Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of
Taejo of Joseon
Taejo of Joseon, born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty. Taejo's father Yi Ja-chun was a minor Mongol official. Taejo's mother Queen Uihye was Chinese from the Yantai-Weihai area of Shandong. Taejo joined the Goryeo army and rose through the ranks, seizing the throne in 1392, he abdicated in 1398 during the strife between his sons and died in 1408. By the late 14th century, the 400-year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation by the disintegrating Mongol Empire; the legitimacy of Korea itself was becoming an disputed issue within the court, as the ruling house failed not only to govern the kingdom but was tarnished by generations of forced intermarriage with members of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty imperial family and by rivalry amongst the various Goryeo Dynasty royal family branches.
Within the kingdom, influential aristocrats and prime ministers struggled for royal favor and vied for domination of the court, resulting in deep divisions among various factions. With the ever-increasing number of raids against Goryeo conducted by Japanese pirates and the Red Turbans invasions of Korea, those who came to dominate the royal court were the reformed-minded Sinjin aristocracy and the opposing Gweonmun aristocracy, as well as generals who could fight off the foreign threats—namely a talented general named Yi Seong-gye and his rival Choe Yeong. With the rise of the Ming Dynasty under a former monk, Zhu Yuanzhang, Mongol forces became more vulnerable. By the 1350s Goryeo regained its full independence from the waning Mongol Empire, although Mongol remnants occupied northeastern territories with large garrisons of troops. General Yi Seong-gye had gained power and respect during the late 1370s and early 1380s by pushing Mongol remnants off the peninsula and by repelling well-organized Japanese pirates in a series of successful engagements.
He was credited with routing the Red Turbans when they made their move into the Korean Peninsula as part of their rebellion against the Yuan Dynasty. Following in the wake of the rise of the Ming Dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, the royal court in Goryeo split into two competing factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by his rival General Choe; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388 to demand the return of a significant portion of Goryeo’s northern territory, General Choe seized the opportunity and played upon the prevailing anti-Ming atmosphere to argue for the invasion of the Liaodong Peninsula. A staunchly opposed Yi was chosen to lead the invasion. Knowing of the support he enjoyed both from high-ranking government officials, the general populace, the great deterrent of Ming Empire under the Hongwu Emperor, he decided to revolt and swept back to the capital, Gaegyeong, to secure control of the government. General Yi swept his army from the Yalu River straight into the capital, defeated forces loyal to the king and forcibly dethroned King U in a de facto coup d'état but did not ascend to the throne right away.
Instead, he placed on the throne King U's son, King Chang, following a failed restoration of the former monarch, had both of them put to death. General Yi, now the undisputed power behind the throne, soon forcibly had a Goryeo royal named Yo, now King Gongyang, crowned as king. After indirectly enforcing his grasp on the royal court through the puppet king, Yi proceeded to ally himself with Sinjin aristocrats such as Jeong Do-jeon and Jo Jun. In 1392, Yi dethroned King Gongyang, exiled him to Wonju, ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 475 years of rule. One of the most repeated episodes that occurred in the immediate aftermath of the fall of Goryeo was in 1392, when Taejo's fifth son, Yi Bang-won, threw a party for the renowned scholar and statesman Jeong Mong-ju, who refused to be won over by Yi despite their numerous correspondences in the form of archaic poems, continued to be a faithful supporter of the old dynasty, a leading figure in the opposition to Yi's claim to the throne.
