Elijahs Church is a Church of Denmark church located on Vesterbros Torv in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1908 and designed by Martin Nyrop, who has designed Copenhagen City Hall, it was the largest church to be built by the Copenhagen Church Foundation. When St. Matthews was separated from Frederiksberg Parish in 1880, it had a population of 25,000 inhabitants but by the end of the century it had almost tripled to about 70,000. On 28 March 1898 the Church Foundation acquired the site on Vesterbro Torv, until the site of a factory which produced timing belts and he had previously designed the new Copenhagen City Hall which was under construction at the old haymarket not far away. Construction costs were expected to amount to DKK200,000 which were to be collected locally, Nyrops proposal was published on 31 January 1900. The foundation stone was set on 8 April 1906, Palm Sunday, the church was consecrated on 17 May 1908. It was fifth church to be built in Vesterbro and it remained the largest church built by the Church Foundation.
The final construction costs amounted to DKK317,050, including DKK81,000 for the site, the church became a stronghold for the Church Association for the Inner Mission in Denmark in the capital. The church is built to a Neo-Romanesque design and integrated in the row of houses on the square, the twin towers which dominate the west-facing façade towards the square are inspired by Tveje Merløse and Fjenneslev Churches. Dressed in split sandstone laid in a bond, the church has a rough facade which marked the beginning of a new era in Danish architecture. The portal is split in two by a trumeau as is seen in French romanesque churches. The tympanum of the portal around the entrance depicts the Ascension of Elijah. The portal is flanked by angels singing and playing musical instruments, all the decorations are the work of Rasmus Harboe. A broad steep flight of stairs leads to the main entrance and it contains a shed which was put at the disposal of the municipal park authority for wheelbarrows and other tools and materials.
When Nyrops design was first published, the City made a demand for DKK700 in rent for the area of the square taken up by the stairs, the stairs are clad in the same split sandstone from Nexø which covers the façade. It is decorated with carved sheaves, Elijahs Church is a three nave church with a barrel vaulted choir which is raised eight steps up from the nave. The interior walls are dressed in a light coloured sandstone and the naves are separated from the central nave by arcades. There is a gallery in front of the three windows which faces the square
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The island is dominated by the vast Christiansborg Palace which houses the Danish Parliament, the Supreme Court of Denmark, the Prime Ministers Office, the site used to consist of several small natural islands in the sound between the islands of Zealand and Amager. On the largest of these, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde constructed a castle in 1167. In 1250 the castle was extended with two towers to get the appearance that is now depicted on Copenhagens Coat of Arms. The castle was conquered by the Hanseatic League 1368 and pulled down the year as part of peace terms. Shortly after Copenhagen Castle was built on the site and it became the residence for the Danish king in 1443. However, the took place in a rather haphazard way and continued during the reign of the following kings. Probably during the reign of Christian III a building was constructed on the quay of the canal in front of the castle to house the Chancellery.
During the reign of Christian III and Frederick II an arsenal was constructed by the south of the castle. Under King Christian IV Slotsholmen saw considerable development, especially in the part of the island. Here a new harbour was established, surrounded on one side by an Arsenal. Other new buildings constructed were the Stock Exchange and the Brewhouse, all four of these historic buildings are still there today. By the time of the introduction of the monarchy in 1660. During the reign of King Frederick III, further lack of space in the led to the construction in 1665-1673 of an additional building between the Supply Depot and the Arsenal. This building, still visible today, was to house the Cabinet of curiosities of the king, founded about 1650, during the reign of King Frederick IV, a magnificent administration building was constructed in 1716-21 next to the palace adjacent to the Supply Depot. This new building was to house the chancelleries, thus replacing the previous chancellery building situated by the canal, the new chancellery building was connected to the castle by an arched passageway, thus allowing the king to stay in close contact with his government.
