American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Charles Thomas Scott is an American former professional basketball player. He played two seasons in the now-defunct American Basketball Association and eight seasons in the National Basketball Association. Scott was an Olympic Gold Medalist and was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in 2018. Charlie Scott grew up in Harlem, New York. A 6'5" guard/forward, Scott attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City for one year before transferring to Laurinburg Institute in Laurinburg, North Carolina, he was valedictorian of his high school senior class. He was a legend at Rucker Park. Scott played college basketball at the University of North Carolina, where he was the first black scholarship athlete. Scott averaged 22.1 points and 7.1 rebounds per game at UNC, a career-best 27.1 points per game in his senior season. He was a three-time all-ACC selection. Scott led the Tar Heels to their second and third consecutive NCAA Final Four appearances in 1968 and 1969, he was the first African American to join a fraternity at the University of North Carolina, St. Anthony Hall, in 1967.
Scott was a gold medalist at the 1968 Summer Olympics playing for the 1968 United States men's Olympic basketball team. Scott was the fourth leading scorer on the team coached by Henry Iba.. Scott was drafted by the Boston Celtics in 1970 but he had signed a contract with the Virginia Squires of the American Basketball Association. Scott was named ABA Rookie of the Year after averaging 27.1 points per game. During his second season with the Squires, he set the ABA record for highest scoring average in one season. However, he became dissatisfied with life in the ABA and joined the NBA's Phoenix Suns in 1972; the Suns acquired Scott in a trade with the Celtics for Paul Silas. At that point, he went by the name Shaheed Abdul-Aleem. Scott continued his stellar play in the NBA, representing the Suns in three straight NBA All-Star Games was traded to the Boston Celtics for Paul Westphal and two draft picks. With the Celtics in the 1975-76 NBA season, Scott won a championship ring against the Suns. Scott played for the Los Angeles Lakers and Denver Nuggets.
He retired in 1980 with 14,837 combined ABA/NBA career points. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2018. While attending the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Charlie Scott married Margaret Holmes Scott and from that union they had one daughter Holly Scott Emanuel. Scott and his current wife, have three children—sons Shaun and Shannon and daughter Simone—and have lived in Atlanta and Los Angeles, they live in Columbus, where son Shannon used to play for the Ohio State Buckeyes. After retiring from the NBA, Scott served as a marketing director for the sports apparel company Champion for several years as executive vice president of CTS, a telemarketing firm, before owning his own business. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com Charles Scott @ UNC
Jeff Mullins (basketball)
Jeffrey Vincent Mullins is an American retired basketball player and coach. He played college basketball with the Duke Blue Devils and in the National Basketball Association with the St. Louis Hawks and Golden State Warriors. Mullins served as the head basketball coach at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte from 1985 to 1996. Mullins, a native of Lexington, was a talented 6'4" forward in high school. After graduation, he attended Duke University from 1960 through 1964, where he averaged 21.9 points per game for his career. His #44 Duke jersey was retired in 1994. In 2002, Mullins was named to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team as one of the fifty greatest players in Atlantic Coast Conference history. Mullins was a member of the United States Olympic basketball team that won the gold at the 1964 Summer Olympics. Mullins was taken by the St. Louis Hawks in the first round of the 1964 NBA draft. After two lackluster seasons with the Hawks he moved to the Golden State Warriors where he enjoyed the best seasons of his career and was selected as an NBA All-Star three times – in 1969, 1970, 1971.
