The Folketing known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament of Denmark. Established in 1849, until 1953 the Folketing was the lower house of a bicameral parliament, called the Rigsdag, it meets on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen. The Folketing passes all laws, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government, it is responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts. As set out in the Danish Constitution, the Folketing shares power with the reigning monarch. In practice, the monarch's role is limited to signing laws passed by the legislature; the Folketing consists of 179 representatives. General elections must be held every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single Minister or the entire government to resign. Members are democratically elected by proportional representation: 135 by the D'Hondt method and 40 by the Sainte-Laguë method.
The Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties; the most recent general election took place on 18 June 2015 and the Folketing reconvened on 6 October. The first sitting of the house was attended by Queen Margrethe II. From 1849 to 1953 the Folketing was one of the two houses in the bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag. Since both houses, in principle, had equal power, the terms "upper house" and "lower house" were not used; the difference between the houses was voter representation. The Folketing was elected by common vote among men and consisted of independent farmers and merchants as well as the educated classes. From 1866 to 1915 the right of vote for the Landsting was restricted to the wealthiest, some of its members were appointed by the king, thus it predominantly represented the landed gentry and other conservatives. From 1915 both men and women had the right of vote for both houses, the Landsting was elected by common vote, although indirectly and with a higher age limit than for the Folketing.
During the next decades, law-making took place in the Folketing and the Landsting came to be regarded as a superfluous rubber stamp. In 1953, a revised constitution was adopted by popular vote. Among the changes was the elimination of the Landsting and the introduction of a unicameral parliament, known only as the Folketing. Christiansborg Palace has been the domicile of parliament since 1849; the palace is located in the heart of Copenhagen. Gaining representation in parliament requires only 2% of the vote. With such a low election threshold, a large number of parties are represented in the chamber, making it all but impossible for one party to win the 90 seats necessary for a majority. No party has achieved this since 1901. All Danish governments since have been coalitions or one-party minority governments. For this reason, a long-standing provision in the constitution allows a government to take office without getting a vote of confidence and stay in office as long as it does not lose a vote of no confidence.
One consequence is that, unlike in most other parliamentary systems, a Danish government can never be sure its legislative agenda will pass, it must assemble a majority for each individual piece of legislation. Composition of membersThe Folketing consists of 179 members all elected for a four-year term or until the Prime Minister calls for elections, whichever comes first. 175 members are elected in Denmark proper, while Greenland and the Faroe Islands each elect 2 members separately. The constitution does not mention political parties at all, although the electoral act does, MPs are always elected for a party; the only independent, elected in modern times is the comedian Jacob Haugaard, but independents unknown ones, are seen at every election. Requirements for standing as an independent candidate are much more lenient than for a new party, but independents are only allowed to contest in a single district, making it difficult to gain the needed number of votes for a seat. Voting systemThe Constitution requires for "equal representation of the various opinions of the electorate", for regional representation to be secured.
The electoral act stipulates the details for this: 135 seats are elected by proportional representation in 10 districts, 40 supplementary seats are allotted to make out for the difference between district and nationwide vote. The 135 seats are distributed to the parties by the D'Hondt method of the party-list system of proportional representation and the 40 supplementary seats by the Sainte-Laguë method; each party may choose among a number of methods for how the seats won by that party are to be distributed among the candidates. The result is proportional representation; the voter may vote for a party list, one of the candidates on a party list, or an independent candidate. Parties decide on the nomination of candidates before the election; when co-nomination is assigned, candidates are elected according to personal votes. When priority order is assigned, only an extreme
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Defence Judge Advocate Corps (Denmark)
Military Prosecution Service or Judge Advocate General’s Corps is a Danish independent military prosecutor and the legal branch of the Danish military. It is a Level. I is under the Ministry of Defence; the Judge Advocate General heads the Defence Judge Advocate Corps. It is located at Kastellet in Copenhagen; the Judge advocate General and Judge advocates are members of the military system, but outside the military rank system. The Chief of Defence, otherwise the commander of all Danish military personal, does not have authority over Judge advocates prosecutors. In a military criminal case the Defence Judge Advocate Corps conducts investigation and decides whether or not a charge should be brought up. Judge Advocate General http://fauk.dk
Venstre, full name Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti, is a conservative-liberal, agrarian political party in Denmark. Founded as part of a peasants' movement against the landed aristocracy, today it espouses an economically liberal pro-free market ideology. Venstre is the major party of the centre-right in Denmark, the third largest party in the country; the party has produced many Prime Ministers. Denmark's current government is a minority government consisting of Venstre, the Liberal Alliance, the Conservative People's Party, with external support from the Danish People's Party. In the 2015 parliamentary elections, Venstre received 19.5% of the vote, 34 out of 179 seats. It is led by Lars Løkke Rasmussen, who took over as party leader and Prime Minister from Anders Fogh Rasmussen when the latter became Secretary General of NATO in 2009; the party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. One of Denmark's thirteen MEPs are from Venstre in the 2014-19 term of office, they sit with the ALDE Group in the European Parliament.
