Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Statens Serum Institut
Statens Serum Institut, or SSI for short, is a Danish sector research institute located on the island of Amager in Copenhagen. Its purpose is to combat and prevent infectious diseases, congenital disorders, threats from weapons of mass destruction. Founded in 1902 in the barracks of the Artillerivej road, it has now expanded to much more than its original size and is now one of Denmark’s largest research institutions in the health sector. 20% of sales are used on Research and Development and Danish and International funds contribute around 100 million DKK. Administratively, the State Serum Institute sorts under the Danish Ministry of Health and Prevention under minister of health; the president and CEO of the institute has since 1998 been Niels Strandberg Pedersen. The Department of Epidemiology plays a large role in the surveillance and tracking of infectious disease outbreaks in Denmark allowing for comprehensive monitoring of Danish public health. Apart from research into epidemiology and disease prevention, the institute develops and produces vaccines, is an integral part of the Danish ABC-preparedness operation.
The institute has produced the vaccines: BCG vaccine Danish Strain 1331 against tuberculosis, diTeBooster for revaccination, VeroPol, an inactivated poliomyelitis virus vaccine that produces antibodies after primary vaccination for poliovirus 1, 2, 3. Apart from work in Denmark, Statens Serum Institut is involved in health promotion and monitoring in Guinea-Bissau, as maintained by the Bandim Health Project. Doctors and pharmacists work at the National Serum Institute. A total of 385 people at SSI are engaged in research. SSI contributes each year over 10-15 PhDs. In 2009, the institute made 326 publications. 74 of these publications were related to topics of infectious disease. SSI has transferred its vaccine production business to AJ Vaccines. AJ Vaccines will continue to produce vaccines on SSI’s facility. SSI, under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Prevention, will continue to be responsible for ensuring the supply of vaccines to the Danish vaccination programmes. Official website
Western European Union
The Western European Union was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU implemented the Modified Brussels Treaty; the WEU member states were allies of the United States during the Cold War through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. At the turn of the 21st century, after the end of the Cold War, WEU tasks and institutions were transferred to the European Union, providing central parts of the EU's new military component, the European Common Security and Defence Policy; this process was completed in 2009 when a solidarity clause between the member states of the European Union, similar to the WEU's mutual defence clause, entered into force with the Treaty of Lisbon. The states party to the Modified Treaty of Brussels decided to terminate that treaty on 31 March 2010, with all the WEU's remaining activities to be ceased within 15 months. On 30 June 2011, the WEU was declared defunct.
The Treaty of Brussels was signed by the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands on 17 March 1948, establishing the Western Union - an intergovernmental defence alliance that promoted economic and social collaboration. The need to back up the commitments of the North Atlantic Treaty with appropriate political and military structures led to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. In December 1950 the parties to the Treaty of Brussels decided to transfer the headquarters and plans of the Western Union Military Organisation to NATO, whose Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe took over responsibility for the defence of Western Europe; the establishment of NATO, along with the signing of a succession of treaties establishing the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the Council of Europe and the European Coal and Steel Community, left the Treaty of Brussels and its Western Union devoid of authority. The Western Union's founding Treaty of Brussels was amended at the 1954 Paris Conference as a result of the failure of the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community to gain French ratification: The General Treaty of 1952 formally named the EDC as a prerequisite of the end of Allied occupation of Germany, there was a desire to include Germany in the Western defence architecture.
The Modified Brussels Treaty transformed the Western Union into the Western European Union, at which point Italy and West Germany were admitted. Although the WEU established by the Modified Brussels Treaty was less powerful and ambitious than the original Western Union, German membership of the WEU was considered sufficient for the occupation of the country to end in accordance with the General Treaty; the signatories of the Paris Agreements stated their three main objectives in the preamble to the Modified Brussels Treaty: To create in Western Europe a firm basis for European economic recovery. The social and cultural aspects of the Treaty of Brussels were handed to the Council of Europe to avoid duplication of responsibilities. This, in addition to the existence of NATO, marginalised the WEU, caused it to be defunct. On 1 January 1960 in accordance with the decision taken on 21 October 1959 by the Council of Western European Union and with Resolution23 adopted on 16 November 1959 by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the WEU activities in social and cultural areas were transferred to the Council of Europe, running programmes in these fields.
The European Universities Committee was transferred to the Council of Europe separately from the rest of WEU cultural activities. From the late 1970s onwards, efforts were made to add a security dimension to the European Communities' European Political Cooperation. Opposition to these efforts from Denmark and Ireland led the remaining EC countries - all WEU members - to reactivate the WEU in 1984. Prior to this point there had been minimal use of the provisions of the Modified Brussels Treaty. In 1992, the WEU adopted the Petersberg Declaration, defining the so-called Petersberg tasks designed to cope with the possible destabilising of Eastern Europe; the WEU itself depended on cooperation between its members. Its tasks ranged from the most modest to the most robust, included humanitarian and peacekeeping tasks as well as tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking. At the 1996 NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin, it was agreed that the Western European Union would oversee the creation of a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO structures.
