Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Georgia Straight
The Georgia Straight is a free Canadian weekly news and entertainment newspaper published in Vancouver, British Columbia, by the Vancouver Free Press Publishing Corp. As surveyed by VAC its per-issue circulation average as of January 25, 2011, is 119,971 copies, its average weekly readership is 804,000 as of 2009, its website traffic ranked 47,339 globally and 1,458 within Canada, according to February 27, 2012 figures from Alexa. The paper was founded as an underground newspaper in May 1967 by Pierre Coupey, Milton Acorn, Dan McLeod, Stan Persky, others, it operated as a collective. In April 1967: "The proposed paper was christened the Georgia Straight over beer at the Cecil Hotel; the name aims to play on the fact that the weather forecasts will offer free publicity: they're always issuing gale warnings for the Georgia Strait." On May 5, 1967 the first issue was cost ten cents. It was a biweekly newspaper. On May 12, Dan McLeod was taken away in a paddy wagon and jailed for three hours for "investigation of vagrancy."
College Printers refused to print the second issue. The paper was raided and fined by the Vancouver Police for publishing obscenities, was banned from distribution for its criticism of the local police and politicians. Vancouver mayor Tom Campbell described the paper as "filth" and, objecting of its sale to "school children," urged the city's licensing inspector to suspend the paper for "gross misconduct" contrary to city bylaws; the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association attempted to assist the paper by challenging the suspension in court by arguing that only federal laws could restrict freedom-of-the-press. The initial challenge was unsuccessful, with Justice Thomas Dohm praising the mayor for his actions. On appeal, the appellate court agreed to lift the suspension on the grounds that a hearing should have been provided to explain why the paper was suspended, but did not rule on the BCCLA's freedom-of-the-press argument; the BCCLA provided further legal assistance to Dan McLeod and the paper when both were criminally charged with three counts of obscenity for publishing a photograph, an advertisement described as being titled "Young man wants to meet women to 30 years old for Muffdiving, etc," and an article titled "Penis de Milo Created by Cynthia Plaster-Caster."
McLeod and the paper were acquitted on all three charges due to the Crown having failed to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt, with the judge noting that no evidence was provided as to the meaning of the word "muffdiving" and that he could not take judicial notice of a word that he had not heard. Those controversies ended in the 1970s, as the paper moved to become a more conventional news and entertainment weekly, albeit with a progressive editorial slant. Known as The Straight, this large "tabloid" format unconventional publication is delivered to newsboxes, post-secondary schools, public libraries and a large variety of other locations around Metro Vancouver every Thursday. In October 2003, the provincial government sent The Straight a bill totalling more than $1 million for outstanding provincial sales tax. In British Columbia, print publications must have at least 25 per cent editorial content to be considered a newspaper, to qualify for exemption from PST on printing bills; the extensive "Time Out" listing of the paper, detailing the what and where of every public event in the city, was judged to be advertising - pushing the paper below the required thresholds for a newspaper.
As reported by the CBC, publisher Dan McLeod said this re-interpretation of the rules was a politically motivated attempt to silence a persistent critic. "We're the only paper, critical of the government in our editorials week after week, we're the only paper that's being fined a million dollars," he said. "So I put two and two together." However, not everyone agreed with McLeod's interpretation of events and pointed out that The Straight had a lower editorial-to-advertising ratio than many other alternative and university papers. This public battle garnered considerable attention, the BC government issued a statement reversing their decision, stating "clearly the Georgia Straight is a newspaper..."As noted by McLeod, the paper is known as a vocal critic of government, notably the former Liberal government of Gordon Campbell. In the mid-1990s a second Straight newspaper in Calgary, called the Calgary Straight was produced, its existence was brief. Bob Geldof worked as a music journalist for the Georgia Straight in the 1970s before he returned to Ireland and joined the Boomtown Rats.
2006 The Straight moves into its own renovated four-storey building at 1701 West Broadway. Architect J. Kerrigan Sproule upgrades a commercial building constructed in 1948 by adding one more level of underground parking and a fourth-floor amenity space with spectacular views of the city; the fourth-floor addition includes a kitchen, lunch room, exercise room, large patio area, a shower for employees. Extensive landscaping, including 11 trees and various shrubs, transforms the Pine Street side of the site and the back alley; the emblematic Mr. Wuxtry appears on a flag hanging on the Broadway side of the building; the Straight's move comes as this section of the Broadway corridor experiences significant growth with the addition of several new restaurants and retail outlets. A readership survey conducted on behalf of The Georgia Straight in 2007 found that: In its core market of the City of Vancouver, 61 percent of all adults 18+ reported reading a copy of the Georgia Straight within the past six issues.
