Cluster II (spacecraft)
Cluster II is a space mission of the European Space Agency, with NASA participation, to study the Earth's magnetosphere over the course of nearly two solar cycles. The mission is composed of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation; as a replacement for the original Cluster spacecraft which were lost in a launch failure in 1996, the four Cluster II spacecraft were launched in pairs in July and August 2000 onboard two Soyuz-Fregat rockets from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. In February 2011, Cluster II celebrated 10 years of successful scientific operations in space; as of November 2018 its mission has been extended until the end of 2020 with a extension lasting until 2022. China National Space Administration/ESA Double Star mission operated alongside Cluster II from 2004 to 2007; the four identical Cluster II satellites study the impact of the Sun's activity on the Earth's space environment by flying in formation around Earth. For the first time in space history, this mission is able to collect three-dimensional information on how the solar wind interacts with the magnetosphere and affects near-Earth space and its atmosphere, including aurorae.
The spacecraft are spinning at 15 rotations per minute. After launch, their solar cells provided 224 watts power for communications. Solar array power has declined as the mission progressed, due to damage by energetic charged particles, but this was planned for and the power level remains sufficient for science operations; the four spacecraft maneuver into various tetrahedral formations to study the magnetospheric structure and boundaries. The inter-spacecraft distances has varied from around 4 to 10,000 km; the propellant for the transfer to the operational orbit, the maneuvers to vary inter-spacecraft separation distances made up half of the spacecraft's launch weight. The elliptical orbits of the spacecraft reached a perigee of around 4 RE and an apogee of 19.6 RE. Each orbit took 57 hours to complete; the orbit has evolved over time. Gravitational effects impose a long term cycle of change in the perigee distance, which saw the perigees reduce to a few 100 km in 2011 before beginning to rise again.
The orbit plane has rotated away from 90 degrees inclination. Orbit modifications by ESOC have altered the orbital period to 54 hours. All these changes have allowed Cluster to visit a much wider set of important magnetospheric regions than was possible for the initial 2-year mission, improving the scientific breadth of the mission; the European Space Operations Centre acquires telemetry and distributes to the online data centers the science data from the spacecraft. The Joint Science Operations Centre JSOC at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK coordinates scientific planning and in collaboration with the instrument teams provides merged instrument commanding requests to ESOC; the Cluster Science Archive is the ESA long term archive of the Cluster and Double Star science missions. Since 1 November 2014, it is the sole public access point to the Cluster mission scientific data and supporting datasets; the Double Star data are publicly available via this archive. The Cluster Science Archive is located alongside all the other ESA science archives at the European Space Astronomy Center, located near Madrid, Spain.
From February 2006 to October 2014, the Cluster data could be accessed via the Cluster Active Archive. The Cluster mission was proposed to ESA in 1982 and approved in 1986, along with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, together these two missions constituted the Solar Terrestrial Physics "cornerstone" of ESA's Horizon 2000 missions programme. Though the original Cluster spacecraft were completed in 1995, the explosion of the Ariane 5 rocket carrying the satellites in 1996 delayed the mission by four years while new instruments and spacecraft were built. On July 16, 2000, a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome launched two of the replacement Cluster II spacecraft, into a parking orbit from where they maneuvered under their own power into a 19,000 by 119,000 kilometer orbit with a period of 57 hours. Three weeks on August 9, 2000 another Soyuz-Fregat rocket lifted the remaining two spacecraft into similar orbits. Spacecraft 1, Rumba, is known as the Phoenix spacecraft, since it is built from spare parts left over after the failure of the original mission.
After commissioning of the payload, the first scientific measurements were made on February 1, 2001. The European Space Agency ran a competition to name the satellites across all of the ESA member states. Ray Cotton, from the United Kingdom, won the competition with the names Rumba, Tango and Samba. Ray's town of residence, was awarded with scale models of the satellites in recognition of the winning entry, as well as the city's connection with the satellites. However, after many years of being stored away, they were given a home at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Planned to last until the end of 2003, the mission has been extended several times; the first extension took the mission from 2004 until 2005, the second from 2005 to June 2009. The mission has now been extended until the end of 2020. Previous single and two-spacecraft missions were not capable of providing the data required to study the boundaries of the magnetosphere; because the plasma comprising the magnetosphere cannot presently be access
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. Each spacecraft was composed of two main parts: an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars from orbit, a lander designed to study the planet from the surface; the orbiters served as communication relays for the landers once they touched down. The Viking program grew from NASA's earlier more ambitious, Voyager Mars program, not related to the successful Voyager deep space probes of the late 1970s. Viking 1 was launched on August 20, 1975, the second craft, Viking 2, was launched on September 9, 1975, both riding atop Titan IIIE rockets with Centaur upper stages. Viking 1 entered Mars orbit on June 19, 1976, with Viking 2 following suit on August 7. After orbiting Mars for more than a month and returning images used for landing site selection, the orbiters and landers detached; the Viking 1 lander touched down on the surface of Mars on July 20, 1976, was joined by the Viking 2 lander on September 3.