Jeong was revered throughout Goryeo by Yi Bang-won himself, but he was seen to be an obstacle and as such, in the eyes of supporters of the new dynasty, had to be removed. After the party, on his way home, Jeong was murdered by five men on the Seonjuk Bridge in Gaeseong; this bridge has now become a national monument of North Korea, a brown spot on one of the stones is said to be a bloodstain of his which turns red when it rains. Yi Seong-gye declared a new dynasty in 1392–1393 under the name of Joseon, thereby reviving an older state known as Joseon, that was, established nearly three thousand years and renamed the country the "Kingdom of Great Joseon". An early achievement of the new monarch was impr
Heonjong of Joseon
Heonjong of Joseon was the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the grandson of Sunjo, his father was Crown Prince Hyomyeong, who died at the age of 20 before becoming king and his mother was Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan. Heonjong was born three-years before Hyomyeong's death. Heonjong ascended to the throne in 1834 at the age of 7 after King Sunjo, died. Like King Sunjo, Heonjong took the throne at a young age and his grandmother, Queen Sunwon served as regent. Although King Heonjong ascended to the throne, he had no political control over Joseon; when Heonjong reached adulthood, Queen Sunwon refused to give up control. In 1840, the control over the kingdom was handed down to the Andong Kims, the family of his grandmother Queen Sunwon, following the anti-Catholic Gihae persecution of 1839. King Heonjong died after reigning for 15 years in 1849 at the age of 21, he was buried at the Gyeongneung tomb within the Donggureung Tomb Cluster in Seoul, where several kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty were buried.
As King Heonjong died without an heir, the throne passed to a distant descendant of King Yeongjo, King Cheoljong. As was customary with the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the chronicle of Heonjong's reign was compiled after his death, in 1851; the compilation of the 16-volume chronicle was supervised by Jo In-yeong. Father: King Munjo of Joseon Grandfather: King Sunjo of Joseon Grandmother: Queen Sunwon of the Andong Kim clan Mother: Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan Grandfather: Jo Man-Yeong Grandmother: Lady Song of the Eunjin Song clan Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Hyohyeon of the Andong Kim clan Queen Hyojeong of the Namyang Hong clan Royal Noble Consort Gyeong of the Gwangsan Kim clan Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Yun clan Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gimhae Kim clan Unnamed daughter King Heonjong Jangsuk Chegeon Gyegeuk Jungjeong Gwangdae Jiseong Gwangdeok Hongun Janghwa Gyungmun Wimu Myeongin Cheolhyo the Great of Korea 헌종장숙체건계극중정광대지성광덕홍운장화경문위무명인철효대왕 獻宗莊肅體健繼極中正光大至聖廣德弘運章化經文緯武明仁哲孝大王 List of Rulers of Korea Joseon Dynasty History of Korea List of Korea-related topics
Injo of Joseon
Injo of Joseon was the sixteenth king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea. He was son of Grand Prince Jeongwon. King Injo was king during both the first and second Manchu invasions, which ended with the surrender of Joseon to the Qing dynasty in 1636. King Injo was born in 1595 as a son of Grandprince Jeongwon, whose father was the ruling monarch King Seonjo. In 1607, Grandprince Jeongwon's son was given the title, Prince Neungyang and Grand Prince Neungyang. In 1608, King Seonjo fell sick and died, his son, succeeded him to the throne. At the time, the government was divided by various political factions; the Eastern faction split during the last days of King Seonjo in the Northern and Southern political factions. The Northern faction wanted radical reform. At the time of Seonjo's death, the Northern faction, who gained control of the government at the time, was divided into left-wing Greater Northerners and less radical Lesser Northerners; as Gwanghaegun inherited the throne, the Greater Northern political faction, which supported him as heir to the crown, became the major political faction in the royal court.
Meanwhile, conservative Western political faction remained a minor faction, far from gaining power. Although King Gwanghaegun was an outstanding administrator and great diplomat, he was unsupported by many politicians and aristocrats because he was not the first-born and he was born of a concubine. Greater Northerners tried to stomp out those opinions, suppressing Lesser Northerners and killing Prince Imhae, the oldest son of Seonjo, Grand Prince Yeongchang, the queen's son, it was not Gwanghaegun's plan to keep his throne. The actions made Gwanghaegun more unpopular among wealthy aristocrats, they began plotting against him. In 1623, members of the ultra-conservative Westerners faction, Kim Ja-jeom, Kim Ryu, Yi Gwi and Yi Gwal, launched a coup that resulted in the dethroning of Gwanghaegun, sent into exile on Jeju Island. Jeong In-hong and Yi Yicheom were killed, followed by the Westerners replacing the Greater Northerners as the ruling political faction; the Westerners crowned him as the new King of Joseon.