Venstre is categorised as centre-right on the political spectrum. It is a market liberal party within the Nordic agrarian tradition, today is notably more pro-free market than its sister parties; some describe it as classical liberal, since its leader from 1998 to 2009, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, is known for his authorship of the book From Social State to Minimal State. His book advocated an extensive reform of the Danish welfare state along classical liberal lines, including lower taxes and less government interference in corporate and individual matters. Since the elections in 2001, Venstre has enacted a so-called "tax stop" in order to halt the growth in taxes seen during the previous eight years under the Social Democrats; this tax stop has been under heavy fire from the parties on the left wing of Danish politics for being "asocial" and "only for the rich." Venstre, or "the Left" in English, was founded in 1870 under the name Det Forenede Venstre. It was formed through the merger of three parliamentary factions, all of whom had identified as leftist in the context of the time.
From 1895 to 1910 it was known as Venstrereformpartiet, after that as Venstre. Venstre was traditionally a party advocating free trade and farmers' interests as opposed to the interests of the aristocracy which were the platform of the conservative party, Højre; this traditional landed basis resulted in a relative decline in influence due to the accelerating urbanisation of Danish society. Starting in the 1880s, the party began expanding into urban regions as well. By the 1910s, the splitting off of the Social Liberals and the appearance of the Social Democrats had pushed Venstre toward the centre, it relied on its former conservative adversaries for parliamentary support. After the 1960s these developments reoriented Venstre from a classical liberal party to conservative liberalism. During the leadership of Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the party turned further to the right. 1901–1909 1910–1913 1920–1924 1926–1929 1945–1947 1950–53 with the Conservative People's Party 1968–71 with the Conservative People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party 1973–75 1978–79 with the Social Democratic Party 1982–88 with the Conservative People's Party, Centre Democrats, the Christian People's Party 1988–90 with the Conservative People's Party and Social Liberal Party 1990–93 with the Conservative People's Party 2001–11 with the Conservative People's Party 2015–16 2016– with the Liberal Alliance and the Conservative People's Party Johan Henrik Deuntzer Jens Christian Christensen Niels Neergaard Ludvig Holstein-Ledreborg Klaus Berntsen Niels Neergaard Thomas Madsen-Mygdal Knud Kristensen Erik Eriksen Poul Hartling Anders Fogh Rasmussen Lars Løkke Rasmussen The fact that the major centre-right political party in a country calls itself'Left' is confusing to foreign observers.
The name has, its historical explanation. At the time of its foundation, Venstre affirmed then-progressive ideas in the Danish parliament, their opponents, Højre, the forerunner of the present-day Conservative People's Party, advocated for established interests the Church of Denmark and the landed gentry. In current Danish politics there is a clear distinction between the concepts of Venstre and venstrefløj; the use of the word for "left" in the name of the Danish political party Radikale Venstre and the Norwegian party Venstre is meant to refer to liberalism and not socialism. Members of the party are referred to as venstremænd and venstrekvinder "Venstre men" and "Venstre women". Venstres Ungdom Liberal Students of Denmark Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Liberalism and radicalism in Denmark Nordic agrarian parties Tom Matz, Venstre ved du hvor du har. ForlagsKompagniet: Nørhaven Book. Venstre official site Denmark's Li
Sergeant Major of the Army (Denmark)
The Sergeant Major of the Army is the most senior member of the other ranks of the Danish Army. The appointment holder has the rank of Chefsergeant; the post was created as part of the changes to the Danish Army in Autumn 2014, is inspired by the American equivalent. The holder is appointed to serve as adviser for the Army Staff and as well as a representative for all army NCOs; the holder will further more be conveying his own and army leadership messages, attitudes to army personal. In 2016, the Royal Danish Air Force created the Chief Master Sergeant of the Royal Danish Air Force. In 2018, the equivalent for the navy, Master chief petty officer of the Royal Danish Navy, was created; the first holder is Henning Bæk, appointed in October 2014. Bæk has expressed, that he will be focusing on the uniform and grooming standards, intendeds to stay at the post between four and six years. On 13 December 2016, a new insignia was introduced for the Sergeant Major of the Army, who had used the standard Sergeant Major insignia.