He helped the Warriors to the 1975 NBA championship. Upon his retirement in 1976 he had amassed a total of 13,017 points for a twelve-year career average of 16.2 points per game. In 1985, Mullins was hired as the head men's basketball coach and athletic director at UNC Charlotte; the program had struggled since making the NCAA Final Four in 1977, in three years Mullins took the 49ers back to the NCAA Tournament for the first time since their 1977 run. His 182 victories over eleven seasons stood as a school record until Bobby Lutz, Mullins' former assistant coach, surpassed that total in 2008. During Mullins' tenure, the 49ers played in three conferences: the Sun Belt, the Metro Conference, Conference USA. Jeff Mullins' statistics at Duke NBA Statistics for Jeff Mullins
Christian Adolph Jurgensen III, known better as Sonny Jurgensen, is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1983. Jurgensen was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, he became worked up in sports as early as elementary school, when he led his school to the city grammar school titles in baseball and basketball. He captured the boys tennis championship of Wilmington and pitched for his local Civitan club, who won the city baseball title. Jurgensen played high school football at New Hanover High School, he played a number of positions for the team and as a junior was a backup quarterback on the state championship team. After a senior year where he scored three touchdowns and kicked nine extra points, he was chosen to start at quarterback for the North Carolina team in the annual North Carolina vs. South Carolina Shrine Bowl in Charlotte, North Carolina. Jurgensen played basketball and baseball during high school.
As a senior on the basketball team, he averaged twelve points per game as a guard and the team was the state title runner-up. That same year in baseball, he batted.339 and played as a pitcher and catcher. He became a switch-hitter. Jurgensen played college football at Duke University, he joined the varsity team in 1954 as a backup quarterback behind Jerry Barger and he completed 12 of 28 passes for 212 yards, with one touchdown and three interceptions. But Jurgensen made the biggest impact that season as a defensive back, when he tied a team record with interceptions in four consecutive games, and ended the season with five interceptions. Duke finished the campaign with a 7–2–1 regular season record and an Atlantic Coast Conference title. On New Year's Day, Duke beat the Nebraska Cornhuskers 34–7 in the 1955 Orange Bowl. Jurgensen took over as starting quarterback in 1955, he retained a starting position in the defensive secondary. Duke ended the season with a 7–2–1 record along with an ACC co-championship, but did not go to a bowl because Maryland received the league's automatic bid to the Orange Bowl.
That season Jurgensen completed 37 of 69 passes for 536 yards, three touchdowns and seven interceptions. He scored two touchdowns, he punted four times for a 33.7 average and intercepted four passes for 17 yards. Jurgensen's senior season in 1956 did not start well, when Duke lost to South Carolina, 7–0, in the season opener; this game marked Duke's first ACC loss. Duke finished the season with a 5–4–1 mark and Jurgensen ended up 28–59 for 371 yards, he threw six interceptions and two touchdown passes and rushed 25 times for 51 yards with three touchdowns. Jurgensen's final career stats included 77–156 passes for 1,119 yards, 16 career interceptions and six touchdowns, he rushed for 109 yards and intercepted 10 passes. Jurgensen played baseball at Duke, but turned down an invitation to try out for the basketball team. Before being drafted by the NFL, Jurgensen worked as a Sunday school bus driver in Herndon, Virginia. Jurgensen was drafted in the fourth round of the 1957 NFL Draft by the Philadelphia Eagles.
He was Philadelphia's backup quarterback, behind Bobby Thomason in 1957 and Norm Van Brocklin, from 1958 through 1960. It was during this time as a backup that Jurgensen was a part of a championship team for the only time in his professional career, when the Eagles won the 1960 NFL Championship. After Van Brocklin retired in 1961, Jurgensen took over as Philadelphia's starter and had a successful year, passing for an NFL record 3,723 yards, tying the NFL record with 32 touchdown passes, was named All-Pro. Following an injury-plagued 1963 season, Jurgensen was traded to the Washington Redskins on April 1, 1964, in exchange for quarterback Norm Snead and cornerback Claude Crabb. Jurgensen took over play-calling for the Redskins during the 1964 season, he was selected to play in the Pro Bowl following the season and was named second Team All-Pro. One of Jurgensen's most memorable games was during the 1965 season, when the Cowboys took a 21–0 lead at DC Stadium. Jurgensen threw for 411 yards, leading the team back to win 34–31.