The orbiters continued imaging and performing other scientific operations from orbit while the landers deployed instruments on the surface. The project cost US$1 billion in 1970s dollars, equivalent to about 5 billion USD in 2018 dollars; the mission was considered successful and is credited with helping to form most of the body of knowledge about Mars through the late 1990s and early 2000s. Obtain high-resolution images of the Martian surface Characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface Search for evidence of life on Mars The primary objectives of the two Viking orbiters were to transport the landers to Mars, perform reconnaissance to locate and certify landing sites, act as communications relays for the landers, to perform their own scientific investigations; each orbiter, based on the earlier Mariner 9 spacecraft, was an octagon 2.5 m across. The fueled orbiter-lander pair had a mass of 3527 kg. After separation and landing, the lander had a mass of the orbiter 900 kg.
The total launch mass was 2328 kg, of which 1445 kg were attitude control gas. The eight faces of the ring-like structure were 0.4572 m high and were alternately 1.397 and 0.508 m wide. The overall height was 3.29 m from the lander attachment points on the bottom to the launch vehicle attachment points on top. There were 3 on each of the 4 long faces and one on each short face. Four solar panel wings extended from the axis of the orbiter, the distance from tip to tip of two oppositely extended solar panels was 9.75 m. The main propulsion unit was mounted above the orbiter bus. Propulsion was furnished by a bipropellant liquid-fueled rocket engine which could be gimballed up to 9 degrees; the engine was capable of 1,323 N thrust. Attitude control was achieved by 12 small compressed-nitrogen jets. An acquisition Sun sensor, a cruise Sun sensor, a Canopus star tracker and an inertial reference unit consisting of six gyroscopes allowed three-axis stabilization. Two accelerometers were on board. Communications were accomplished through two 20 W TWTAs.
An X band downlink was added for radio science and to conduct communications experiments. Uplink was via S band. A two-axis steerable parabolic dish antenna with a diameter of 1.5 m was attached at one edge of the orbiter base, a fixed low-gain antenna extended from the top of the bus. Two tape recorders were each capable of storing 1280 megabits. A 381-MHz relay radio was available; the power to the two orbiter craft was provided by eight 1.57 × 1.23 m solar panels, two on each wing. The solar panels produced 620 W of power at Mars. Power was stored in two nickel-cadmium 30-A·h batteries; the combined area of the four panels was 15 square meters, they provided both regulated and unregulated direct current power. Two 30-amp-hour, nickel-cadmium, rechargeable batteries provided power when the spacecraft was not facing the Sun, during launch, correction maneuvers and Mars occultation. By discovering many geological forms that are formed from large amounts of water, the images from the orbiters caused a revolution in our ideas about water on Mars.
Huge river valleys were found in many areas. They showed that floods of water broke through dams, carved deep valleys, eroded grooves into bedrock, travelled thousands of kilometers. Large areas in the southern hemisphere contained branched stream networks, suggesting that rain once fell; the flanks of some volcanoes are believed to have been exposed to rainfall because they resemble those caused on Hawaiian volcanoes. Many craters look; when they were formed, ice in the soil may have melted, turned the ground into mud flowed across the surface. Material from an impact goes up down, it does not flow across the surface. Regions, called "Chaotic Terrain," seemed to have lost great volumes of water, causing large channels to be formed; the amount of water involved was estimated to ten thousand times the flow of the Mississippi River. Underground volcanism may have melted frozen ice; each lander comprised a six-sided aluminium base with alternate 1.09 and 0.56 m long sides, supported on three extended legs attac
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space". Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Emissions from these objects are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, the properties examined include luminosity, density and chemical composition; because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists apply concepts and methods from many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, relativity and particle physics, atomic and molecular physics. In practice, modern astronomical research involves a substantial amount of work in the realms of theoretical and observational physics; some areas of study for astrophysicists include their attempts to determine the properties of dark matter, dark energy, black holes.