The Chancellery Building has functioned as the heart of the administration for almost 300 years. Several renovations were made, most notably by Frederick IV in 1721-29 and this rebuilding thoroughly changed the irregular appearance of the castle to a more regular shape
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars, cafes. The canal harbours many historical wooden ships, Nyhavn was constructed by King Christian V from 1670 to 1673, dug by Swedish prisoners of war from the Dano-Swedish War 1658–1660. It is a gateway from the sea to the old city at Kongens Nytorv. It was notorious for beer and prostitution, Danish author Hans Christian Andersen lived at Nyhavn for some 18 years. The first bridge across Nyhavn opened on 6 February 1875 and it was a temporary wooden footbridge. It was replaced by the current bridge in 1912, as ocean-going ships grew larger, Nyhavn was taken over by internal Danish small vessel freight traffic. After World War II land transport took over this role and small vessel traffic disappeared from the Port of Copenhagen, in the mid-1960s, the Nyhavn Society was founded with the aim of revitalising the area.
In 1977, Nyhavn was inaugurated as a ship and museum harbour by Copenhagen’s Lord Mayor Egon Weidekamp. In 1980 Nyhavn quay was pedestrianised, it had used as a parking area in the previous years which had coincided with a dwindling of harbour activities. Since it has become a spot for tourists and locals alike, serving the function of a square according to architects Jan Gehl. The northern side of Nyhavn is lined by brightly coloured townhouses built with wood, between 1845 and 1864, Hans Christian Andersen lived at No. 67, where a plaque now stands. From 1871-1875 Andersen lived at Nyhavn 18, which houses an Andersen-themed souvenir shop. The southern side of Nyhavn has lavish mansions lining the canal, Nyhavn Veteran Ship and Museum Harbour, occupying the inner section of Nyhavn, between the Nyhavn Bridge and Kongens Nytorv, is lined with old ships. P. Møller, while the side of the canal was put at the disposal of the Nyhavn Society and privately owned. Harbor ships include, Lightvessel XVII Gedser Rev – lightvessel built in Odense in 1895, in operation until 1972, acquired by the National Museum and now serving as a museum ship.
Mira – two-masted schooner built in Fåborg in 1898, considered one of the finest ships of the Danish small vessel traffic of the time, for many years it transported chalk from Stevns
Kastellet, located in Copenhagen, Denmark, is one of the best preserved star fortresses in Northern Europe. It is constructed in the form of a pentagram with bastions at its corners, Kastellet was continuous with the ring of bastioned ramparts which used to encircle Copenhagen but of which only the ramparts of Christianshavn remain today. A number of buildings are located within the grounds of Kastellet, the area houses various military activities but it mainly serves as a public park and a historic site. King Christian IV of Denmark initiated Kastellet’s construction in 1626 with the building of an advanced post, at that time the fortifications only reached as far north as present day Nørreport station, and returned south east to meet the coast at Bremerholm, the Royal Shipyard. However, part of the plan was to expand the area of the fortified city by abandoning the old East Rampart. This plan was not completed until the mid-1640s, shortly after King Frederick III succeeded King Christian IV, after the Swedish siege on Copenhagen the Dutch engineer Henrik Rüse was called in to help rebuild and extend the construction.
The fortification was named Citadellet Frederikshavn, but it is known as Kastellet. Kastellet was part of the defense of Copenhagen against England in the Battle of Copenhagen, christen Købke, Danish painter associated with the Golden Age of Danish Painting, grew up in Kastellet and made many paintings of the area. During the German invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940, German troops landing at the nearby harbor captured The Citadel without resistance, Kastellet was renovated 1989–1999 with funds from the A. P. Møller and Wife Chastine McKinney Møllers General Fund. The Citadel has two gates, Kings Gate on the side, facing the city, and Norway Gate on the north side of the edifice. They are built in the Dutch Baroque style, and are on their interior side flanked by guardhouses, the Kings Gate is decorated with garlands and pilasters, and a bust of King Frederik III. The clock and two bells on the facade of the gate come from the Central Guard House at Kongens Nytorv and were installed in 1874 when the central guard moved to the Citadel.
In front of the gate stand two so-called caponiers from where it was possible to keep assaulting troops under fire, the Norway Gate used to face open countryside outside the city, and has therefore been built to a more simple design. The caponiers of this gate were demolished in the late 19th century, the five bastions are named as follows, The King’s Bastion, The Queen’s Bastion, The Count’s Bastion, the Princess’s Bastion and the Prince’s Bastion. Smedelinien is a system of outworks, separating the inner and the moat, located to the south. It consisted of four ravelins and three counter guard interconnected by long, low earthworks, on Fyns Ravelin, one of the namesake forges has been preserved and is now used by the park authorities. Another forge was built on Falsters Counter Guard in 1709, rebuilt in 1888, it now serves as residence of military employees. The Commanders House served as the residence of the commander of Kastellet and it was built in 1725 in the Baroque style by architect and master builder Elias Häuser who designed the first Christiansborg Palace which burned in 1794
Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront, established through a series of land reclamations from the 1880s, it served both military, residential and dockland purposes. It is characterized by a mixture of old buildings and modern architecture, Islands Brygge has an area of roughly 1 km² and a population of 12,147, though it has never been an administrative unit with formally defined boundaries. The north-western shore of Amager was originally characterized by a shallow watered beach, at that time the shoreline was situated just east of present-day Artillerivej. The area was filled in 1887-88 and a new arsenal, shooting ranges, Islands Brygge was the hub of commercial ships sailing to and from Iceland, a former member of the state of Denmark. The Danish trade monopoly in Iceland was a business, generating extreme wealth and political power for many of Copenhagens mayors.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Port of Copenhagen had become very busy both with freight and passenger vessels and extensions were needed. In 1901, the Port Authorities extended the existing reclamation southwards to create new areas for the storage of coal, from 1905 construction of residential buildings on the most inland parts of the new land began. The co-operative Danish retailer FDB established new headquarters in the neighbourhood in 1908 and it comprised both administrative functions and storage facilities. Dansk Sojakagefabrik, a soy bean processing plant, was opened by the East Asiatic Company in 1909, at its peak in the 1950s, the plant employed approximately 2,500 workers, many of whom lived in the neighbourhood. To improve road and rail connections between Zealand and Amager, a new bridge was constructed at the site of the present-day Langebro, the new bridge soon became outdated and in 1930 a new temporary bridge was built. Still more land was reclaimed until 1933, when Islands Brygge reached its current extent.
Under the Occupation of Denmark during World War II, many German troops were stationed at Islands Brygge, after World War II, the military presence in the area diminished and by 1976 most of the former military buildings had been demolished or converted to other use. The first step towards the transformation of the area into a lively, Islands Brygge is today a fashionable mainly residential neighbourhood, stretching from Langebro in the north to Bryggebroen in the south. The northern part of the area, from Langebro to Sturlasgade, is dominated by early 20th-century residential blocks with shops at street level. Some structures from the industrial and dockland past have been preserved and converted to other uses. These include Gemini Residence, the Wennberg Silo and the Zepeline Building, located directly on the waterfront, is the main recreational area of the neighbourhood and one of the most lively and popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. It has retained several features from the industrial past, including old railway tracks
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Albans Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city, the church is part of Church of Englands Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain, the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues, first to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olafs Church. The altar has now moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore. There even was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul, under the Kings Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark.
During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834. The congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854, in 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, and his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist. The foundation stone of St. Albans Church was laid on 19 September 1885, the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887, like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Also present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials and it is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style, known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns, the tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire. The tower contains fifteen tubular bells and it was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, and a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built. These can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, and after striking the hour play a hymn tune
Jesus Church, Copenhagen
The Jesus Church is a church situated just off Valby Langgade in the Valby district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was commissioned by second-generation Carlsberg brewer Carl Jacobsen and designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, noted for its extensive ornamentation and artwork, it is considered to be one of the countrys most idiosyncratic and unconventional examples of church architecture. The church was built as a mausoleum for Carl Jacobsen and his family and is located close to their house as well as the former Carlsberg brewery site. Their sarcophagi lie in the crypt, throughout the church, there are ornaments and inscriptions associated with the family. Jacobsen, had decided to bequeath Gammel Carlsberg to the Carlsberg Foundation, on his death, Carl Jacobsen received a sum of 1,000,000 Danish kroner. In 1883, he and his wife Ottilia decided to divide the money into four equal amounts, the first of these was the Ny Carlsberg Church Grant that was to fund the creation of a new church in Valby within 10 years.