He rushed for a touchdown on a quarterback sneak and threw a game-winning 35-yard pass to Bobby Mitchell. In 1967, Jurgensen broke his own record by passing for 3,747 yards and set NFL single-season records for attempts and completions, he missed much of the 1968 season because of elbow surgery. He did, tie an NFL record early in the 1968 season for the longest pass play in NFL history; the 99-yard pass play to Jerry Allen occurred September 15, 1968 during the Redskins' game against the Chicago Bears. Coincidentally, Redskins' quarterbacks had three of the first four occurrences of a 99-yard pass play. Since Jurgensen's feat, no other Redskins' quarterback has completed a 99-yard pass. In 1969, Vince Lombardi took over as the Redskins' head coach; that season, Jurgensen led the NFL in attempts, completion percentage, passing yards. The Redskins went 7–5–2 and had their best season since 1955. Sadly, Lombardi died of cancer shortly before the start of the 1970 season. Jurgensen would say that, of the nine head coaches he played for during his NFL career, Lombardi was his favorite.
The Redskins enjoyed a resurgence in the early 1970s under coach George Allen and made it as far as Super Bowl VII, losing to the Mia
Arthur Bruce Heyman was an American professional basketball player. Playing for Duke University in college, in 1963 he was USBWA Player of the Year, AP Player of the Year, UPI Player of the Year, Sporting News Player of the Year, Helms Foundation College Player of the Year, a consensus first-team All-American, ACC Player of the Year, ACC Athlete of the Year; that year he was the first overall pick in the first round of the 1963 NBA draft. He went on to have a 310 game professional career in the NBA and ABA. Heyman, Jewish, was born in New York City, lived in Rockville Centre, New York, Oceanside, New York. After attending Oceanside High School in Nassau County, New York, the 6'5" guard/forward was recruited by many schools, signed a letter of intent to play for the North Carolina Tar Heels. At the last moment, Heyman changed his mind and agreed to play for the Tar Heels' greatest rivals, the Duke Blue Devils. Due to NCAA eligibility rules that prohibited freshmen from playing varsity sports, Heyman played his first year at racially segregated Duke with the freshman team, which compiled a record of 10–5, including three victories over the Tar Heels.
During one of the Duke-North Carolina freshman games, North Carolina freshman Dieter Krause attacked Heyman, leading to a melee where the two coaches had to be restrained from attacking each other. Heyman needed five stitches after the attack. During his sophomore season, Heyman starred for the varsity team, North Carolina and Duke again were at each other's throats. On February 4, 1961, the Duke and North Carolina freshman teams had played the first game of the double header. There were multiple fights during the game, North Carolina had finished the game with only three players on the floor. During the varsity game that night, Heyman was involved in two incidents, where he first pushed over a fan who he thought was attacking him, in the closing minutes of the game, while trying to protect a slim Duke lead, Heyman committed a hard foul against future Hall of Fame coach Larry Brown, attempting to drive to the hoop. Brown threw the ball and a punch at Heyman, touching off a general melee, which saw future basketball executive Donnie Walsh a substitute player for North Carolina attack Heyman.
The melee lasted about ten minutes, despite Heyman being ejected for fighting, his 36 points had given Duke the victory, 81–77. Brown and Heyman were all suspended for the remainder of the ACC season. Heyman was allowed to play in non-conference games, the ACC Tournament. However, Duke failed to make the postseason, despite Heyman being voted the tournament's outstanding player, losing the ACC Tournament final to the Wake Forest Demon Deacons and their All American Len Chappell, 96–81. At the time, only the league champion was admitted to the NCAA Tournament, league rules prohibited ACC teams from playing in the NIT Tournament. Heyman finished the season averaging 25 points and nearly 11 rebounds per game, despite his suspension, Heyman was voted to the All-ACC basketball first team, he won numerous national plaudits, being named to the UPI and AP Third-Team All American squad. In 1962, Heyman's junior year, he again had a great year (scoring 25.3 points per game, averaging over 11 rebounds per game, but Duke failed to make the post season, being upset by the Clemson Tigers in the ACC Tournament semi-final.