Topics studied by theoretical astrophysicists include Solar System formation and evolution. Astronomy is an ancient science, long separated from the study of terrestrial physics. In the Aristotelian worldview, bodies in the sky appeared to be unchanging spheres whose only motion was uniform motion in a circle, while the earthly world was the realm which underwent growth and decay and in which natural motion was in a straight line and ended when the moving object reached its goal, it was held that the celestial region was made of a fundamentally different kind of matter from that found in the terrestrial sphere. During the 17th century, natural philosophers such as Galileo and Newton began to maintain that the celestial and terrestrial regions were made of similar kinds of material and were subject to the same natural laws, their challenge was. For much of the nineteenth century, astronomical research was focused on the routine work of measuring the positions and computing the motions of astronomical objects.
A new astronomy, soon to be called astrophysics, began to emerge when William Hyde Wollaston and Joseph von Fraunhofer independently discovered that, when decomposing the light from the Sun, a multitude of dark lines were observed in the spectrum. By 1860 the physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, the chemist, Robert Bunsen, had demonstrated that the dark lines in the solar spectrum corresponded to bright lines in the spectra of known gases, specific lines corresponding to unique chemical elements. Kirchhoff deduced that the dark lines in the solar spectrum are caused by absorption by chemical elements in the Solar atmosphere. In this way it was proved that the chemical elements found in the Sun and stars were found on Earth. Among those who extended the study of solar and stellar spectra was Norman Lockyer, who in 1868 detected bright, as well as dark, lines in solar spectra. Working with the chemist, Edward Frankland, to investigate the spectra of elements at various temperatures and pressures, he could not associate a yellow line in the solar spectrum with any known elements.
He thus claimed the line represented a new element, called helium, after the Greek Helios, the Sun personified. In 1885, Edward C. Pickering undertook an ambitious program of stellar spectral classification at Harvard College Observatory, in which a team of woman computers, notably Williamina Fleming, Antonia Maury, Annie Jump Cannon, classified the spectra recorded on photographic plates. By 1890, a catalog of over 10,000 stars had been prepared that grouped them into thirteen spectral types. Following Pickering's vision, by 1924 Cannon expanded the catalog to nine volumes and over a quarter of a million stars, developing the Harvard Classification Scheme, accepted for worldwide use in 1922. In 1895, George Ellery Hale and James E. Keeler, along with a group of ten associate editors from Europe and the United States, established The Astrophysical Journal: An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics, it was intended that the journal would fill the gap between journals in astronomy and physics, providing a venue for publication of articles on astronomical applications of the spectroscope.
Around 1920, following the discovery of the Hertsprung-Russell diagram still used as the basis for classifying stars and their evolution, Arthur Eddington anticipated the discovery and mechanism of nuclear fusion processes in stars, in his paper The Internal Constitution of the Stars. At that time, the source of stellar energy was a complete mystery; this was a remarkable development since at that time fusion and thermonuclear energy, that stars are composed of hydrogen, had not yet been discovered. In 1
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
An astronomical object or celestial object is a occurring physical entity, association, or structures that exists in the observable universe. In astronomy, the terms object and body are used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single bound, contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, which may consist of multiple bodies or other objects with substructures. Examples of astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters and galaxies, while asteroids, moons and stars are astronomical bodies. A comet may be identified as both body and object: It is a body when referring to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, an object when describing the entire comet with its diffuse coma and tail; the universe can be viewed as having a hierarchical structure. At the largest scales, the fundamental component of assembly is the galaxy. Galaxies are organized into groups and clusters within larger superclusters, that are strung along great filaments between nearly empty voids, forming a web that spans the observable universe.
The universe has a variety of morphologies, with irregular and disk-like shapes, depending on their formation and evolutionary histories, including interaction with other galaxies, which may lead to a merger. Disc galaxies encompass lenticular and spiral galaxies with features, such as spiral arms and a distinct halo. At the core, most galaxies have a supermassive black hole, which may result in an active galactic nucleus. Galaxies can have satellites in the form of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; the constituents of a galaxy are formed out of gaseous matter that assembles through gravitational self-attraction in a hierarchical manner. At this level, the resulting fundamental components are the stars, which are assembled in clusters from the various condensing nebulae; the great variety of stellar forms are determined entirely by the mass and evolutionary state of these stars. Stars may be found in multi-star systems. A planetary system and various minor objects such as asteroids and debris, can form in a hierarchical process of accretion from the protoplanetary disks that surrounds newly formed stars.