By comparison, 48% of respondents indicated reading the Vancouver Sun within
The Ottawa Citizen is an English-language daily newspaper owned by Postmedia Network in Ottawa, Canada. Like most Canadian daily newspapers, the Ottawa Citizen has seen a decline in circulation, its total circulation dropped by 26 percent to 91,796 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average Established as The Bytown Packet in 1845 by William Harris, it was renamed the Citizen in 1851; the newspaper's original motto, returned to the editorial page, was Fair play and Day-Light. The paper has been through a number of owners. In 1846, Harris sold the paper to Henry J. Friel. Robert Bell bought the paper in 1849. In 1877, Charles Herbert Mackintosh, the editor under Robert Bell, became publisher. In 1879, it became one of several papers owned by the Southam family, it remained under Southam until the chain was purchased by Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc.. In 2000, Black sold most of his Canadian holdings, including the flagship National Post to CanWest Global; the editorial view of the Citizen has varied with its ownership, taking a reform, anti-Tory position under Harris and a conservative position under Bell.
As part of Southam, it moved to the left, supporting the Liberals in opposition to the Progressive Conservative Party's support of free trade in the late 1980s. Under Black, it became a supporter of the Reform Party, it endorsed the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election. In 2002, its publisher Russell Mills was dismissed following the publication of a story critical of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and an editorial calling for Chrétien's resignation, it published its last Sunday edition on July 15, 2012. The move cut 20 newsroom jobs, was part of a series of changes made by PostMedia; the logo used to depict the top of the Peace Tower of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa. In 2014 it was rebranded, with a new logo showing the paper's name over an outline of the Peace Tower on a green background. News World City Sports Arts Business Food Driving Technology Homes & Condos List of newspapers in Canada Adam, Mohammed.. "When we began 1845: For 160 years, the Citizen has been the'heartbeat of the community".
Ottawa Citizen. Bruce, Charles. News and the Southams. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1968. Kesterton, W. H. A History of Journalism in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University Press, 1984. ISBN 978-0-88629-022-1. Rutherford, Paul. A Victorian authority: the daily press in late nineteenth-century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8020-5588-0. DDC 71.1. LCC PN4907. Official website Official mobile version Canadian Newspaper Association The Ottawa Citizen Birth Marriage, Anniversary and Memoriam Notices 1879-1885 Google News Archive microfilm archive 1853–1987
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Andrew Stuart McLean, was a Canadian radio broadcaster, humorist and author, best known as the host of the CBC Radio program The Vinyl Cafe. Described as a "story-telling comic" although his stories addressed both humorous and serious themes, he was known for fiction and non-fiction work which celebrated the decency and dignity of ordinary people, through stories which highlighted the ability of their subjects, whether real or fictional, to persevere with grace and humour through embarrassing or challenging situations. McLean was born in Montreal West, the eldest of three children to Australian immigrant parents Andrew McLean and Margaret Godkin. McLean was interested in radio programming since he was a young child, when his father bought him a Motorola radio to occupy his time while recovering from sickness; this fascination with radio stayed with McLean throughout his adult life as he pursued a career in media and journalism. McLean was educated at Lower Canada College in Montreal, he admitted to feeling like an outsider to the other students at the private school, feeling neither athletic enough nor smart enough to fit in.
McLean graduated from Sir George Williams University with a B. A. degree in 1971. Following his graduation, he worked in student services for Dawson College, as campaign manager for Nick Auf der Maur in his first Montreal City Council election. McLean married Linda Read, a potter, in 1982, they had two children together and Andrew, McLean was stepfather to Read's son, Christopher Trowbridge, from her first marriage. McLean and Read divorced in 2002, he was a sponsor of the YMCA's Camp Kanawana, establishing a charitable fund to provide financial support for underprivileged youth to attend the camp, served as honorary colonel of the Canadian Armed Forces' 8 Air Maintenance Squadron at CFB Trenton. McLean first joined CBC Radio as a researcher for Cross Country Checkup in 1974 becoming a documentarian for the radio program Sunday Morning, he won an ACTRA Award in 1979 for "Operation White Knight", his Sunday Morning documentary about the Jonestown Massacre. From 1981 until 1984 he was the show's executive producer.