The ESDI was intended as a European'pillar' within NATO to allow European countries to act militarily where NATO wished not to, to alleviate the United States' financial burden of maintaining military bases in Europe, which it had done since the Cold War. The Berlin agreement allowed European countries to use NATO assets. In 1998 the United Kingdom, which had traditionally opposed the introduction of European autonomous defence capacities, signed the Saint-Malo declaration; this marked a turning point as the declaration endorsed the creation of a European s
Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Defence promote Denmark's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the creation of a standing military in 1510, the armed forces have seen action in many wars, most involving Sweden, but involving the world's great powers, including the Thirty Years' War, the Great Northern War, the Napoleonic Wars. Today, Danish Defence consists of: Denmark's principal land warfare branch; the Defence include the Home Guard. The Queen is the Commander-in-chief in accordance with the Danish constitution, under the Danish Defence Law the Minister of Defence serves as the commander of Danish Defence and the Danish Home Guard. De facto the Danish Cabinet is the commanding authority of the Defence, though it cannot mobilize the armed forces, for purposes that are not defence oriented, without the consent of parliament.
The modern Danish military can be traced back with the creation of the Royal Danish Navy. During this time, the Danish Kingdom held considerable territories, including Schleswig-Holstein and colonies in Africa and the Americans. Following the defeat in the Second Schleswig War, the military became a political hot-button issue, with many wanting the disarm the military. Denmark managed to maintain its neutrality during the First World War, with a relative strong military force. However, following the Interwar period, a more pacifistic government came to power, decreasing the size of the military; this resulted in Denmark having a limited military, when Denmark was invaded in 1940. After World War II, the different branches were reorganized, collected under Danish Defence; this was to ensure a unified command as learned from the War. With the defeat in 1864, Denmark had adopted a policy of neutrality; this was however abandoned after World War Two, when Denmark decided to support the UN peacekeeping forces and become a member of NATO.
During the Cold War, Denmark began to rebuild its military and to prepare for possible attacks by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. During this time Denmark participated in a number of UN peacekeeping missions including UNEF and UNFICYP. Following the end of the Cold War, Denmark began a more active foreign policy, deciding to participate in international operations; this began with the participation in the Bosnian War, where the Royal Danish Army served as part of the United Nations Protection Force and were in two skirmishes. This was the first time the Danish Army was a part of a combat operation since World War 2. On April 29, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to relieve an observation post as part of the United Nations Protection Force, the Jutland Dragoon Regiment came under artillery fire from the town of Kalesija; the United Nations Protection Force returned fire and eliminated the artillery positions. On October 24, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to reinforce an observation post in the town of Gradačac, were fired upon by a T-55 Bosnian Serb tank.
One of the three Danish Leopard 1 tanks experienced slight damage, but all returned fired and put the T-55 tank out of action. With the September 11 attacks, Denmark joined US forces in the War on terror, participating in both the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War. In Afghanistan, 37 soldiers have been killed in various hostile engagements or as a result of friendly fire, 6 have been killed in non-combat related incidents, bringing the number of Danish fatalities to 43, being the highest loss per capita within the coalition forces. Denmark has since participated in Operation Ocean Shield, the 2011 military intervention in Libya and the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War; the purpose and task of the armed forces of Denmark is defined in Law no. 122 of February 27, 2001 and in force since March 1, 2001. It defines six tasks, its primary purpose is to prevent conflicts and war, preserve the sovereignty of Denmark, secure the continuing existence and integrity of the independent Kingdom of Denmark and further a peaceful development in the world with respect to human rights.
Its primary tasks are: NATO participation in accordance with the strategy of the alliance and repel any sovereignty violation of Danish territory, defence cooperation with non-NATO members Central and East European countries, international missions in the area of conflict prevention, crises-control, peacemaking, participation in Total Defence in cooperation with civilian resources and maintenance of a sizable force to execute these tasks at all times. Total Defence is "the use of all resources in order to maintain an organized and functional society, to protect the population and values of society"; this is achieved by combining the military, Home Guard, Danish Emergency Management Agency and elements of the police. The concept of total defence was created following Word War 2, where it was clear that the defence of the country could not only rely on the military, but there need to be other measures to ensure a continuation of society; as a part of the Total Defence, all former conscripts can be recalled to duty, in order
Ministry of Defence (Denmark)
The Danish Ministry of Defence is a ministry in the Danish government. It is charged with overall planning and strategic guidance of the entire area of responsibility of the Danish Defence minister, including the armed forces and the emergency management sector, it is the secretariat of the Danish Defence Minister. It is the administrator of the easternmost land in Denmark, the small archipelago, whose administrator is employed by the ministry; the Ministry of Defence was established following the Danish defence law of May 27, 1950, about the central structure of the military of Denmark. This combined the two previous ministries; the Minister of Defence had been created in 1905 as the head of both ministries, though still with branch chiefs as administrators. This new Ministry can though trace its history back to 1660, when King Frederick III established a War collegium for the Army to in both war- and peacetime to administer the Army. A similar command had been created for the Navy, the Admiralty of 1655.
The War collegium changed name to Krigskancelliet in 1679 and to Generalitets- og Kommisariatskollegiet. The day after the de facto end to absolute monarchy in Denmark, March 21, 1848, Anton Frederik Tscherning became the first War minister of Denmark, with the Generalitets- og Kommisariatskollegiet changing name into the Ministry of War on March 25, 1848. Adam Wilhelm Moltke became the first Marine minister, while the Admiralty changed into the Marine ministry on April 21, 1848. Defence Command Royal Danish Defence College Danish Armed Forces Health Services Danish Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization Danish Defence Personnel Organisation Danish Defence Estates and Infrastructure Organisation Home Guard Command Defence Intelligence Service Judge Advocate Corps Defence Financial Management Agency Emergency Management Agency Administration of Conscientious Objector List of Danish government ministries