The various distinctive types of stars are shown by the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram —a plot of absolute stellar luminosity versus surface temperature. Each star follows an evolutionary track across this diagram. If this track takes the star through a region containing an intrinsic variable type its physical properties can cause it to become a variable star. An example of this is the instability strip, a region of the H-R diagram that includes Delta Scuti, RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables. Depending on the initial mass of the star and the presence or absence of a companion, a star may spend the last part of its life as a compact object; the table below lists the general categories of bodies and objects by their structure. List of light sources List of Solar System objects List of Solar System objects by size Lists of astronomical objects SkyChart, Sky & Telescope at the Library of Congress Web Archives Monthly skymaps for every location on Earth
Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution. The mission improved upon observations made by the NASA Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Planck provided a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. Since the end of its mission, Planck has defined the most precise measurements of several key cosmological parameters, including the average density of ordinary matter and dark matter in the Universe and the age of the universe; the project was started around 1996 and was called COBRAS/SAMBA: the Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy Satellite/Satellite for Measurement of Background Anisotropies. It was renamed in honour of the German physicist Max Planck, who derived the formula for black-body radiation.
Built at the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center by Thales Alenia Space, created as a medium-sized mission for ESA's Horizon 2000 long-term scientific programme, Planck was launched in May 2009. It reached the Earth/Sun L2 point by July 2009, by February 2010 it had started a second all-sky survey. On 21 March 2013, the mission's first all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background was released with an additional expanded release including polarization data in February 2015; the final papers by the Planck team were released in July 2018. At the end of its mission Planck was put into a heliocentric orbit and passivated to prevent it from endangering any future missions; the final deactivation command was sent to Planck in October 2013. The mission had a wide variety of scientific aims, including: high resolution detections of both the total intensity and polarization of primordial CMB anisotropies, creation of a catalogue of galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect, observations of the gravitational lensing of the CMB, as well as the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect, observations of bright extragalactic radio and infrared sources, observations of the Milky Way, including the interstellar medium, distributed synchrotron emission and measurements of the Galactic magnetic field, studies of the Solar System, including planets, asteroids and the zodiacal light.
Planck had a higher resolution and sensitivity than WMAP, allowing it to probe the power spectrum of the CMB to much smaller scales. It observed in nine frequency bands rather than WMAP's five, with the goal of improving the astrophysical foreground models, it is expected that most Planck measurements will be limited by how well foregrounds can be subtracted, rather than by the detector performance or length of the mission, a important factor for the polarization measurements. The dominant foreground radiation depends on frequency, but could include synchrotron radiation from the Milky Way at low frequencies, dust at high frequencies; the spacecraft carries two instruments: the Low Frequency Instrument and the High Frequency Instrument. Both instruments can detect both the total intensity and polarization of photons, together cover a frequency range of nearly 830 GHz; the cosmic microwave background spectrum peaks at a frequency of 160.2 GHz. Planck's passive and active cooling systems allow its instruments to maintain a temperature of −273.05 °C, or 0.1 °C above absolute zero.
From August 2009, Planck was the coldest known object in space, until its active coolant supply was exhausted in January 2012. NASA played a role in the development of this mission and contributes to the analysis of scientific data, its Jet Propulsion Laboratory built components of the science instruments, including bolometers for the high-frequency instrument, a 20-kelvin cryocooler for both the low- and high-frequency instruments, amplifier technology for the low-frequency instrument. The LFI has three frequency bands, covering the range of 30–70 GHz, covering the microwave to infra-red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; the detectors use high-electron-mobility transistors. The HFI was sensitive between 100 and 857 GHz, using 48 bolometric detectors, manufactured by JPL/Caltech, optically coupled to the telescope through cold optics, manufactured by Cardiff University's School of Physics and Astronomy, consisting of a triple horn configuration and optical filters, a similar concept to that used in the Archeops balloon-borne experiment.
These detection assemblies are divided into 6 frequency bands, each with a bandwidth of 33%. Of these six bands, only the lower four have the capability to measure the polarisation of incoming radiation. On 13 January 2012, it was reported that the on-board supply of helium-3 used in Planck's dilution refrigerator had been exhausted, that the HFI would become unusable within a few days. By this date, Planck had completed five full scans of the CMB; the LFI was expected to remain operational for another six to nine months. A common service module was designed and built by Thales Alenia Space in its Turin plant, for both the Herschel Space Observatory and Planck missions, combined into one single program; the overall cost is estimated to be €700 million for the Planck and €1,100 million for the Herschel mission. Both figures include their mission's spacecraft and payload and mission expenses, science operations. Structurally, the Herschel and Planck SVMs are similar. Both SVMs are octagonal in shape and each panel is dedica
Copenhagen Suborbitals is an amateur crowd-funded manned space programme. Since its beginning in 2008, Copenhagen Suborbitals has flown five home-built rockets and two mock-up space capsules, their stated goal is to have one of the members fly into space, on a sub-orbital spaceflight, in a space capsule on the Spica rocket. The organisation was founded by Kristian von Bengtson and by Peter Madsen, convicted of the murder of Kim Wall in 2017. Peter Madsen was excluded from Copenhagen Suborbitals in 2014; the organization launched its Nexø II rocket in summer 2018. As an amateur organisation, the 55 members use their spare time on the project, while at the same time having regular day-jobs. At the annual general assembly, they boardmembers; the chairman is Carsten Olsen. As of 2017, three members are candidates to become the first astronaut to fly on the Spica rocket: Mads Stenfatt Anna Olsen Carsten Olsen Funding comes from worldwide donations, many of them on a monthly basis as members of Copenhagen Suborbitals Support.