The new insignia had been created with the help of the Danish National Archives' Heraldry consultant
Politics of Denmark
The politics of Denmark take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state in which the monarch of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II, is head of state. Denmark is described as a nation state. Danish politics and governance are characterized by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. Executive power is exercised by the cabinet of Denmark, presided over by the Prime Minister, first among equals. Legislative power is vested in the national parliament. Members of the judiciary are nominated by the executive, formally appointed by the monarch and employed until retirement. Denmark has a multi-party system, with two strong parties, four or five other significant parties. No single party has held an absolute majority in the Folketing since the beginning of the 20th century. Since only four post-war coalition governments have enjoyed a majority, government bills become law without negotiations and compromise with both supporting and opposition parties.
Hence the Folketing tends to be more powerful than legislatures in other EU countries. The Constitution does not grant the judiciary power of judicial review of legislation, however the courts have asserted this power with the consent of the other branches of government. Since there are no constitutional or administrative courts, the Supreme Court deals with a constitutional dimension. On many issues the political parties tend to opt for co-operation, the Danish state welfare model receives broad parliamentary support; this ensures a focus on public-sector efficiency and devolved responsibilities of local government on regional and municipal levels. The degree of transparency and accountability is reflected in the public's high level of satisfaction with the political institutions, while Denmark is regularly considered one of the least corrupt countries in the world by international organizations; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Denmark as "full democracy" in 2016. Margrethe II has ruled as Queen Regnant and head of state since 14 January 1972.
In accordance with the Danish Constitution the Danish monarch, as head of state, is the theoretical source of all executive and legislative power. However, since the introduction of parliamentary sovereignty in 1901, a de facto separation of powers has been in effect; the text of the Danish constitution dates back to 1849. Therefore, it has been interpreted by jurists to suit modern conditions. In a formal sense, the monarch retains the ability to deny giving a bill royal assent. In order for a bill to become law, a royal signature, a countersignature by a government minister, is required; the monarch chooses and dismisses the Prime Minister, although in modern times a dismissal would cause a constitutional crisis. On 28 March 1920, King Christian X was the last monarch to exercise the power of dismissal, sparking the 1920 Easter Crisis. All royal powers called Royal Prerogative, such as patronage to appoint ministers and the ability to declare war and make peace, are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, with the formal consent of the Queen.
When a new government is to be formed, the monarch calls the party leaders to a conference of deliberation, where the latter advise the monarch. On the basis of the advice the monarch appoints the party leader who commands a majority of recommendation to lead negotiations for forming a new government. According to the principles of constitutional monarchy, today the monarch has an ceremonial role, restricted in his or her exercise of power by the convention of parliamentary democracy and the separation of powers. However, the monarch does continue to exercise three rights: the right to be consulted. Pursuant to these ideals, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet attend the regular meeting of the Council of State. Denmark has a multiparty system. Nine parties are represented in parliament; the four oldest and in history most influential parties are the Conservative People's Party, the Social Democrats and the Danish Social Liberal Party. However, demographics have been in favour of younger parties, which has led to a constant process of policy development and gradual renewal amongst the political parties.
No two parties have the same organization. It is however common for a party to have: an annual convention which approves manifestos and elects party chairmen. In most cases the party members in parliament form their own group with autonomy to develop and promote party politics in parliament and between elections; the government performs the executive functions of the kingdom. The affairs of government are decided by the Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister; the Cabinet and the Prime Minister are responsible for their actions to the Folketing. Members of the Cabinet are given the title of "minister" and each hold a different portfolio of government duties; the day to day role of the cabinet members is to serve as head of one or more segments of the national bureaucracy, as head of the civil servants to which all employees in that department report. Enjoying the status of primus inter pares, the Prime Minister is head of the Danish government; the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Crown on basi