Heyman was once again voted to the All-ACC Basketball first team, the AP and UPI Second Team All-American squad. However, during Heyman's 1963 senior year, Heyman unleashed his best season yet. Duke won the regular season conference title, but to make the NCAA tournament, they would have to win the ACC Tournament, their first game was against 8th seed Virginia, a game in which the Blue Devils won handily, 89–79. In the tournament semi finals, the Blue Devils defeated the North Carolina State Wolfpack, 82–65. In the final, they had a chance to get revenge for the 1961 tournament final loss, as they faced off against Wake Forest. Heyman and Duke avenged that 1961 loss, defeating the Demon Deacons 68–57, earning the Blue Devils the right to play in the 1963 NCAA Tournament; the Blue Devils were given a bye to play in the round of 16, they defeated New York University, who had Happy Hairston and Barry Kramer, 81-76 in the East regional semi-finals, with Heyman scoring 22 points, adding 13 rebounds.
In the East Regional final and the Blue Devils defeated Saint Joseph's University, 73–59, to advance to the Final Four for the first time in school history. Despite Heyman's 29 points and 12 rebounds in the semi-finals, the Blue Devils succumbed 94-75 to eventual national champion Loyola of Chicago. In the consolation game, Heyman completed his college career when Duke defeated Oregon State 85-63. In this game, Heyman scored 22 points, added seven rebounds. Art Heyman was named MVP of the 1963 NCAA tournament though Duke finished third. Heyman again won the plaudits of the sportswriters, winning the AP National Player of the Year award, the ACC Player of the Year award, the Oscar Robertson Trophy. Heyman averaged 25.1 points per game and scoring 1,984 points while at Duke University, which were both school records at that time. Heyman is one of three athletes in ACC History to have been elected unanimously to the All-ACC Men's Basketball team three times, along with David Thompson and Tyler Hansbrough.
Heyman's success in college led to him being selected first in the 1963 NBA draft by the New York Knicks. During his first season with the team, he averaged
Randolph Childress is an American former professional basketball player. He is an assistant coach for his alma mater, Wake Forest University. Childress played collegiately at Wake Forest University, where he averaged 18.4 points per game for his four-year career. His collegiate highlight came in 1995, when he delivered one of the most outstanding ACC Tournament performances of all time. Named tournament MVP, Childress along with sophomore Tim Duncan, carried the Demon Deacons to the title, Childress averaged 35.7 points and 7 assists per game. In the finals, against a UNC team featuring Jerry Stackhouse and Rasheed Wallace, Childress scored 37 with 7 assists and hit a game-winning jumper with 4 seconds left in overtime; the game was highlighted by a crossover dribble Childress performed with UNC's Jeff McInnis guarding him: McInnis tripped & fell in the process, Childress made a motion with his hand as if to say "come here" or "get up," hit a 3-point shot. He was honored as the ACC Male Athlete of the Year in 1995.
In 2002, Childress was named to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team, honoring the fifty greatest players in ACC history. In the 1995 NBA Draft, Childress was selected in the 1st round by the Detroit Pistons. Childress played in two NBA seasons for the Pistons and Portland Trail Blazers, averaging 2.4 points per game. His NBA career was cut short by a torn ACL and disagreements with Trail Blazers coach P. J. Carlesimo. After leaving the NBA, Childress played in 1997-1999 in the Turkish Basketball League for Tofaş SAS and Konya Kombassan. Childress went on to play ten games for the Sydney Kings in the 2000-01 Australian National Basketball League season. Childress played for various teams in the Italian leagues. In April 2012, Childress was hired as the Demon Deacons' new director of player development. In April 2013, Childress was promoted to the position of assistant coach, moving into an on-court role for the team. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com
Kenan Memorial Stadium
Kenan Memorial Stadium is located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and is the home field of the North Carolina Tar Heels. It is used for football; the stadium holds 50,500 people. It is located near the center of campus at the University of North Carolina; the previous home of the Tar Heels had been Emerson Field, which had opened in 1916 on the current site of Davis Library. By 1925, it was obvious. Expansion was ruled out since the baseball team used it, any new football seats would have been too far away for baseball. Funding for the stadium was supposed to come from alumni donations. William R. Kenan, Jr. a dairy farmer from Lockport, New York who would become a prominent businessman in Miami, got word of the initial plans and donated a large gift to build the stadium and an adjoining field house. Kenan was an 1894 UNC grandson of one of UNC's original trustees. Kenan persuaded UNC to build the stadium as a memorial to his parents, William R. Kenan and Mary Hargrave Kenan. Ground was broken in November 1926.