Although Injo was king, he did not have any authority since all of the power was held by the Western faction that dethroned Gwanghaegun. Yi Gwal received too small reward for his role in the coup. In 1624, he rebelled against Injo after being sent to the Northern front as military commander of Pyongyang to fight against the expanding Manchus, while other major leaders of the coup were rewarded with positions in the King's court. Yi Gwal led 12,000 troops, including 100 Japanese, to the capital, where Yi Gwal defeated a regular army under the command of General Jang Man and surrounded Hanseong in what is known as the Battle of Jeotan. Injo fled to Gongju, Hanseong fell into the hands of the rebels. On February 11, 1624, Yi Gwal enthroned Prince Heungan as the new king; the Korean army recaptured the capital soon after, Yi Gwal was murdered by his bodyguard, which resulted in the end of the rebellion. Though Injo was able to keep his throne, the rebellion displayed the weaknesses of royal authority, while asserting the superiority of the aristocrats, who had gained more power by the fighting against the rebellion.
The economy, experiencing a slight recovery from Gwanghaegun's reconstruction, was once again ruined and Korea would remain in a poor economic state for a few centuries. King Gwanghaegun, considered a wise diplomat, kept his neutral policy between the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Joseon's traditional ally, the growing Manchus. However, following the fall of Gwanghaegun, conservative Westerners took hard-line policy toward the Manchus, keeping their alliance with Ming Dynasty; the Manchus, who had up until that time remained friendly to Joseon, began to regard Joseon as an enemy. Han Yun, who participated in the rebellion of Yi Gwal, fled to Manchuria and urged the Manchu leader Nurhaci to attack Joseon. In 1627, 30,000 Manchu cavalry under General Amin and former Korean General Gang Hong-rip invaded Joseon, calling for restoration of Gwanghaegun and execution of Westerners leaders, including Kim Ja-jeom. General Jang Man again was unable to repel the invasion. Once again, Injo fled to Ganghwa Island.
Meanwhile, the Manchus had no reason to attack Korea and decided to go back to prepare for war against China, peace soon settled. Qing and Joseon were declared brother nations and the Manchus withdrew from Korea; the war is called first Manchu invasion of Korea. However, most Westerners kept their hard-line policy despite the war. Nurhaci, who had good opinion toward Korea, did not invade Korea again.
Yeongwol County is a county in Gangwon Province, South Korea. Well known as the place where King Danjong, the sixth king of Joseon Dynasty, was exiled when he was forced to abdicate by his uncle, who became Sejo of Joseon, it is where Danjong was buried after he was murdered in 1457, following the attempts by six martyred ministers to restore him to power, after he was perceived to be a continuing threat to the rule of his uncle. It is where the Joseon Dynasty poet Kim Sat-gat is buried. Gonggiri Jangreung Eorayeon Gossigul Kimsatgat myeon sites Cheongryeongpo Youngwol dahanu Village Byeolmaro Observatory Donggang Photo Museum Bongraesan Hanbando terrain DongGang International Photo Festival - This festival is held in Yeongwol every year, it features events such as the DongGang Photography Award Exhibition, International Open Call, Photojournalists Exhibition and Gangwon Province Photographers Exhibition. Although it is held at the Dong River Photo Museum, visitors can find the works throughout Yeongwol County during the photo festival.
Yeongwol travel guide from Wikivoyage Yeongwol County tourism office home page
Gwanghaegun of Joseon
Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty. His personal name was Yi Hon; as he was deposed in a coup d'état official historians did not give him a temple name like Taejo or Sejong. Gwanghaegun was the second son of King Seonjo, born to Lady Kim, a concubine; when Japan invaded Korea to attack the Ming Empire, he was installed as Crown Prince. When the king fled north to the border of Ming, he set up a branch court and fought defensive battles. During and after the Seven Year War, he acted as the de facto ruler of the Joseon Dynasty, commanding battles and taking care of the reconstruction of the nation after the devastating wars, in the place of old and weak King Seonjo. Although it brought prestige to him, his position was still unstable, he had an elder but incompetent brother Prince Imhae and a younger but legitimate brother Grand Prince Yeong-chang, supported by the Lesser Northerners faction. For Gwang-hae, King Seonjo's abrupt death made it impossible for his most favorite son Yeong-chang Daegun to succeed to the throne.