Jacobsen had already acquired the land in 1879 and in 1882 he assigned Vilhelm Dahlerup to the project. He requested a church which would surpass all other churches in Copenhagen in beauty, specifying that it should be in the style of early Christian basilica architecture as seen in Italy and France. The sum proved inadequate but, thinking more about art than money, on completion of the work, the costs had exceeded the original budget fourfold. Construction of the church was begun in 1884 and it was consecrated on 15 November 1891, the campanile was not added until 1894-95 as a birthday present from his mother. There were, rather precise instructions on how the Jesus Church should be designed. In particular, Jacobsen provided Dahlerup with a number of photographs of the old churches and artwork in Ravenna, Dahlerup was inspired by Notre-Dame la Grande in Poitiers, and by the synagogue in Toledo, Spain. The church is indeed designed in the style of an early basilica with a campanile or detached bell tower.
For the Danish Lutheran community, its style and rich ornamentation were rather unconventional, at one point, Carl Jacobsen was described by his own priest as a freethinker, unready to follow the trends and the dogma of the day. Unusually, the church is oriented along an axis with the altar at the southern end. It is built as a basilica with a chancel, topped by a nonagonal dome with a pyramidal spire. The campanile tower stands close to the north-east corner of the church, the main facade is dominated by three large arches, resting on two heavy granite columns with characteristic twin capitals leading into the portico. Above the arches, the pediment has intricate ornamentation, the centre of the pediment boasts a rose window, the largest of its kind in Denmark, composed of cathedral glass in yellow and green nuances supported by cames of lead
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms an area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen. It is a landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick. He commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel. The plan involved a parterre with a system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace. It was fed by a complicated but inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly. In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, who was at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace.
Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre completely, in the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new plan in 1795. He created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, pavilions, the final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansas book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was particularly fond of the garden, from 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Toskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B. s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands, a large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, and Canada geese. Typically of the landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features.
The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two long, yellow buildings with white details and they are the two surviving wings of the Princes House
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
Danish Design is a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century. Prominent examples are the Egg chair, the PH lamps and the Sydney Opera House, among the most successful designers associated with the concept are Børge Mogensen, Finn Juhl, Hans Wegner, Arne Jacobsen, Poul Kjærholm, Poul Henningsen and Verner Panton. The Canon includes Knud V. Engelhardt for an industrial approach. In the area of textiles, Marie Gudme Leth brought the printing process to Denmark. August Sandgren introduced functionalism in the design of his masterful bookbindings, in the late 1940s, shortly after the end of the Second World War, conditions in Denmark were ideally suited to success in design. The emphasis was on furniture but architecture, ceramics, Denmarks late industrialisation combined with a tradition of high-quality craftsmanship formed the basis of gradual progress towards industrial production. After the end of the war, Europeans were keen to find novel approaches such as the wood furniture from Denmark.
Last but not least, support in Denmark for freedom of individual expression assisted the cause, the newly established Furniture School at the Royal Danish Academy of Art played a considerable part in the development of furniture design. Kaare Klint taught functionalism based on the size and proportions of objects, Hans J. Wegner, who had been trained as a cabinetmaker, contributed with a unique sense of form, especially in designing chairs. As head of the cooperative FDB furniture design studio, Børge Mogensen designed simple, Finn Juhl demonstrated an individualistic approach in designing chairs with an appealing but functional look. In the early 1950s, American design influenced Danish furniture, the American Charles Eames designed and manufactured chairs of moulded wood and steel pipes. These encouraged Arne Jacobsen to design his worldfamous Ant Chair, Denmarks first industrially manufactured chair, furthermore, as Shaker furniture—and especially its reputation for stripped down chairs—began to be more and more known abroad, it influenced Danish designers.
Poul Kjærholm, Verner Panton and Nanna Ditzel followed a few years later, Danish furniture design failed to make any new important contributions in the 1970s and 1980s. By contrast, industrial designers began to prosper, making use of the principles of focus on the user, respect for materials. The electronics manufacturer Bang & Olufsen, in collaboration with Bernadotte & Bjørn and with Jacob Jensen and David Lewis, around the same time, the Stelton company collaborated with Arne Jacobsen and Erik Magnussen to produce their iconic vacuum jug, a huge international success. Another successful design field is medical technology, Danish design companies like 3PART, Designit and CBD have worked in this area with individual designers such as Steve McGugan and Anders Smith. In 2002 the Danish Government and the City of Copenhagen launched an effort to establish a world event for design in Copenhagen, there is strong focus on design in Denmark as industry increasingly appreciates the importance of design in the business environment.
In addition, as part of its trade and industry policy, Modern architecture has contributed to the concept of Danish design