Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Mette Frederiksen is a Danish Social Democrat politician. She has been a member of the Folketing, the parliament of Denmark, since 2001, served in Helle Thorning-Schmidt's government as Minister of Employment from 2011 to 2014, as Minister of Justice from 2014 to 2015. On 28 June 2015, she succeeded Thorning-Schmidt as leader of the Social Democrats. Frederiksen was born in Aalborg, she attended the Aalborghus Gymnasium, studied administration and social science at Aalborg University. After graduating in 2000, she worked as a youth consultant for LO, The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions. Frederiksen was elected as a member of parliament for Copenhagen County in the general election held on 20 November 2001. After her election, she was named as her party's spokesperson for culture and gender equality. She became her party's spokesperson for social affairs after the 2005 parliamentary election. Following the 2005 election, she served as the vice-chairperson of the parliamentary group of the Social Democratic party.
In May 2010, it was revealed that Frederiksen's daughter - along with the children of several other prominent Social Democrat politicians - was being educated at a private school. Frederiksen, along with her colleagues, was accused of hypocrisy by the Danish press, as her party had long seen the promotion of public education as a key policy. In 2005, Frederiksen had criticised parents who sent their children to private schools. Frederiksen responded to the criticism by saying that her opinion on private education had become more nuanced since her remarks in 2005, that it would have been hypocritical of her to put her own political career ahead of her daughter's best interest. Mette Frederiksen is a vocal opponent of prostitution, has for many years advocated for the prohibition of the purchase of sex, like in Sweden and Iceland. Pimping and operating a brothel are illegal in Denmark. Mette Frederiksen Folketingets biografi Mette Frederiksen - Socialdemokratiet Mette Frederiksen - Personlige hjemmeside
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 178,210 as of January 2016, is the main city of the island of Funen. By road, Odense is located 45 kilometres north of Svendborg, 144 kilometres to the south of Aarhus and 167 kilometres to the southwest of Copenhagen; the city is the seat of Odense Municipality and was the seat of Odense County until 1970, Funen County from 1970 until 1 January 2007, when Funen County became part of the Region of Southern Denmark. Odense has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen, remembered above all for his fairy tales, he spent his childhood years there. There has been human settlement in the Odense area for over 4,000 years, although the name was not mentioned in writing until 988, by 1070, it had grown into a thriving city. Canute IV of Denmark considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by unruly peasants in Odense's St Alban's Priory on 10 July 1086. Although the city was burned in 1249 following a royal rivalry, it recovered and flourished as a centre of commerce in the Middle Ages.
After a period of decline, large-scale plans for development were made during the 18th century, which led to the rebuilding of Odense Palace and the building of a canal to the Port of Odense, facilitating trade. In 1865, one of the largest railway terminals in Denmark was built, further increasing the population and commerce, by 1900, Odense had reached a population of 35,000. Odense's Odinstårnet was one of the tallest towers in Europe when built in 1935 but was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II; the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1966. In the present day, Odense remains the commercial hub of Funen, has a notable shopping district with a diversity of stores. Several major industries are located in the city including the Albani Brewery and GASA, Denmark's major dealer in vegetables and flowers; the city is home to Odense Palace, erected by King Frederik IV who died there in 1730, the Odense Theatre, the Odense Symphony Orchestra, the Hans Christian Andersen Museum, situated in the house, the birthplace of Hans Christian Andersen.
In sports, Odense has a number of football clubs including OB, BM, B1909, B1913, the Odense Bulldogs professional ice hockey team, the city hosts the H. C. Andersen Marathon. Odense is served by Hans Christian Andersen Airport and Odense station, which lies on the line between Copenhagen and the Jutland peninsula. For the Catholic ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic bishopric of Odense The name Odense is derived from Odins Vé, meaning "Odin's sanctuary" as the area was known as a sanctuary for worshippers of the Nordic god, Odin. Odense is one of Denmark's oldest cities. Archaeological excavations in the vicinity show proof of settlement for over 4,000 years since at least the Stone Age; the earliest community was centred on the higher ground between the Odense River to the south and Naesbyhoved Lake to the north. Nonnebakken, one of Denmark's former Viking ring fortresses, lay to the south of the river. Today, Odense's Møntergården Museum has many artefacts related to the early Viking history in the Odense area.
The Vikings built numerous fortifications along the river banks to defend it against invaders coming in from the coast. The city celebrated its thousandth anniversary in 1988, commemorating the first mention of the town's name in a letter dated 18 March 988 from the German Emperor Otto III which granted rights to Odense and neighbouring settlements; the first church in Odense appears to have been St Mary's built in the late 12th century. The territory part of the vast Archbishopric of Hamburg, was created a Catholic diocese in 988; the first recorded bishops of Odense were Odinkar Hvide and Reginbert, consecrated by Archbishop Æthelnoth of Canterbury, in 1022. Recent excavations have shown that from the early 11th century, the town developed in the area around Albani Torv, Fisketorvet and Vestergade. By 1070, Odense had grown into a city of stature in Denmark. Canute IV of Denmark considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by unruly peasants, discontent with the high taxes he imposed on the town, in Odense's St Alban's Priory on 10 July 1086.