Before King Seonjo died, he named Prince Gwang-hae as his official successor to the throne, ordered his advisers to make a royal document. However, Lyu Young-gyong of Lesser Northerners faction hid the document and plotted to install Prince Yeong-chang as king, only to be found out by the head of the Great Northerners faction, Chung In-hong. Lyu was executed and Prince Yeong-chang was arrested and died the next year. After the incident, Gwang-hae tried to bring officials from various political and regional background to his court, but his plan was interrupted by Greater Northerners including Lee Icheom and Chung In-hong. Greater Northerners began to take members of other political factions out of the government Lesser Northerners. At last in 1613 Greater Northerners put their hand on Prince Yeong-chang. At the same time Greater Northerners suppressed the Lesser Northerners. However, Gwang-hae had no power to stop this though he was the official head of the government. Despite his infamous reputation in times, he was a talented and realistic politician.
He sponsored restoration of documents. As a part of reconstruction, he redistributed land to the people, he was responsible for the reintroduction of the hopae identification system after a long period of disuse. In foreign affairs he sought a balance between the Ming Empire and the Manchus. Since he realized Joseon was unable to compete with Manchu military power, he tried to keep friendly relationship with the Manchus while the kingdom was still under the suzerainty of Ming, which angered the Ming and dogmatic Confucian Koreans; the critically worsened Manchu-Ming relationship forced him to send ten thousand soldiers to aid Ming in 1619. However, the Battle of Sarhū ended in Manchu's overwhelming victory; the Korean General Gang Hong-rip surrendered to Nurhaci. Gwanghaegun managed to avoid another war, he restored diplomatic relationship with Japan in 1609 when he reopened trade with Japan through Treaty of Giyu, sent his ambassadors to Japan in 1617. During his reign, Gwanghaegun encouraged publishing in order to accelerate reconstruction and to restore the kingdom's former prosperity.
Many books came out during his reign, including the famous medical book Donguibogam, several historical records were rewritten in this period. For his job in public affair, he implemented the Daedong law, which let the subjects to pay the taxes more easily. However, this law was activated only in Gyeonggi Province, the largest granary zone at that time, it took a century for the law to be extended across the whole kingdom. In 1616, tobacco soon popularized by many aristocratic noblemen. In April 6, 1623 Gwanghaegun was deposed in a coup by the Westerners faction; the coup directed by Kim Yu took place at night, Gwanghaegun was captured later. He was confined first on Ganghwa Island and on Jeju Island, where he died in 1641, he does not have a royal mausoleum like the other Joseon rulers. His and Lady Ryu's remains were buried at a comparatively humble site in Namyangju in Gyeonggi Province; the Westerners faction installed Neungyanggun as the sixteenth king Injo who promulgated pro-Ming and anti-Manchu policies, which resulted in two subsequent Manchu invasions.
Although Gwanghaegun is one of only two deposed kings who were not restored and given the temple name, many people consider him a victim of feuds between political factions. However he did a better job of caring for his country than his predecessor King Seonjo, or his successor King Injo, they both contributed to invasions -- the Japanese invasions of the Seven Year War. In modern South Korea, Gwanghaegun is considered one of the wiser kings rather than a despot. Father: King Seonjo of Joseon Grandfather: Yi Cho, Grand Prince Deokheung Grandmother: Grand Princess Consort Hadong of the Hadong Jeong clan Mother: Royal Noble Consort Gong of the Gimhae Kim clan Grandfat
Jeongjo of Joseon
Jeongjo of Joseon was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He made various attempts to improve the nation of Korea, he was succeeded by his son King Sunjo. Some say Jeongjo is one of the most successful and visionary rulers of the Joseon Dynasty ushering it into a Golden AgeTemplate:Https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1s17p7t. Born as Yi San, he was the son of Crown Prince Lady Hyegyeong, his only elder brother Crown Prince Uiso died in childhood, he was secure of throne successions. His mother Lady Hyegyeong's collection of memoirs serves as a significant source of historical information on the political happenings during the reigns of King Yeongjo, King Jeongjo, King Sunjo. In 1762, his father, Crown Prince Sado, was publicly executed by King Yeongjo, Sado's father and Yi San's grandfather, after long time conflicts and Sado's years of mental illness. Crown Prince Sado opposed the ruling party Noron party. Eight years Yi San asked to visit Sado's living quarter but his Grandfather King Yeongjo refused.
