The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that aims to allow anyone to edit articles. Wikipedia is the largest and most popular reference work on the Internet and is ranked among the ten most popular websites. Wikipedia is owned by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, a portmanteau of wiki and encyclopedia, There was only the English language version initially, but it quickly developed similar versions in other languages, which differ in content and in editing practices. With 5,377,348 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias, in 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia, and found that Wikipedias level of accuracy approached Encyclopædia Britannicas. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were so successful, Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. Nupedia was founded on March 9,2000, under the ownership of Bomis and its main figures were Jimmy Wales, the CEO of Bomis, and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, while Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10,2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a project for Nupedia. Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, as a single English-language edition at www. wikipedia. com, Wikipedias policy of neutral point-of-view was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Originally, Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit, Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. By August 8,2001, Wikipedia had over 8,000 articles, on September 25,2001, Wikipedia had over 13,000 articles. By the end of 2001, it had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions and it had reached 26 language editions by late 2002,46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the servers were taken down permanently in 2003. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia and these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change Wikipedias domain from wikipedia. com to wikipedia. org. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006, a team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the projects increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called low-hanging fruit—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created, the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image. The verb to blazon means to such a description. Blazon also refers to the language in which a blazon is written. This language has its own vocabulary, grammar and syntax, or rules governing word order, other objects — such as badges, banners, and seals — may also be described in blazon. The word blazon is not to be confused with the verb to emblazon, or the noun emblazonment, the word blazon is derived from French blason, shield. It was found in English by the end of the 14th century, formerly, experts in heraldry assumed that the word was related to the German verb blasen, to blow. Present-day lexicographers reject this theory as conjectural and disproved, the blazon of armorials follows a rigid formula, designed to eliminate ambiguity of interpretation, to be as concise as possible and to avoid repetition and extraneous punctuation. The nomenclature is equally significant, and its aim is to combine definitive exactness with a brevity that is indeed laconic. The rules of blazonry are as follows, Every blazon of a coat of arms begins by describing the field, with first letter as a capital, in a majority of cases this is a single tincture, e. g. Azure. If the field is complex, the variation is described, followed by the used, e. g. Chequy gules. The most common names are historically abbreviated. A Tincture is named only once in a given blazon, the principal charge are then named, with their tincture, e. g. a bend or. The principal charge is followed by any other charges placed around or on it, if a charge be a bird or beast, its attitude is described, followed by the animals tincture, followed by anything that may be differently coloured, e. g. An eagle displayed gules armed and wings charged with trefoils or, any accessories present — such as crown/coronet, helmet, torse, mantling, crest, motto, supporters and compartment — are then described in turn, using the same terminology and syntax. According to Boutell, It appears desirable always to print all heraldic blazon in italic, heraldry has its own vocabulary, word-order and punctuation, and showing it in italics thus indicates to the reader the presence of a quasi-foreign language. A quartered shield is blazoned one quarter at a time, proceeding by rows from chief to base, a divided shield is blazoned party per or parted per, though the word party or parted is almost always omitted. A tincture is sometimes replaced by of the first, of the second etc. to avoid repetition of tincture names, counterchanged means that a charge which straddles a line of division is tinctured of the same tinctures as the divided field, reversed. But as to the formulae of blazoning, John Brooke-Little, Norroy and Ulster King of Arms, wrote in 1985
Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.
Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.36 F. Supp. Even though accurate reproductions might require a great deal of skill, experience and effort, the key element to determine whether a work is copyrightable under U. S. law is originality. Corel Corporation sold, in the U. K. the U. S. and Canada, a CD-ROM called Professional Photos CD Rom masters, Corel stated that it had obtained these images from a company called Off the Wall Images, a company that no longer existed. Bridgeman Art Library possessed a library of photographs of paintings by European masters. The copyright terms on the paintings themselves had expired, but Bridgeman claimed that it owned a copyright on the photographs and it licensed copies of its photographs for a fee. It claimed that since it owned the copyright on its photographs, both parties moved for summary judgment. Judge Lewis Kaplan in the Southern District Court of New York issued two judgments, on November 13,1998, Judge Kaplan granted the defendants motion for a summary dismissal of the suit. The court applied U. K. law to determine whether the photographs were copyrightable in the first place. It determined that Bridgemans photographs were not original works, and could not be validly copyrighted under U. K. law, in the judgment, Kaplan noted that the court would have reached the same result had it applied U. S. law throughout. The entry of the first summary judgment caused the court, in the words of Judge Kaplan, the plaintiff moved, on November 23, for reconsideration and re-argument, on the grounds that the courts assessment of the copyrightability of the works was in error. In support of motion it pointed to a certificate of copyright issued by the United States Register of Copyrights for one of Bridgemans photographs. It asserted that the certificate demonstrated the subsistence of copyright and it further argued that the court had mis-applied U. K. copyright law, by not following Graves Case. The court also received a letter from William F. Patry. The plaintiff moved for the court to receive an amicus brief from The Wallace Collection. The amicus curiae brief was filed, both parties were given leave to address the points raised by Patrys letter, and the case was re-argued and reconsidered, indeed, it did not even cite Graves case, the supposedly controlling authority that the Court is said to have overlooked. On February 26,1999, Judge Kaplan again granted the motion for a summary dismissal of the suit. In particular, it considered sections 3 and 4 of the BCIA, in other words, Congress did not adopt the Second Restatements rule, under which the law of the state with the most direct relation to the property would apply. Thus Kaplan applied U. S. law to the issue of copyrightability, the second judgment provided a more detailed statement of the courts reasoning than the first judgment did
The Little Mermaid (statue)
The Little Mermaid is a bronze statue by Edvard Eriksen, depicting a mermaid. The sculpture is displayed on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen and it is 1.25 metres tall and weighs 175 kilograms. Based on the tale of the same name by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. In recent decades it has become a target for defacement by vandals. Mermaid is among iconic statues that symbolize cities, others include, Manneken Pis in Brussels, in several cases, cities have commissioned statues for such a purpose, such as with Singapores Merlion. The sculptor Edvard Eriksen created the statue, which was unveiled on August 23,1913. The statues head was modelled after Price, but as the ballerina did not agree to model in the nude, while the statue was away in Shanghai an authorised copy was displayed on a rock in the lake in Copenhagens nearby Tivoli Gardens. This statue has been damaged and defaced many times since the mid-1960s for various reasons, on April 24,1964, the statues head was sawn off and stolen by politically oriented artists of the Situationist movement, amongst them Jørgen Nash. The head was never recovered and a new head was produced and placed on the statue, on July 22,1984, the right arm was sawn off and returned two days later by two young men. In 1990, an attempt to sever the head left an 18 centimeters deep cut in the neck. On January 6,1998, the statue was decapitated again, the culprits were never found, but the head was returned anonymously to a television station. On the night of September 10,2003, the statue was knocked off its base with explosives, holes had been blasted in the mermaids wrist and knee. In 2004, the statue was draped in a burqa in a protest against Turkeys application to join the European Union, in May 2007, it was again found draped in Muslim dress and a head scarf. Paint has been poured on the several times, including one episode in 1963. On March 8,2006, a dildo was attached to the hand, green paint was dumped over it. It is suspected that this vandalism was connected with International Womens Day, the grave of Danish-American entertainer Victor Borge includes a copy as well. The Copenhagen Airport also has a replica of the mermaid along with a statue of Andersen, some statues similar to The Little Mermaid are In Sicily. The first it placed in 1962 on the seafront in Giardini Naxos, a second always portraying a mermaid Post on a depth of sea about 18 meters