National Gallery of Denmark
National Gallery of Denmark is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, maintains and handles Danish, the major part of the museums older collections comes from the art chambers of Danish kings. The display of European Art 1300–1800 is a collection of art over the 500-year period, featuring works by Mantegna, Titian, Rubens. The art is spread over thirteen rooms, and is the oldest art collection in Denmark, with a emphasis on Danish, Flemish, French, Spanish. Danish and Nordic Art 1750-1900 charts Scandinavian art from the beginnings of Danish painting through the ‘Golden Age’ to the birth of Modernism and it displays over 400 works through 24 galleries. It features work by Abildgaard, Eckersberg, Købke, Ring, SMK gained its modern French art collection in 1928 when it was donated by the late collector Johannes Rump. This collection features some of the museum’s most famous pieces from artists such as Matisse, Picasso and Braque. The collection was first offered to the SMK by Rump in 1923, housed in the museum’s 1993 extension, this 20th and 21st century collection is predominantly focused on the most important examples of modern Danish art.
A long corridor of paintings looking onto Østre Anlæg park works as an overview of the work from this period. The beginnings of this collection were made around the time of Christian II, in his diary from 1521 the German painter Albrecht Dürer says he has given the King the best pieces of all my prints. In 1843 the various works, which had so far been the private collection, were displayed to the public. It was moved into the Statens Museum for Kunst when the first building was completed in 1896, along with The Royal Collection of Paintings, although the papers contain a great number of foreign works, Danish art constitutes the main part of the collection. This collection is open to the public through the Print Room, the Royal Cast Collection is held at the West India Warehouse, Toldbodgade 40, between The Little Mermaid and Nyhavn in Copenhagen. It consists of over 2,000 naked plaster casts of statues and reliefs from collections, temples, the Royal Cast Collection is only open for special events.
At the start of the Second World War the art of antiquity became increasingly unfashionable, associated with an archaic artistic tradition. In 1966, as abstract art became popular, the Royal Cast Collection was removed to a barn outside Copenhagen for storage. The collections of the Danish National Gallery originate in the Art Chamber of the Danish monarchs, when the German Gerhard Morell became Keeper of Frederick Vs Art Chamber about 1750, he suggested that the king create a separate collection of paintings. To ensure that the collection was not inferior to those of other European royal houses and local counts, the collection became particularly well provided with Flemish and Dutch art
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals. Vehicle armour is used on warships and armoured fighting vehicles, a second use of the term armour describes armoured forces, armoured weapons, and their role in combat. After the evolution of armoured warfare, mechanised infantry and their weapons came to be referred to collectively as armour, the word armour began to appear in the Middle Ages as a derivative of Old French. It is dated from 1297 as a mail, defensive covering worn in combat, the word originates from the Old French armure, itself derived from the Latin armatura meaning arms and/or equipment, with the root armare meaning arms or gear. Armour has been used throughout recorded history and it has been made from a variety of materials, beginning with rudimentary leather protection and evolving through mail and metal plate into todays modern composites. For much of history the manufacture of metal personal armour has dominated the technology. Its production was influential in the revolution, and furthered commercial development of metallurgy.
Armour was the single most influential factor in the development of firearms, significant factors in the development of armour include the economic and technological necessities of its production. For instance, plate armour first appeared in Medieval Europe when water-powered trip hammers made the formation of plates faster and cheaper, modern militaries usually do not equip their forces with the best armour available because it would be prohibitively expensive. The samurai warriors of feudal Japan utilised many types of armour for hundreds of years up to the 19th century, Japanese lamellar armour passed through Korea and reached Japan around the 5th century. These early Japanese lamellar armours took the form of a sleeveless jacket, armour did not always cover all of the body, sometimes no more than a helmet and leg plates were worn. The rest of the body was protected by means of a large shield. Examples of armies equipping their troops in this fashion were the Aztecs, in East Asia many types of armour were commonly used at different times by various cultures including, scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, plate armour and brigandine.