He was canonized in 1100. The priory no longer exists, although a church has been situated on the site since about 900. At the beginning of the 12th century, Benedictine monks from England founded St Canute's Abbey, it was here the English monk Ælnoth wrote Vita et Passio S. Canuti. Canute's shrine in Odense Cathedral attracted pilgrims throughout the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, a number of churches and monasteries were built in the town. St Canute's Church, now the cathedral, dates from the end of the 13th century and was connected to the Benedictine Order; the town's other old churches are St John's with its adjacent monastery. Greyfriars Monastery was founded by the Franciscans in 1279. In 1247 Odense was burned by Abel of Denmark during conflicts with his brother King Erik IV; the cathedral had to be rebuilt. The town continued to flourish as a commercial centre, was charted in 1335; the city thrived economically during the Middle Ages, attracting many merchants and craftsman who traded their goods.
In 1482 Bishop Karl Rønnov brought the German printer Johann Snell to Odense to print a short prayer book, Breviarium Ottoniense, considered to be the first work to be printed in Scandinavia. In parallel Snell printed De obsidione et bello Rhodiano, an acco
Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Lars Løkke Rasmussen is a Danish politician serving as the 25th and current Prime Minister of Denmark since 2015 holding the position from 2009 to 2011, as Leader of the centre-right liberal Venstre party since 2009. Rasmussen has been a member of the Folketing since 21 September 1994, he served as County Mayor of Frederiksborg County from 1998 to 2001. Subsequently, he was the Interior and Health Minister from 27 November 2001 to 23 November 2007 as part of Anders Fogh Rasmussen's first and second cabinets, Minister of Finance from 23 November 2007 to April 2009 as part of Anders Fogh Rasmussen's third cabinet. On 5 April 2009, he succeeded Anders Fogh Rasmussen as Prime Minister following the latter's appointment as Secretary General of NATO. In the 2011 general election, the government lost its parliamentary majority and Rasmussen tendered the government's resignation to Queen Margrethe II, he was succeeded by Helle Thorning-Schmidt of the Social Democrats on 3 October 2011. In the 2015 general election, the right-wing parties regained a majority in the Folketing.
Rasmussen again formed his second cabinet in the same month. This cabinet was made up of Venstre members, but in November of 2016 he was pressured to include members of Liberal Alliance and Conservative People's Party, forming his third cabinet. Lars Løkke Rasmussen was born in Vejle to Lise Løkke Rasmussen, his last name is Rasmussen, while his mother's maiden name, is his middle name. Unless his full name is used, he is referred to only by the name of Rasmussen, but his middle name is used by the media and in informal usage to distinguish him from Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, his two immediate predecessors as Prime Minister, he graduated from high school in 1983, was the president of the youth branch of Venstre from 1986 to 1989. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Copenhagen in 1992. From 1990 to 1995 he worked as a self-employed consultant. Lars Løkke Rasmussen is married to Sólrun Løkke Rasmussen. Together they have three children. Lars Løkke Rasmussen served as chairman of the youth branch of Venstre from 1986 to 1989.
One of his initiatives was to establish an alternative to Operation Dagsværk — an annual one day fundraising campaign by high school students collecting money for third world countries — since Operation Dagsværk at the time was spearheaded by members of the Danish Communist Youth. Rasmussen's campaign was supported by the party youth branch, raised 600,000 DKK which were spent on school equipment in Soviet occupied Afghanistan. Lars Løkke Rasmussen led a Danish delegation to Afghanistan delivering the collected funds, a photograph taken by photographer Jørn Stjerneklar shows him and two other delegation members disguised as Afghans. Another photo shows him holding an AK-47, while standing together with three Mujahideen; the photos have generated a lot of media attention in Denmark, after the Danish participation in the war in Afghanistan and as Rasmussen moved up the rankings at Venstre. Rasmussen was elected deputy chairman of Venstre in 1998, at the same time as Anders Fogh Rasmussen assumed the position as party leader after Uffe Ellemann-Jensen.
In 1998, he was elected as county mayor of Frederiksborg County, a position he occupied until 2001, when he joined the first Fogh Rasmussen cabinet. Lars Løkke Rasmussen served as Interior and Health Minister between 2001 and 2007 until he was appointed Minister of Finance in 2007, he was responsible for negotiating a 2002 agreement between Venstre, the Conservatives, the Social Democrats and the Danish People's Party giving patients in public hospitals the right to select a private hospital, provided that the public hospital had been unable to treat the patient within two months. In 2007, this time limit was lowered to one month. Since 2002, the government has awarded extra funds earmarked at reducing the waiting list at National Health Service hospitals, a grant sometimes referred to by the media as Løkkeposen, he represented the government during negotiations regarding a reform of the system by which richer municipalities transfer part of their tax incomes to poorer municipalities. As Minister of the Interior and Health, Lars Løkke Rasmussen spearheaded the municipal reform that reduced Denmark's 271 municipalities to 98, abolished the 14 counties and replaced them with five regions.
After Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen won his second reelection in 2007 he created his third cabinet in which Lars Løkke Rasmussen was appointed Minister of Finance. This was seen as a clear indicator that Rasmussen was next in line to follow Fogh as leader of Venstre and Prime Minister, when Fogh would leave Danish politics; as Finance Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen led the negotiations concerning funds to banks hit by the global financial crisis. In February 2009, Lars Løkke Rasmussen was the chief negotiator in the political agreement behind a major tax reform, implementing the government's ambition of reducing income tax and increasing taxes on pollution; the reform was, according to Lars Løkke Rasmussen, the biggest reduction of the marginal tax rate since the introduction of the income tax in 1903. The opposition accused it of being skewed in favouring those with high-income jobs and giving little to those with low-income jobs. On 4 April 2009, NATO decided that Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen would replace Jaap de Hoop Scheffer as Secretary General of NATO.
On the same day, Anders Fogh Rasmussen declared that he would resign as Prime Minister on 5 April 2009. As deputy
Courts of Denmark
The Courts of Denmark is the ordinary court system of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Courts of Denmark as an organizational entity was created with the Police and Judiciary Reform Act taking effect 1 January 2007 which significantly reformed the court system e.g. by removing original jurisdiction from the High Courts and by introducing a new jury system. The Courts of Denmark is composed of the ordinary courts consisting of the Supreme Court, the three high courts: the Western High Court the Eastern High Court, the High Court of Greenland, The Maritime and Commercial Court, The Court of Judicial Registration, The Special Court of Indictment and Revision, the 24 district courts, the Court of the Faeroe Islands, The Court in Greenland and the four Greenlandic Circuit Courts. Part of the Courts of Denmark are three boards: The Appeals Permission Board, The Sideline Employment Board and the Judicial Appointment Council; the Danish Court Administration is vested with the joint administration of the whole organization.
The courts of Greenland and the Faeroe Islands constitute semi-autonomous parts of the Courts of Denmark and are governed by separate but similar procedural codes. Outside the ordinary court system and the joint administration framework of the Courts of Denmark, a separate collective labour dispute court system exists and a number of quasi-judicial bodies exist, some of which are exempt from judicial oversight. In accordance with Article 3 of the Danish Constitution, all judicial authority is vested in the courts of justice; the constitution provides that only judges of the court may pass judgements, whereas parliamentary commissions may only investigate. The Danish system of courts is based on a unified structure, in which there are no special or constitutional courts of law, as well as no formal division within the courts; as a rule, all courts of law may adjudicate disputes in legal areas such as civil, labour and constitutional law, as well as criminal justice. Judicial action against ministers and/or former ministers, in cases surrounding their dealings as minister, are however handled by a Court of Impeachment of the Realm, composed of Supreme Court judges and members of parliament.
The Court of Indictment and Revision handles complaints regarding procedure, disqualification of judges, etc. brought by the users of the courts, against the courts. Proceedings are oral in general and open to the public in the lower courts, always oral in the Supreme Court. Media transmissions from within the court are prohibited; the general structure of the judicial system is inspired by the traditions of continental Europe. The Administration of Justice Act of 1916, the only Danish legal code, contains 1,000 articles, defining the administration and organisation of the courts, covering fields of both civil and criminal procedure; the Act has undergone substantial changes since its enactment in 1916. From 1 January 2007, the Danish Courts are composed of the Supreme Court, the two High Courts, the Copenhagen Maritime and Commercial Court, the Land Registration Court, 24 district courts, the courts of the Faroe Islands and Greenland, the Appeals Permission Board, the Danish Judicial Appointments Council, the Danish Court Administration.
Furthermore, the Danish Constitution provides for the Court of Impeachment of the Realm to hear cases brought against ministers concerning their administration. In addition, the Special Court of Final Appeal deals with cases concerning disciplinary sanctions against judges and petitions for retrial of criminal cases under Article 86 of the Administration of Justice Act; the Danish Courts exercise the judicial powers of government and resolve related issues, including probate, enforcement, land registration, administrative issues. All judges are jurists. Lay judges may be of any profession, except they may not be attorneys, members of the clergy, or acting civil servants, it is considered of good practice for none to be jurists. From late 2005 a gradual reform of the lower courts is under way; when passed, the reform will transform the role of the County and High Courts, as well as ensuring that the Supreme Court only handles cases which are principal in nature. The composition of the county courts is regulated by law.
The Copenhagen County Court has 49 judges and a President, whilst Aarhus, Odense and Roskilde county courts have a President and 15, 10, 10, 7 other judges, respectively. 29 jurisdictions have two to four judges, whilst the last 50 jurisdictions have only one judge. At the preparatory and trial stages of civil cases only one judge presides. In criminal cases where the defendant pleads guilty to all charges presented against him or her, or when the prosecution does not ask for a sentence in excess of a fine, the case is presided by a single judge. In criminal cases where this is not the case, the judge sits with two lay judges. Special rules regarding appointment of lay judges apply to maritime cases. In cases where lay judges sit with the judge, decisions are adopted by simple majority. In addition to their normal duties, county court judges act as notary public and bailiffs, as well as administrators of bankruptcy proceedings and probate matters. Furthermore, they administer the local land registry.
In regard to the administra
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J