It was completed in August 1927. At the time, it was located on the far southern portion of campus, but expansions over the years have resulted in the stadium now being near the center of campus; the stadium opened on November 24, 1927. The Tar Heels defeated Davidson College 27-0, with the first touchdown in the new stadium by Edison Foard; the first game at Kenan Stadium brought in 9,000 spectators. It was dedicated to the Kenan family on Thanksgiving Day in 1927 in front of 28,000 fans, after the Tar Heels beat the Virginia Cavaliers 14-13; the original stadium—the lower level of the current stadium's sideline seats—seated 24,000 people. However, temporary bleachers were added to the end zones to accommodate overflow crowds, allowing Kenan to accommodate over 40,000 people at times; this happened often over the years during the Choo Choo Justice era of the late 1940s. The largest crowd to see a game at Kenan—and the largest to see a game on-campus in the state of North Carolina—was a standing-room-only throng of 62,000 when the Tar Heels hosted the Florida State Seminoles in 1997.
The largest paid crowd was a crowd of 62,000 that saw the Tar Heels face Duke in 2013. The 1991 season opener versus Cincinnati and the Clemson game, televised nationally by ESPN, were UNC's first true night home games in school history; the Tar Heels football team sold out every game from 1992 to 1999, sold out all but one game of Butch Davis's tenure. Most of the west end zone and three sections of the south stands are reserved for students; the student section of the west end zone is popularly known as the "Tar Pit"—a name applied to the entire stadium during the late 1990s. From 2007 to 2010, fireworks were shot from atop Kenan Field House whenever the Tar Heels took the field, as well as after every score and win, they were removed in 2011, but reinstated in 2012 after Larry Fedora's arrival, for the next three seasons were shot off behind the west end zone. William R. Kenan, to whom the stadium was dedicated since its construction in 1927, "was the commander of a white supremacist paramilitary force, which massacred scores of black residents in Wilmington, on a single day in 1898."
In 2018 the University decided to remove the plaque on the stadium mentioning him, to designate the stadium as named for his son William R. Kenan Jr; the stadium was first expanded in 1963, when Kenan donated $1 million to double-deck the sideline seats and add permanent bleachers to the end zones, expanding capacity to 48,000. A seating adjustment in 1979 boosted capacity to 50,000. In 1988, the old press box and chancellor's box were replaced by 2,000 seats between the 40-yard lines, expanding capacity to 52,000. Part of the 1987-88 project were a permanent lighting system, a chancellor's lounge on the north side of the field and a football lettermen's lounge on the south side; the lights are part of a General Electric low-mount system which minimizes the height of the lightpoles. Cost of the entire project was $7 million, it was funded by private bonds. The stadium's biggest renovation project to date took place from 1995 to 1998. Head coach Mack Brown wanted a better facility to showcase a resurgent football program, which had gone from consecutive 1-10 seasons in 1988 and 1989 to a run of success not approached since the 1940s.
For instance, Kenan was one of the few Division I stadiums not to have permanent seating in at least one end zone. The locker rooms were somewhat cramped by 1990s standards. Several generous gifts resulted in the addition of a new playing field and a brand-new facility for the football team, the Frank H. Kenan Football Center, named for the great-grandson of the stadium's original benefactor; the Kenan Center included a memorabilia section showcasing the football program's history. The most visible addition, was 8,000 new seats in the west end zone, which turned the stadium into a horseshoe. Added was a "preferred seating box" atop the north stands. Due to state law, only 6,000 of the new end zone seats were available in 1997. Capacity dropped to 48,500 in 1996, but leaped to 57,800 in 1997; the other 2,200 seats were added in 1998, bringing the stadium to a capacity of 60,000, not eclipsed until the 2011 season. In 2003, a modern scoreboard with video capability was added in front of Kenan Field House.
The next addition came before the 2007 season, when the old matrix boards on the sidelines were replaced with ribbon boards. In December 2006, the Chapel Hill Town Council approved changes to UNC's development plan that included at l