This lectures done by group members. In 2015 Copenhagen Suborbitals taught students from the National Technical University of Singapore in basic rocket design, for which the group received a fee. All income goes directly to the group's project, with all members working for free. A unique aspect of the project is; as a non-governmental, non-commercial organisation, flying rockets from land is impossible anywhere in the world. Therefore, the group conducts all flights from a mobile launch platform, MLP Sputnik, in international waters on the Baltic Sea, east of the Danish island Bornholm; the port of Nexø becomes the Copenhagen Suborbitals fleet's homeport during the summer launch missions, affectionately dubbed Spaceport Nexø. The group operates three ships: MLP Sputnik: A twin-hull, self-propelled mobile, launch platform that has carried all the group's rockets and space capsules since 2010. Owned by Copenhagen Suborbitals. M/S Vostok. Built as a rescue vessel for the German Coast Guard, she's the command ship during launch and recovery, acting as flagship of the mission fleet.
Owned by Copenhagen Suborbitals. M/S Antares. Support ship. Owned by Copenhagen Suborbitals member Carsten OlsenDuring missions, the three vessels are augmented by multiple ships and aircraft; when not deployed and Sputnik are based at Copenhagen Suborbitals HQ in the port of Copenhagen. Copenhagen Suborbitals was founded in 2008 by Kristian von Bengtson and now-disgraced Peter Madsen as a non-profit, crowd-funded project where important aspects of the operation were described in detail on blogs and lectures. On 23 February 2014 the board of Copenhagen Suborbitals announced that Kristian von Bengtson had left the group, after falling out with Madsen. In June 2014 Madsen left the group, after years of disagreement with the other members of the group. Since Madsen has had no connection with Copenhagen Suborbitals. From the launch site on the Baltic Sea, the Spica rocket will carry the Spica capsule and the astronaut into space above 100 km; the capsule will separate and fall back to earth, where it will be decelerated by a ballute and parachutes, land back in the Baltic Sea.
CS started on a barge called M/S Half Machine in Port of Copenhagen. On 1 August 2009 they relocated to its base and office on Refshaleøen, the old Burmeister & Wain shipyard, in Copenhagen, their workshop is dubbed HAB 2. In 2014, Copenhagen Suborbitals settled on the basic design for their first crewed rocket and space capsule; the rocket will be named Spica, will stand 12–14 m tall with a diameter of 950 mm. It will be powered by the BPM-100 engine class, using liquid oxygen as oxidizer and ethanol as fuel, producing 100 kilonewtons of thrust. It's to feature pressure-blow-down tanks, optimised by a dynamic pressure regulation system, but turbo pumps are a possibility, albeit they are difficult to build. Flight control will be thrust vectoring via a gimbal engine; the rocket will be guided by home-built electronics and software. Most of the systems and technology will be tested on the smaller Nexø class rockets in 2016/18; the space capsule will be of a tubular design as its predecessor Tycho Brahe, but its greater diameter will allow the astronaut to assume a sitting position during launch and re-entry, in order to withstand the G-forces.
In 2014/2015 the group designed and tested a series of smaller engines with a nominal thrust of 2 and 5 kN. The BPM-5 class will fly on the Nexø I and II rockets in 2016/2018, paving the way for the much bigger Spica rocket and engine; the purpose was to validate the performance and operation of the group's new engine design direction. The tests were successful, with results exceeding expectations. Different fuel additives as well as different jet vane material were tested; the BPM engines are bi-liquid rocket engines using LOX and ethanol, regeneratively cooled by the ethanol fuel. The spring/summer 2015 test firings used passive pressure blow-down, in winter 2015/2016 will see the test firings continue with a dynamic pressure regulation system, which will fly on the Nexø II rocket in spring 2018. From 2008 to 2012, the group based the work on a hybrid rocket; the HEAT-1X rocket was to be fuelled by paraffin wax, but a ground test 28 February 2010 revealed that some of the paraffin wax had only melted, instead of evaporat