the 1950s while continuing to write prolifically. His 1960 book of social criticism, Growing Up Absurd, established his importance as a mainstream cultural theorist. Goodman became known as "the philosopher of the New Left" and his anarchistic disposition was influential in 1960s counterculture and free school movement, his celebrity did not endure far beyond his life, but Goodman is remembered for his principles, outré proposals, vision of human potential.

Paul Goodman was born in New York City on September 9, 1911, to Barnette Goodman. His Sephardic Jewish ancestors had emigrated to New York from Germany a century before the Eastern European wave, his grandfather had fought in the American Civil War and the family was "relatively prosperous". Goodman's insolvent father abandoned the family prior to his birth, making Paul their fourth and last child, after Alice and Percival, their mother worked as a women's clothes traveling saleswoman, which left Goodman to be raised by his aunts and sister in New York City's Washington Heights with petty bourgeois values. He attended Hebrew school and the city's public schools, where he excelled and came to identify with Manhattan. Goodman performed well in literature and languages during his time at Townsend Harris Hall High School and graduated in 1927, he started at City College of New York the same year, where he majored in philosophy, was influenced by philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen, found both lifelong friends and his intellectual social circle.

He graduated with a bachelor's in 1931, early in the Great Depression. As an aspiring writer, Goodman wrote and published poems, stories, a play while living with his sister Alice, who supported him, he did not keep a regular job, but read scripts for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and taught drama at a Zionist youth camp during the summers 1934 through 1936. Unable to afford tuition, Goodman audited graduate classes at Columbia University and traveled to some classes at Harvard University; when Columbia philosophy professor Richard McKeon moved to the University of Chicago, he invited Goodman to attend and lecture. Between 1936 and 1940, Goodman was a graduate student in literature and philosophy, a research assistant, part-time instructor, he took his preliminary exams in 1940, but was forced out for "nonconformist sexual behavior", a charge that would recur multiple times in his teaching career. Goodman was married and an active and open bisexual by this part of his life. Homesick and absent his doctorate degree, Goodman returned to writing in New York City, where he was affiliated with the literary avant-garde.

Goodman worked on his dissertation. Unable to find work as a teacher, he reviewed films in Partisan Review and in the next two years, published his first book of poetry and novel, he taught at Manumit, a progressive boarding school, in 1943 and 1944, but was let go for "homosexual behavior". Partisan Review too removed Goodman for his draft resistance advocacy, his exploration of anarchism led him to publish in the libertarian journals of New York's Why? Group and Dwight Macdonald's Politics. Goodman's collected anarchist essays from this period, "The May Pamphlet", undergird the libertarian social criticism he would pursue for the rest of his life. Aside from anarchism, the late-40s marked Goodman's expansion into psychoanalytic therapy and urban planning. In 1945, Goodman started a second common law marriage. Apart from teaching gigs at New York University night school and a summer at Black Mountain College, the family lived in poverty on his wife's salary. By 1946, Goodman was a popular yet "marginal" figure in New York bohemia and he began to participate in psychoanalytic therapy.

Through contact with Wilhelm Reich, he began a self-psychoanalysis. Around the same time and his brother, the architect Percival, wrote Communitas, it argued that rural and urban living had not been functionally integrated and became known as a major work of urban planning following Goodman's eventual celebrity. After reading an article by Goodman on Reich and Lore Perls contacted Goodman and began a friendship that yielded the Gestalt therapy movement. Goodman wrote the theoretical chapter of their co-written Gestalt Therapy. In the early 1950s, he continued with his psychoanalytic sessions and began his own occasional practice, he continued in this occupation through 1960, taking patients, running groups, leading classes at the Gestalt Therapy Institutes. During this psychoanalytic period, Goodman continued to consider himself foremost an artist and wrote prolifically as his lack of wider recognition weathered his resolve. Before starting with Gestalt therapy, Goodman published the novel State of Nature, the book of anarchist and aesthetic essays Art and Social Nature, the academic book Kafka's Prayer.

He spent 1948 and 1949 writing in New York and published The Break-Up of Our Camp, stories from his experience working at summer camp. He continued to write and pub