McLean was a professor for journalism at Ryerson University from 1984 until 2004, when he retired and became a professor emeritus. When he died in 2017, former students of McLean recalled how he concerned himself with their success in the journalism industry. CTV reporter Scott Lightfoot remarked, "I went to university twice, I took a lot of courses, I never had another professor offer to make phone calls on my behalf."During the 1980s and 1990s, he was a frequent contributor to and sometime guest host of Morningside, for which he produced human interest documentaries and audio essays about everyday people and places. He would characterize his Morningside work as celebrating "the importance of being unimportant", as helping him find his own voice as a writer. Morningside host Peter Gzowski remembered fondly the work McLean did for the program: ”On the surface, they seemed inconsequential, but in fact they were exquisitely crafted pieces of journalism.”McLean compiled a selection of his work for Morningside in his first book, The Morningside World of Stuart McLean.
The book was a finalist for the 1990 Toronto Book Awards. Following the success of his first book, McLean was approached by Penguin Books to write a travel memoir about life in small-town Canada. Released in 1992, Welcome Home: Travels in Smalltown Canada featured stories from seven small communities, won the Canadian Authors Association for best non-fiction book in 1993. McLean reported for CBC news programs The Journal and The National, where he focused his reports on human interest stories, talking to "regular people" and delving into their funny or poignant experiences; these segments about everyday people helped to inspire The Vinyl Cafe, which in the same vein looked at the lives of average Canadians. In 1994, McLean launched The Vinyl Cafe as a summer series featuring stories about a fictional second-hand record store. Although the early stories focused on a diverse group of characters loosely linked through the titular Vinyl Cafe record store, by the time the series became a permanent one the stories were focused more squarely on the store's proprietor and his family and friends.
Following the show's second summer run in 1995, McLean published Stories from the Vinyl Cafe, his first book in that series. The show joined CBC's permanent regular-season schedule in 1997. Beginning in 1998, McLean took The Vinyl Cafe on the road to theatres across Canada and the United States; some stories would be repeated at multiple shows—in particular, an early story about Dave's awkward attempt to cook a turkey for Christmas dinner became one of the most famous and most performed stories of McLean's career—but McLean would perform different versions of the stories to keep his audiences engaged. One episode of The Vinyl Cafe each year was dedicated to the "Arthur Awards", McLean's own awards program to honour acts of kindness and community engagement by ordinary Canadians that might otherwise "go unheralded and unnoticed"; the Vinyl Cafe was broadcast every weekend on CBC Radio, as a weekly podcast. McLean's books of stories from The Vinyl Cafe won the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour three times.
Several albums of his performances of Vinyl Cafe stories were released. In the 2010s a spinoff edition, Vinyl Café Stories, aired on CBC Radio in a weekday afternoon time-slot, featuring two broadcast stories on interrelated themes. Following McLean's diagnosis with melanoma in November 2015, The Vinyl Cafe stopped touring and producing new episodes. McLean announced
Belize is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, on the south and west by Guatemala, it has an area of 22,970 square kilometres and a population of 387,879. Its mainland is 68 mi wide, it has the lowest population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B. C. and 300 A. D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement was begun by English settlers in 1638; this period was marked by Spain and Britain both laying claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye, it became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981.
Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language, it is known for its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music. Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, it is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Central American Integration System, the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state; the earliest known record of the name "Belize" appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677.
Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum and Rio Balis. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator, it is that Delgado's "Balis" was the Mayan word belix, meaning "muddy-watered". Some have suggested that the name derives from a Spanish pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, who established a settlement at the mouth of the Belize River in 1638. There is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth. Writers and historians have suggested several other possible etymologies, including postulated French and African origins; the Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in the area of present-day southeastern Mexico, Belize and western Honduras.
Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 BC, some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture. Between about 2500 BC and 250 AD, the basic institutions of Maya civilization emerged; the peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about 250 AD. The Maya civilization spread across what is now Belize around 1500 BC, flourished there until about AD 900; the recorded history of the middle and southern regions is dominated by Caracol, an urban political centre that may have supported over 140,000 people. North of the Maya Mountains, the most important political centre was Lamanai. In the late Classic Era of Maya civilisation, as many as one million people may have lived in the area, now Belize; when Spanish explorers arrived in the 16th century, the area, now Belize included three distinct Maya territories: Chetumal province, which encompassed the area around Corozal Bay.
Spanish conquistadors explored the land and declared it a Spanish colony but chose not to settle and develop because of its lack of resources and the hostile Indian tribes of the Yucatán. English and Scottish settlers and pirates known as the Baymen entered the area from the 17th century, with Baymen first settling on the coast of what is now Belize in 1638, seeking a sheltered region from which they could attack Spanish ships; the settlers established a trade colony and port in what became the Belize District, during the 18th century, established a system using black slaves to cut logwood trees. This yielded a valuable fixing agent for clothing dyes, was one of the first ways to achieve a fast black before the advent of artificial dyes; the Spanish granted the British settlers the right to occupy the area and cut logwood in exchange for their help suppressing piracy. The British first appointed a superintendent over the Belize area in 1786. Before the British government had not recognized the settlement as a colony for fear of provoking a Spanish attack.