Around the dynastic Tang and early Ming Period and plates were used, the Chinese, during that time used partial plates for important body parts instead of covering their whole body since too much plate armour hinders their martial arts movement. The other body parts were covered in cloth, lamellar, in pre-Qin dynasty times, leather armour was made out of various animals, with more exotic ones such as the rhinoceros. Mail, sometimes called chainmail, made of interlocking iron rings is believed to have first appeared some time after 300 BC and its invention is credited to the Celts, the Romans were thought to have adopted their design. Gradually, small plates or discs of iron were added to the mail to protect vulnerable areas. Hardened leather and splinted construction were used for arm and leg pieces, the coat of plates was developed, an armour made of large plates sewn inside a textile or leather coat
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk,35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, noted for the synthesis it creates of art, the museum has at occasions exhibitions with works of the great impressionists and expressionists, like the large Claude Monet impressionist exhibition in 1994. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, the name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all named Louise. The museum was created in 1958 by Knud W. Jensen and he contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape. This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991, in late November 2012 Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the continual development of the museum as a cultural platform.
In 2013 the music department of the museum launch Louisiana Music, the videos are often housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a garden between the museums two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, and Jean Arp. Besides the collection of art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001 and it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, who was a Danish dancer and art collector living in California and who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing which had built in 1966 and 1971. Its acoustics make it fit for chamber music but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates, lectures. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis.
In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé, all the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website. The grounds around the museum contain a sculpture garden. It is made up by a plateau and the sloping terrain towards Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea. It contains works by artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró. The sculptures are placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Others perceived it more as a memorial for the Danish dead in the battle. Originally erected in Flensburg, Schleswig, it was moved to Berlin by Prussian authorities and it was returned to Denmark as a gift from the United States Army and was located at Søren Kierkegaards Plads in Copenhagen. In September 2011 it returned to Flensburg, following the Danish victory over Schleswig-Holstein in the First War of Schleswig, Danish sculptor Herman Wilhelm Bissen was commissioned to create a monument to the ordinary Danish soldier. Although not an actual Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, his monument reflected a similar idea and this monument Landsoldaten was unveiled in Fredericia in 1858. Through the intervention of politician Orla Lehmann, it was decided that the funds would instead be used for a monument commemorating the Battle of Isted, like the previous monument, this commission was awarded to Bissen. The lion is derived from the arms of Denmark and Schleswig which contain three and two lions, respectively.
In order to create an image of a lion, Bissen travelled to Paris to study a lion held in the Jardin des Plantes. Bissen completed his first plaster model in 1860, and the bronze cast was completed by June 1862, the finished monument was approximately four meters tall, and carried the following inscription, Isted den 25. Det danske Folk reiste dette Minde The statue was unveiled on the 12th anniversary of the battle,25 July 1862, at St Marys Cemetery in Flensburg, among the celebrities attending the ceremony was fairy-tale writer Hans Christian Andersen. Erecting the monument in Flensburg rather than Copenhagen or Isted, was seen as a provocation by the regions German nationalists who opposed the Danish claim to sovereignty over the area, the decision to let the lion face south reinforced this feeling. In 1864, war returned to the region, culminating in the German victory in the Battle of Dybbøl, in the following peace settlement, Denmark surrendered both Schleswig and Holstein, leaving the monument on the German side of the new border.
Following the occupation of Flensburg by German forces, German nationalists attacked the monument and they succeeded in removing the tail and part of the lions back but failed to destroy the statue due to the intervention of German authorities. The Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck, ordered the monument to be dismantled, in 1867, the lion and the four reliefs were moved to Berlin at the order of Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich Graf von Wrangel. The reassembled lion was erected in the Zeughaus in Berlin on February 9,1868, following the transformation of the arsenal into a military museum in 1875, the lion was transported to the Cadet Academy in Lichterfelde, and erected there in April 1878. The lion remained there for more than 60 years, in 1874, a zinc copy of the monument was erected in Berlin in a public park, near the Colonie Alsen association of war veterans. This monument was paid for by banker Wilhelm Conrad, a path leading up to the statue was fittingly dubbed, Straße zum Löwen, i. e.
the Road to the Lion. In 1938, the Danish press reported the existence of the copy of the monument, and at roughly the same time, the zinc copy was moved to Heckeshorn near the Wannsee. This location is close to the building housing what would be known as the Wannsee Conference, the statue in Berlin was repaired in 2005
Rudolph Tegner Museum
Rudolph Tegner acquired the central portion of the area in 1916. He initially mounted the group sculpture King Oedipus and Antigone and later, in 1924, followed the group sculpture The Enigma of Lone, the museum building was built to Tegners own design with the assistance of the architect Mogens Lassen. Construction began in 1937 and it was inaugurated in 1938, a renovation was completed in 2003. The museum is built in concrete to an unusual bunker-like Modernist design, the building needed large dimensions to embrace Tegners works many of which are of very large proportions. The core of the museum is a large gallery with ceilings 11 metres high. The original intention was to build lower galleries on all of its sides, the museum has been built without picture windows to avoid distracting the visitor with views of the scenic surroundings. Except for a window in the gable, all natural light comes from skylights. Concrete as a material was chosen for reasons of fire safety, the difference in scale between the entrance section and the main gallery is designed to create an overwhelming experience for those entering the museum and to enhance its character of a treasury.
The facade bears reference to Antique architecture, the museum exhibits some 250 of Tegners sculptures as well as models in plaster, clay and marble. It consists of undulating heath with scattered trees and juniper vegetation
Copenhagen Amber Museum
Copenhagen Amber Museum is a museum on Kongens Nytorv in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is owned by House of Amber, Copenhagen Amber Museum is one of the most recognised amber museums in the world. The museum is located in the Kanneworff House, a listed townhouse dating back to 1606, the museum holds an extensive collection of amber antiques and artifacts, including a wide array of entombed insects from prehistoric times. The collection comprises the largest piece of amber in the world, the piece became enlisted in Guinness World of Records on 1 June 2015 and weighs 104.72 pounds. It was found in the Dharmasraya region in West Sumatra in 2014 and is around 15-25 million years old, the museum is located in one of Copenhagen’s oldest and most charming houses. It is placed at the beautiful square Kongens Nytorv right at the entrance of Nyhavn, kanneworffs House was built in 1606, even before Kongens Nytorv was founded and the channel of Nyhavn was dug. At that time the population of Copenhagen was only 12,000 people and its current appearance is largely due to an adaptation in the 1780s which added an extra floor and the Mansard roof.
The building consists of three bays on Bredgade, four bays on Kongens Nytorv and two bays on Store Strandstræde, another adaptation in 1904 moved the entrance to Bredgade. Through the years the house has been inhabited by all kinds of people from barbers, tobacco spinners, grocers, in 1836 wool and cloth grocer Lars Kanneworff bought the house and during the next century it housed one of Copenhagen’s most exclusive and modern tailor establishments. At the museum one can learn about how amber was formed more than 30 million years ago, in the exhibition stands one can see different types of amber from all over the world and see how the amber is used. One will have the opportunity to get an insight into the significance of amber at different stages throughout history, the fishermans collection, Denmark’s biggest amber find in modern times can be found in the Copenhagen Amber Museum. In June 2010, a Danish fisherman caught one of Denmark’s largest pieces of amber ever found and he caught the piece in his net on a fishing trip far out to sea.
He found it hard to believe his own eyes when he pulled in his net that June morning, the amber rock weighed 4,125 gr. and was the largest piece of amber found in Denmark since 1767. One of the attractions of the museum is the collection of more than 100 pieces of amber with inclusions of insects and plants. Magnifying glasses, enables the visitor to observe the more than 30 million year-old insects and plants closely, Copenhagen Amber Museum presents its visitors to the worlds largest piece of amber, which weighs 47.5 kg. House of Amber House of Amber Source
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Thorvaldsen Museum is a single-artist museum in Copenhagen, dedicated to the art of Danish neoclassicistic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, who lived and worked in Rome for most of his life. The museum is located on the island of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen next to Christiansborg Palace. Designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll, the building was constructed from 1838-48 following a collection of funds in 1837. The building is inspired by antique Greek architecture and built around an inner courtyard where the artist is buried. The courtyard is particularlarly notable being painted in Eqyptian motifs, tall palms and crocodile prowl among exotic birds. It is particularly noteworthy for its use of colors both inside and outside. Every room in the museum has a unique ceiling decoration in the grotesque style, the outside is adorned with a frieze depicting Thorvaldsens homecoming from Rome in 1838 made by Jørgen Sonne