So he refused to attend Crown Prince Sado's funeral. In February 21, 1764, Yi San became the adoptive son of Crown Prince Hyojang by the order of King Yeongjo. Crown Prince Hyojang was the elder half-brother of Crown Prince Sado. Crown Prince Hyojang though, had died during his childhood. King Yeongjo made Yi San a part of Hyojang's family because he was concerned that Yi San, Sado's son and successor. Would be opposed. Noron would pose a problem, say that Yi San was the Son of a prisoner or Son of a psycho and thus would become ineligible to succeed the throne, rendered King Yeongjo worried for an extended period. After 1762 to 1777, some members of Noron attempted to deport Jeongjo for his relation to Crown Prince Sado's title, thus succeeding the thrones, there was access to Prince Eunjeon and Prince Euneon, Prince Eunshin, they were his half-brothers. His grand uncle Hong In-han and Chung Hu-kyom, adopted; when he was the Crown Prince, King Jeongjo met Hong Guk-yeong, a controversial politician who first supported Jeongjo's accession and toiled to improve the king's power, but ended up being expelled because of his desire for power.
Another helper was Kim Jong-su, he was one member of Noron but he was principled. In 1775, one year before King Yeongjo's death, King Yeongjo was appointed regent for him Yeongjo gave o military power for him. Jeongjo spent much of his reign trying to clear his father's name, he moved the court to the city of Suwon to be closer to his father's grave. He built Hwaseong Fortress to guard the tomb, it is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The era before his rule was in disorder as his father was killed by royal decree of his own father, King Jeongjo's grandfather. King Yeongjo's ultimate decision to execute Crown Prince Sado was influenced by other politicians who were against the Crown Prince. After King Yeongjo's death and on the day that Jeongjo became the King of Joseon, he sat on his throne in the throne room and looked at everyone and said, "I am the son of the late Crown Prince Sado..." This was a bold statement that sent shivers down the spines of all the politicians who were complicit in his father's death.
During his accession, he issued a royal decree that his mother, Lady Hyegyeong, be a Dowager Queen since his father, her husband, was supposed to be the King before him. Thus, she became the widow of Crown Prince Sado. From on, King Jeongjo experienced many turbulent periods, but overcame them with the aid of Hong Guk-yeong, Kim Chong-su. In 1776, Hong Sang-beom, Hong Kye-neung and other some member of Noron was attempted of a military coup d'etat and kill him, but there plans was exposed early; some assassins were secretly in royal palace but Jeongjo repulsed assassins and arrested a suspect. Jeongjo executed Hong Sang-beom, Hong Kye-neung, other some member of Norons, but put to death Prince Eunjeon, Hong In-han, Chung Hu-kyom. In 1785 he erected Changyongyeong, this is the King's royal bodyguards. Before In 1782, Jeongjo selected by competitive examination some officers, who were organized into the unit of Changyongyeong. Before this time was the Naekeunwe, royal bodyguards of Joseon dynasties created by Taejong of Joseon in 1407.
But Jeongjo mistrusted the Naekeumwi, so he created Changyonegyeong. King Jeongjo led the new renaissance of the Joseon Dynasty, but was stopped by continuing the policy of Yeongjo's Tangpyeong rule, he tried to control the politics of the whole nation to further national progress. He made various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing a royal library; the primary purpose of Kyujanggak was to improve the cultural and political stance of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to help run the nation. Jeongjo spearheaded bold new social initiatives, including opening government positions to those who were barred because of their social status, he had philosophy, Neo-Confucianism. One of the King's gentlemen, Kim Jong-su, imprinted onto the king and in tandem became a great father and a great teacher for him, he read various books. Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars who supported Jeongjo's regal power, including Scholars Jeong Yak-yong, Pak Ji-won, Pak Je-ga and Yu Deuk-gong.
His reign saw the further growth