The delay in governm
Dame Jane Morris Goodall Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologist. Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, Goodall is best known for her over 55-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees since she first went to Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania in 1960, she is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Roots & Shoots programme, she has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues. She has served on the board of the Nonhuman Rights Project since its founding in 1996. In April 2002, she was named a UN Messenger of Peace. Dr. Goodall is honorary member of the World Future Council. Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall was born in 1934 in Hampstead, London, to businessman Mortimer Herbert Morris-Goodall and Margaret Myfanwe Joseph, a novelist from Milford Haven, who wrote under the name Vanne Morris-Goodall; as a child, as an alternative to a teddy bear, Goodall's father gave her a stuffed chimpanzee named Jubilee, she has said her fondness for this figure started her early love of animals, commenting that "My mother's friends were horrified by this toy, thinking it would frighten me and give me nightmares."
Today, Jubilee still sits on Goodall's dresser in London. Goodall has a younger sister, who shares the same birthday. Goodall had always been passionate about animals and Africa, which brought her to the farm of a friend in the Kenya highlands in 1957. From there, she obtained work as a secretary, acting on her friend's advice, she telephoned Louis Leakey, the notable Kenyan archaeologist and palaeontologist, with no other thought than to make an appointment to discuss animals. Leakey, believing that the study of existing great apes could provide indications of the behaviour of early hominids, was looking for a chimpanzee researcher, though he kept the idea to himself. Instead, he proposed that Goodall work for him as a secretary. After obtaining approval from his wife Mary Leakey, Louis sent Goodall to Olduvai Gorge in Tanganyika, where he laid out his plans. In 1958, Leakey sent Goodall to London to study primate behaviour with Osman Hill and primate anatomy with John Napier. Leakey raised funds, on 14 July 1960, Goodall went to Gombe Stream National Park, becoming the first of what would come to be called The Trimates.
She was accompanied by her mother, whose presence was necessary to satisfy the requirements of David Anstey, chief warden, concerned for their safety. Leakey arranged funding and in 1962, he sent Goodall, who had no degree, to the University of Cambridge, she went to Newnham College and obtained a PhD in ethology. She became the eighth person to be allowed to study for a PhD there without first having obtained a BA or BSc, her thesis was completed in 1965 under the supervision of Robert Hinde on the Behaviour of free-living chimpanzees, detailing her first five years of study at the Gombe Reserve. Goodall has been married twice. On 28 March 1964, she married a Dutch nobleman, wildlife photographer Baron Hugo van Lawick, at Chelsea Old Church and became known during their marriage as Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall; the couple had Hugo Eric Louis. The following year, she married Derek Bryceson. With his position in the Tanzanian government as head of the country's national park system, Bryceson was able to protect Goodall's research project and implement an embargo on tourism at Gombe.
Goodall has expressed fascination with Bigfoot. When asked if she believes in God, Goodall said in September 2010: "I don't have any idea of who or what God is, but I do believe in some great spiritual power. I feel it when I'm out in nature. It's just something that's stronger than what I am or what anybody is. I feel it, and it's enough for me." Goodall is best known for her study of chimpanzee social and family life. She began studying the Kasakela chimpanzee community in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, in 1960. Without collegiate training directing her research, Goodall observed things that strict scientific doctrines may have overlooked. Instead of numbering the chimpanzees she observed, she gave them names such as Fifi and David Greybeard, observed them to have unique and individual personalities, an unconventional idea at the time, she found that, "it isn't only human beings who have personality, who are capable of rational thought emotions like joy and sorrow." She observed behaviours such as hugs, pats on the back, tickling, what we consider "human" actions.
Goodall insists that these gestures are evidence of "the close, affectionate bonds that develop between family members and other individuals within a community, which can persist throughout a life span of more than 50 years." These findings suggest that similarities between humans and chimpanzees exist in more than genes alone, can be seen in emotion and family and social relationships. Goodall's research at Gombe Stream is best known to the scientific community for challenging two long-standing beliefs of the day: that only humans could construct and use tools, that chimpanzees were vegetarians. While observing one chimpanzee feeding at a termite mound, she watched him place stalks of grass into termite holes remove them from the hole covered with clinging termites "fishing" for termites; the chimps would take twigs from trees and strip off the leaves to make the twig more effective, a form of object modification, the