Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Ministry of Culture (Denmark)
The Ministry of Culture Denmark is a ministry of the Danish Government, with responsibility for culture and media. The Danish Ministry of Culture was founded in 1961 with Julius Bomholt as its first cultural minister, the Ministry is located at Gammel Strand with address from Nybrogade 2. The building is a former mayors house dating from 1729–30, built for mayor Christian Bjerregård, originally, it was a three-winged building but a fourth wing facing the canal was added by the architect Philip de Lange. It served from 1759 to c. 1950 as a pawnbrokers shop, in 1962, the Ministry of Culture moved in after the building had undergone a thorough restoration
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
A bachelors degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelors degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. The term bachelor in the 12th century referred to a knight bachelor, by the end of the 13th century, it was used by junior members of guilds or universities. By folk etymology or wordplay, the word came to be associated with bacca lauri in reference to laurels being awarded for academic success or honours. An honours degree generally requires an academic standard than a pass degree. In most African countries, the university systems follow the model of their former colonizing power, for example, the Nigerian university system is similar to the British system, while the Ivorian system is akin to the French. The degree is typically identical to the program of Frances universities, bachelors degree programs cover most of the fields in Algerian universities, except some fields, such as Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science.
Bachelors degrees at the University of Botswana normally take four years, the system draws on both British and American models. Degrees are classified as First Class, Second Class Division One, Second Class Division Two and Third as in English degrees, but without being described as honours. The main degrees are named by British tradition, but in recent years there have been a numbers of degrees named after specific subjects, such as Bachelor of Library, in Morocco, a bachelors degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah. The course of study takes three years, which are divided into two cycles. The first cycle comprises the first, or propaedeutic, after successfully completing their first two years, students can pursue either theoretical specialization or professional specialization. The second cycle is one long, after whose completion students receive the licence détudes fondamentales or the licence professionnelle. This academic degree system was introduced in September 2003, University admission is extremely competitive, with attendant advantages and disadvantages.
Nonetheless, it takes four to five years to complete a bachelors degree, in cases of poor performance, the time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example, one may not study for more than 10 years for a five-year course, students are normally asked to leave if they must take longer. B. Arch. and other specialized undergraduate degrees, such as B. Eng, Science undergraduate degrees may require six months or a semester dedicated to SIWES but it is usually mandatory for all engineering degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required, not excluding course work, the classifications of degrees, first-class, second-class, third-class and a pass
Hans Jørgensen Wegner, was a world-renowned Danish furniture designer. His high quality and thoughtful work, along with an effort from several of his manufacturers. His style is described as Organic Functionality, a modernist school with emphasis on functionality. This school of thought primarily in Scandinavian countries with contributions by Poul Henningsen, Alvar Aalto. In his lifetime he designed over 500 different chairs, over 100 of which were put into mass production, born to cobbler Peter M. Wegner in Tønder, in southern Denmark, he worked as a child apprentice to master cabinetmaker H. F. Stahlberg. He soon discovered he had a feeling for wood and developed an affinity towards the material, finishing his apprenticeship at 17 he remained in the workshop for another three years before joining the army. He went to college after serving in the military, and to the Danish School of Arts and Crafts. In Copenhagen he became acquainted with the citys Carpenters Guild Furniture Exhibits and these annual exhibits gave Wegner a first-hand experience of what the combination of workmanship and design could produce.
Wegner decided to become a designer with the aim of producing and selling his furniture, therefore, in 1936, he began studies at what is now The Danish Design School, with O. Mølgaard Nielsen as teacher. Arne Jacobsen and Erik Møller had established a studio together to design, in 1938 Wegner was employed in Aarhus, first under architects Erik Møller and Flemming Lassen and in 1940 under Jacobsen and Møller. Wegners task was to design the furniture for the City Hall, Wegner worked for some time for Arne Jacobsen, a successful Danish architect and designer. Wegner was in charge of the furniture in the Aarhus City Hall, after some years under Jacobsen, Wegner started his own company. Along with fellow architect Børge Mogensen, he designed furniture for FDB, in his years Wegner became more attached to PP Møbler and for whom he designed several chairs late in his life. He remained active throughout his life, an example of his work is the Hoop Chair, originally designed in 1965 with a steel tube base and finally put into production made entirely in wood in 1985.
Wegner retired from life only in the last decade of his life. In 1959, he was made honorary Royal designer for industry by the Royal Society of Arts in London and his furniture is present in multiple international collection including the Museum of Modern Art in N. Y. and the Die Neue Sammlung in Munich. Many of Wegners wooden chairs are characterized by traditional joinery techniques including mortise and tenons, finger joints, Wegner utilized traditional construction for upholstered pieces, and often mixed materials such as solid wood, metal, upholstery and papercord. Wegner said of his work I have always wanted to make unexceptional things of a high quality
Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction. Design has different connotations in different fields, in some cases, the direct construction of an object is considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, economic, and it may involve considerable research, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, corporate identities, business processes, and even methods or processes of designing. Thus design may be a substantive referring to an abstraction of a created thing or things. It is an act of creativity and innovation, here, a specification can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and primitives are the elements from which the design object is composed. With such a broad denotation, there is no language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines.
This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject, the person designing is called a designer, which is a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas usually specifying which area is being dealt with. A designers sequence of activities is called a process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, thus the word design can be used as a noun or a verb. In a broader sense, the design is an applied art, while the definition of design is fairly broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, the prevailing view has been called The Rational Model, Technical Problem Solving and The Reason-Centric Perspective. The alternative view has been called Reflection-in-Action, Evolutionary Design, co-evolution, the Rational Model was independently developed by Herbert A.
Simon, an American scientist, and Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists. The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, according to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process, each stage has many associated best practices. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, the Action-Centric Perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to The Rational Model. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers, like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. Designers context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center stage more than technical rationality, at least two views of design activity are consistent with the Action-Centric Perspective
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen