North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball
The North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball program is the intercollegiate men's basketball team of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The Tar Heels have won six NCAA men's college national championships. North Carolina's six NCAA Tournament Championships are third-most all-time, behind University of California, Los Angeles and University of Kentucky, they have won 18 Atlantic Coast Conference tournament titles, 32 Atlantic Coast Conference regular season titles, an Atlantic Coast Conference record 20 outright Regular Season Championships. The program has produced many notable players who went on to play in the NBA, including three of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History: Billy Cunningham, Michael Jordan and James Worthy. Many Tar Heel assistant coaches have gone on to become head coaches elsewhere. From the Tar Heels' first season in 1910–11 through the 2017–18 season, the program has amassed a.738 all-time winning percentage, winning 2,232 games and losing 792 games in 108 seasons.
The Tar Heels have the most consecutive 20-win seasons with 31 seasons from the 1970–71 season through the 2000–2001 season. On March 2, 2010, North Carolina became the second college basketball program to reach 2,000 wins in its history; the Tar Heels are ranked 3rd all time in wins trailing Kentucky by 31 games and Kansas by 16 games. The Tar Heels are one of only four Division I Men's Basketball programs to have achieved 2,000 victories. Kentucky and Duke are the other three. North Carolina has averaged more wins per season played than any other program in college basketball. Carolina has played 160 games in the NCAA tournament; the Tar Heels have appeared in the NCAA Tournament Championship Game 11 times, have been in a record 20 NCAA Tournament Final Fours. The Tar Heels have made it into the NCAA tournament 50 times, have amassed 123 victories. North Carolina won the National Invitation Tournament in 1971, appeared in two NIT Finals with six appearances in the NIT Tournament. Additionally, the team has been the number one seed in the NCAA Tournament 17 times, the latest being in 2019.
North Carolina has been ranked in the Top 25 in the AP Poll an all-time record 908 weeks, has beaten #1 ranked teams a record 14 times, has the most consecutive 20-win seasons with 31, the most consecutive top-3 ACC regular season finishes with 37. North Carolina has ended the season ranked in the Top-25 of the AP Poll 50 times and in the Top-25 of the Coaches' Poll 52 times. Further, the Tar Heels have finished the season ranked #1 in the AP Poll 5 times and ranked #1 in Coaches' Poll 6 times. In 2008, the Tar Heels received the first unanimous preseason #1 ranking in the history of either the Coaches' Poll or the AP Poll. In 2012, ESPN ranked North Carolina #1 on its list of the 50 most successful programs of the past 50 years. North Carolina played its first basketball game on January 27, 1910, beating Virginia Christian 42-21. In 1921, the school joined the Southern Conference; the 1924 Tar Heels squad went 26–0, was retroactively awarded a'national championship' by the Helms Athletic Foundation in 1943 and by the Premo-Porretta Power Poll.
Overall, the Tar Heels played 32 seasons in the Southern Conference from 1921 to 1953. During that period they won 304 games and lost 111 for a winning percentage of 73.3%. The Tar Heels won the Southern Conference regular season 9 times and the Southern Conference Tournament Championship 8 times. In 1953, North Carolina split from the Southern Conference and became a founding member of the Atlantic Coast Conference; the Tar Heels won their first NCAA Championship in 1957 under fifth year head coach Frank McGuire, who led an undefeated 32-0 squad dominated by Lennie Rosenbluth and several other transplants from the New York City area to a 54-53 triple overtime victory over Wilt Chamberlain's Kansas Jayhawks. C. D. Chesley, a Washington, D. C. television producer, piped the 1957 championship game in Kansas City to a hastily created network of five stations across North Carolina—the ancestor to the current syndicated ACC football and basketball package from Raycom Sports—which helped prove pivotal in basketball becoming a craze in the state.
The title game was the only triple overtime final game in championship history, which followed a triple overtime North Carolina defeat of Michigan State 74-70 the previous night. In 1960, the Tar Heels were placed on NCAA probation for "improper recruiting entertainment" of basketball prospects; as a result, they were barred from the 1961 NCAA tournament and withdrew from the 1961 ACC Tournament. Following the season, Chancellor William Aycock forced McGuire to resign; as a replacement, Aycock selected one of Kansas alumnus Dean Smith. Smith's early teams were not nearly as successful, his first team went only 8–9–as it turned out, the last losing season UNC would suffer for 41 years. His first five teams never won more than 16 games; this grated on a fan base used to winning. However, Smith would go on to take the Tar Heels to a reign of national dominance; when he retired in 1997, Smith's 879 wins were the most for any NCAA Division I men's basketball coach, his 77.61% winning percentage ninth best.
During his tenure, North Carolina won or shared 17 ACC regular season titles and won 13 ACC Tournaments. They went to the NCAA tournament 27 times–including 23 in a row from 1975 to 1997–appeared in 11 Final Fours, won NCAA national tournament titles in 1982 and 1993, they won the NIT in 1971. The 1982 National Championship team was led by James Worthy, Sam Perkins, a young Michael J
2005–06 NCAA Division I men's basketball season
The 2005–06 NCAA Division I men's basketball season began on November 6, 2005, progressed through the regular season and conference tournaments, concluded with the 2006 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament Championship Game on April 3, 2006, at the RCA Dome in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Florida Gators won their first NCAA national championship with a 73–56 victory over the UCLA Bruins; this was the final Final Four site at the RCA Dome. The Final Four will be held at Lucas Oil Stadium; the University of Florida won its first national title in basketball, defeating UCLA in the championship game 73–57. The team was led by a group of sophomores, several of whom were the offspring of retired professional athletes, nicknamed "The Oh-fours." Forward Al Horford and guard Taurean Green were the sons of former NBA players, while center and Final Four MOP Joakim Noah was the son of retired tennis pro Yannick Noah. These three surprised many by choosing not to enter the NBA Draft, but instead returning to try to repeat as champions in 2006–07.
George Mason made an improbable run to the Final Four, becoming the first true mid-major to do so since Penn in 1979. The Patriots’ path was not easy, as they defeated schools that had won three of the past six titles – national powers Michigan State, North Carolina and Connecticut – en route to its first Final Four berth. J. J. Redick of Duke and Adam Morrison of Gonzaga engaged in a year-long battle for the National scoring title and Player of the Year honors. Morrison won the scoring race. However, Redick won most National POY Awards, though he and Morrison were the first co-winners of the 2006 Oscar Robertson Trophy. Paul Millsap of Louisiana Tech became the first player to lead the Nation in rebounding for three consecutive years. A major realignment of teams in the Big East and ACC sent shock waves across college basketball. Boston College followed Virginia Tech and Miami from the Big East to the ACC; the Big East brought in five teams from Conference USA – Cincinnati, DePaul, Louisville and South Florida.
To replace the teams that defected to the Big East, Conference USA brought in six new members: Rice, SMU, Tulsa and UTEP from the Western Athletic Conference. Other conference realignments effective this season: The WAC added New Mexico State and Utah State. East Tennessee State moved from the Southern Conference to the Atlantic Sun; the Colonial Athletic Association added Northeastern from the America East Conference and Georgia State from the Atlantic Sun. Troy moved from the Atlantic Sun to the Sun Belt Conference; the preseason AP All-American team was named on November 8. J. J. Redick of Duke was the leading vote-getter; the rest of the team included Shelden Williams of Duke, Dee Brown of Illinois, Adam Morrison of Gonzaga and Craig Smith of Boston College. The top 25 from the AP and ESPN/USA Today Coaches Polls November 7, 2005; these schools joined new conferences for the 2005–06 season. Thirty conference seasons conclude with a single-elimination tournament. Traditionally, all conference schools are eligible, regardless of record.
However, some conferences, most notably the Big East, do not invite the teams with the worst records. The conference tournament winner receives an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. A school that wins the conference regular season title is guaranteed an NIT bid; the NCAA Tournament tipped off on March 14, 2006 with the opening round game in Dayton and concluded on April 3 at the RCA Dome in Indianapolis, Indiana. A total of 65 teams entered the tournament. Thirty of the teams earned automatic bids by winning their conference tournaments; the automatic bid of the Ivy League, which does not conduct a post-season tournament, went to its regular season champion. The remaining 34 teams were granted "at-large" bids, which are extended by the NCAA Selection Committee; the Big East Conference led the way with eight bids. Florida won their first NCAA title. Florida forward Joakim Noah was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. A-Atlanta, O-Oakland, W-Washington, D. C. M-Minneapolis. After the NCAA Tournament field was announced, the National Invitation Tournament invited 32 teams to participate, reducing the field's size from 40.
Eight teams were given automatic bids for winning their conference regular seasons, 24 other teams were invited. Dave Odom's South Carolina Gamecocks won their second consecutive title, defeating the Tommy Amaker-coached Michigan Wolverines 76–64 in the championship game. Gamecock forward Renaldo Balkman was named tournament MVP. Wooden Award: J. J. Redick, Duke Naismith Award: J. J. Redick, Duke Associated Press Player of the Year: J. J. Redick, Duke NABC Player of the Year: J. J. Redick and Adam Morrison, Gonzaga Oscar Robertson Trophy: J. J. Redick and Adam Morrison, Gonzaga Adolph Rupp Trophy: J. J. Redick, Duke CBS/Chevrolet Player of the Year: J. J. Redick, Duke Sporting News Player of the Year: J. J. Redick, Duke USBWA Freshman of the Year: Tyler Hansbrough, North Carolina Sporting News Freshman of the Year: Tyler Hansbrough, North Carolina Associated Press Coach of the Year: Jay Wright, Villanova Henry Iba Award: Roy Williams, North Carolina NABC Coach of the Y
2010–11 NBA Development League season
The 2010–11 NBA Development League season is the tenth season of the NBA Development League. The NBA D-League is the official minor league basketball organization owned and run by the National Basketball Association; the league was formed in 2001 as the National Basketball Development League. The league adopted its current name in 2005 to reflect its close affiliation with the NBA. One expansion franchise, the Texas Legends, joined the 15 returning teams from the previous season; the season started with the 2010 NBA Development League Draft, held on November 1, 2010. Former NBA second-round draft pick Nick Fazekas was selected first overall by the Reno Bighorns; the regular season began on November 18, 2010, ended on April 4, 2011. The Iowa Energy had the best regular season record with 13 losses, they won the Eastern Conference, while the Reno Bighorns won the Western Conference with the second-best regular season record with 34 wins and 16 losses. The regular season set a new record on total attendance of 1,125,583, a 7.9% increase from the previous season.
The playoffs started on April 6, 2011. The first seed, the Iowa Energy, defeated the Utah Flash and the Tulsa 66ers in the first and second round consecutively; the defending champion Rio Grande Valley Vipers, seeded third, defeated the Bakersfield Jam and the Reno Bighorns in the first and second round respectively. The Energy and the Vipers face each other in the 2011 NBA D-League Finals, started on April 24, 2011; the Energy won the first game 123–106, while the Vipers won the second game 141–122 to the series. On April 29, 2011, the Energy won the decisive Game Three to win their first championship; the Texas Legends entered the D-League as an expansion franchise. The Legends was formed when an ownership group led by Donnie Nelson, the President of Basketball Operations and General Manager of the Dallas Mavericks, purchased the Colorado 14ers on June 18, 2009; the franchise relocated to Frisco and was renamed the Texas Legends. On March 1, 2010, the Albuquerque Thundebirds announced that they would move from the Tingley Coliseum in Albuquerque, New Mexico to the Santa Ana Star Center in Rio Rancho, New Mexico.
The team was renamed the New Mexico Thunderbirds to reflect their new location and their statewide representation. On May 21, 2010, the Los Angeles D-Fenders announced; the franchise, owned by the Los Angeles Lakers, relocated to El Segundo and will return to play in the 2011–12 season. On July 6, 2010, the league announced the affiliation system for the season; the Austin Toros and the Tulsa 66ers, owned by the San Antonio Spurs and the Oklahoma City Thunder continued their single-affiliation partnerships with their parent teams. The Houston Rockets continued their single-affiliation partnership with the Rio Grande Valley Vipers; the Texas Legends, owned by Dallas Mavericks' General Manager Donnie Nelson began a single-affiliation partnership with the Mavericks. The other 12 teams were affiliated with at least two NBA teams each. Due to several team changes above and other circumstances, some affiliation changes occurred; the Dallas Mavericks, affiliated with the Albuquerque Thunderbirds for the last two seasons, began a single-affiliation partnership with the Texas Legends.
The Orlando Magic, affiliated with the Reno Bighorns in the 2009–10 season, were announced as the new affiliate of the New Mexico Thunderbirds. The Golden State Warriors, affiliated with the Bakersfield Jam for the last four seasons, were announced as the new affiliate of the Reno Bighorns; the Los Angeles Lakers, who owned and was affiliated with the Los Angeles D-Fenders for the last four seasons, were announced as the new affiliate of the Bakersfield Jam. On November 5, 2009, the Frisco D-League Team, who became the Texas Legends, hired Basketball Hall of Famer Nancy Lieberman as the franchise's first head coach, she became the first female to coach a men's professional basketball team. On June 2, 2010, the Idaho Stampede hired 2007 D-League Most Valuable Player and former Stampede player Randy Livingston as the team's head coach, replacing Bob MacKinnon, Jr. who resigned on May 6, 2010. On July 27, 2010, the New Mexico Thunderbirds promoted assistant coach and former Thunderbirds player Darvin Ham as the team's head coach, replacing John Coffino who resigned in April 2010.
On August 12, 2010, the Reno Bighorns hired former NBA head coach Eric Musselman as the team's head coach, replacing Jay Humphries who left the team after the 2009–10 season. On September 7, 2010, the Utah Flash promoted assistant coach Kevin Young as the team's head coach, replacing Brad Jones, hired as the head coach for the Austin Toros on September 28, 2010. On September 21, 2010, the Erie BayHawks hired former Irish national team head coach Jay Larranaga as the team's head coach, replacing John Treloar, hired as the Director of Player Personnel for the Phoenix Suns on September 21, 2010. On September 28, 2010, the Austin Toros hired former Utah Flash head coach Brad Jones as the team's head coach, replacing Quin Snyder, hired as the assistant coach for the Philadelphia 76ers on July 1, 2010. A On January 14, 2011, the Sioux Falls Skyforce fired head coach Tony Fritz. Assistant coach Duane Ticknor took over as the interim head coach for two games until former Skyforce head coach Morris McHone was hired on January 20, 2011.
An NBA D-League team roster consists of draftees, returning and tryout players. In addition, NBA teams can assign players who are on their first or second NBA season to their D-League affiliates; the roster must consist of 10 D-League players, but the maximum roster size is 12 players
2009 NBA draft
The 2009 NBA draft was held on June 25, 2009, at the WaMu Theatre at Madison Square Garden in New York City. In this draft, the National Basketball Association teams took turns selecting amateur U. S. college basketball players and other eligible players, including international players. The Los Angeles Clippers, who won the draft lottery on May 19, 2009, used their first overall draft pick to draft Blake Griffin from University of Oklahoma. However, he missed the entire 2009–10 season due to surgery on his broken left kneecap, which he injured during the pre-season. Tanzanian-born Hasheem Thabeet from University of Connecticut was drafted second by the Memphis Grizzlies. Thabeet became the first player born in Tanzania to be drafted by an NBA team. James Harden was drafted 3rd by the Oklahoma City Thunder; this made him the first player to be drafted by the franchise as the Oklahoma City Thunder whose franchise moved from Seattle to OKC in 2008. The Sacramento Kings drafted Tyreke Evans 4th. Spanish teenager Ricky Rubio was drafted 5th by the Minnesota Timberwolves.
Rubio became the fifth-highest-drafted international player who never played U. S. college basketball to be drafted in the NBA, tied with Nikoloz Tskitishvili, behind Yao Ming, Andrea Bargnani, Darko Miličić and Pau Gasol. Twenty-third pick Omri Casspi became the first Israeli player to be drafted in the first round, he became the first Israeli to play in the NBA; the 2009 draft marked the first time three sons of former NBA players were selected in the top 15 picks of the draft. Stephen Curry, son of Dell Curry, was drafted 7th by the Golden State Warriors. Gerald Henderson Jr. son of Gerald Henderson, was drafted 12th by the Charlotte Bobcats. Austin Daye, son of Darren Daye, was drafted 15th by the Detroit Pistons; the draft marked the first time a former high school player who skipped college to play professional basketball in Europe was selected in an NBA draft. Brandon Jennings, who skipped college to play professional basketball with Italian team Lottomatica Roma, was drafted 10th overall by the Milwaukee Bucks in the draft.
Stephen Curry was named NBA MVP for 2 consecutive years, won his first NBA championship in 2015. Of the 60 players drafted, four were freshmen, nine were sophomores, 12 were juniors, 22 were seniors, 13 were international players without U. S. college basketball experience. The University of North Carolina's Tar Heels had the most players selected in the draft; this marked the second time that four Tar Heels players were selected in the first two rounds of an NBA draft. The Minnesota Timberwolves had the league-high four first-round draft picks and the first time in team history that the team held two top-10 draft picks; the Timberwolves had two second-round draft picks and became the team with the most draft picks in the 2009 draft with a total of six. The Houston Rockets and the Orlando Magic were the only NBA teams who did not have a draft pick this year, although Houston acquired three drafted players' rights after the draft. ^ a: Nick Calathes was born in the United States, has dual U. S. and Greek citizenship by birth.
He has represented Greece internationally.^ b: Goran Suton, born in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is a naturalized citizen of the United States since 2006.^ c: Emir Preldžič, born in Bosnia and Herzegovina has Slovenian and Turkish citizenship. He had represented Slovenia internationally in 2008, before switching to Turkey.^ d: Chinemelu Elonu was born in Nigeria, is a naturalized citizen of the United States. These players were not selected in the 2009 NBA draft but have played at least one game in the NBA; the basic requirements for draft eligibility are: All drafted players must be born on or before December 31, 1990. Any player, not an "international player", as defined in the collective bargaining agreement between the NBA and its players union, must be at least one year removed from the graduation of his high school class; the CBA defines "international players" as players who permanently resided outside the U. S. for three years prior to the draft, did not complete high school in the U. S. and have never enrolled at a U.
S. college or university. The basic requirement for automatic eligibility for a U. S. player is the completion of his college eligibility. Players who meet the CBA definition of "international players" are automatically eligible if their 22nd birthday falls during or before the calendar year of the draft. U. S. players who were at least one year removed from their high school graduation and have played professional basketball with a team outside the NBA were automatically eligible. Former high school player Brandon Jennings meets these criteria, having graduated high school in 2008, skipped college basketball and played professional basketball in Italy. A player, not automatically eligible must declare his eligibility for the draft by notifying the NBA offices in writing no than 60 days before the draft. For the 2009 draft, this date fell on April 26. An early entry candidate is allowed to withdraw his eligibility for the draft by notifying the NBA offices in writing no than 10 days before the draft.
This year, a total of 74 collegiate players and 29 international players declared as early entry candidates. At the withdrawal deadline, 55 early-entry candidates withdrew from the
Three-point field goal
A three-point field goal is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw; the distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association the arc is 23 feet 9 inches from the center of the basket. In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet from each sideline. In the NCAA the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations. In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point; the three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in 1945, with a 21-foot line, in a game between Columbia and Fordham, but it was not kept as a rule.
There was another one-game experiment in 1958, this time with a 23-foot line, in a game between St. Francis and Siena. In 1961, Boston University and Dartmouth played one game with an experimental rule that counted all field goals as three points. At the direction of Abe Saperstein, the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961, its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet from the baskets, except along the sides. The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season; the three-point shot became popularized by the American Basketball Association, introduced in its inaugural 1967–68 season. ABA commissioner George Mikan stated the three-pointer "would give the smaller player a chance to score and open up the defense to make the game more enjoyable for the fans." During the 1970s, the ABA used the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the NBA. Three years in June 1979, the NBA adopted the three-point line for a one-year trial for the 1979–80 season, despite the view of many that it was a gimmick.
Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979. Rick Barry of the Houston Rockets, in his final season made one in the same game, Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets made one that Friday night as well; the sport's international governing body, FIBA, introduced the three-point line in 1984, at 6.25 m, it made its Olympic debut in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot line for the 1980–81 season. Ronnie Carr of Western Carolina was the first to score a three-point field goal in college basketball history on November 29, 1980. Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and distance required for a three-pointer; the line was as close as 17 ft 9 in in the Atlantic Coast Conference, as far away as 22 ft in the Big Sky. Used only in conference play for several years, it was adopted by the NCAA in April 1986 for the 1986–87 season at 19 ft 9 in and was first used in the NCAA Tournament in March 1987.
The NCAA adopted the three-pointer in women's basketball on an experimental basis for that season at the same distance, made its use mandatory beginning in 1987–88. In 2007, the NCAA lengthened the men's distance by a foot to 20 ft 9 in, effective with the 2008–09 season, the women's line was moved to match the men's in 2011–12. American high schools, along with elementary and middle schools, adopted a 19 ft 9 in line nationally in 1987, a year after the NCAA; the NCAA used the FIBA three-point line in the National Invitation Tournament in 2018. For three seasons beginning in 1994–95, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in to a uniform 22 ft around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in. Ray Allen is the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973. In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm to 6.75 m, with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010.
In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using the FIBA distance, starting in 2013. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn. In the NBA, three-point field goals became more frequent along the years by mid 2015 onward; the increase in latter years has been attributed to NBA player Stephen Curry, credited with revolutionizing the game by inspiring teams to employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. The 1979–80 season had an average 0.8 three-point goals per game and 2.8 attempts. The 1989–90 season had an average 2.2 three-point goals per game and 6.6 attempts. The 1999–2000 season had an average 4.8 three-point goals
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport