Leslie François Saint Roc Manigat was a Haitian politician, elected as President of Haiti in a controlled military held election in January 1988. He served as President for only a few months, from February 1988 to June 1988, before being ousted by the military. Leslie Manigat was a professor at the prestigious l'Université de Paris-VIII Vincennes, where he gave courses on World History, he published articles on education in various Haitian newspapers: Le Nouvelliste, La Phalange, Le Matin. According to the Provisional Electoral Council he won the presidential election of January 17, 1988 with 50.29% of the votes, defeating ten other candidates. However, voter turnout was well under 10%. Few historians and vote monitors consider this election to have been democratic, he was inaugurated on February 7, 1988, named Martial Célestin as his Prime Minister in March. He was overthrown by Gen. Henri Namphy on June 1988 in the June 1988 Haitian coup d'état, he ran for president again in the February 2006 election but was defeated, receiving 12.40% of the vote and placing a distant second behind René Préval.
He died on June 27, 2014 at the age of 83. Manigat was born in Port-au-Prince, his second wife, Mirlande Manigat, whom he married in 1970, was a candidate in the 2010 presidential election. Leslie Manigat won The Haiti Grand Prize of literature 2004, given at the Miami Book Fair International of 2004. Nominees for the Prize were: Edwidge Danticat, René Depestre, Jean-Claude Fignolé, Odette Roy Fombrun, Frankétienne, Gary Klang, Dany Laferrière and Josaphat-Robert Large. Une date littéraire, un événement pédagogique - Essay, Port-au-Prince, 1962 L'Amérique latine au XXe Siècle - History, Université de Paris I Sorbonne, 1973 Bibliographie des Etudes littéraires haïtiennes 1804-1984 by Léon-François Hoffmann, EDICEF/AUPELF, Vanves, 1992 Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Haiti". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Editions Richelieu, Univers Contemporain, Paris, 1973 Jacques Nicolas Léger, Haiti: Her History and Her Detractors, 1907 Important Dates in Haïti's History
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
Armed Forces of Haiti
The Armed Forces of Haiti, consisted of the Haitian Army, Haitian Navy, the Haitian Air Force, Haitian Coast Guard, some police forces. The Army was always the dominant service with the others serving in a support role; the name of Haiti's military was changed from the Garde d'Haiti to the Forces Armées d'Haïti—FAd'H in 1958 during the rule of François Duvalier. After years of military interference in politics, including dozens of military coups, Haiti disbanded its military in 1995. On 17 November 2017, the Defence Force of Haiti was remobilized by President Jovenel Moise; the President suspended the previous Executive orders by President Aristide who suspended and disbanded the armed forces on 6 December 1995. The origins of Haiti's military lie in the Haitian Revolution. A decade of warfare produced a military cadre from. Defeat of the French demonstrated Haiti's considerable strategic stamina and tactical capabilities, but Haiti's victory did not translate into a successful national government or a strong economy.
Lacking a strong constitution, Haiti was ruled by force. The armed forces, united against the French, fragmented into warring regional factions; the military soon took control of every aspect of Haitian life. Officers assumed responsibility for municipal management. According to a Haitian diplomat, the country was in its earlier days "an immense military camp." Without viable civilian institutions, Haiti was vulnerable to military personalities, who permanently shaped the nation's authoritarian and coercive style of governance. Haiti's defense fell victim to political vagaries. A readiness for battle and the initiation of defense related engineering projects in the early 19th century turned out to be costly preparation for conflict against phantom armies; the engineering projects included construction of the citadel of La Ferrière in northern Haiti. Soon afterward, Haiti turned its attention toward the rest of the island of Hispaniola, which Haiti controlled between 1822 and 1844. Controlling the whole island, drained the national treasury and induced torpor in the battle-hardened veterans of the wars of independence.
During the mid-19th century, prolonged instability weakened the military. By the end of the 19th century, Haiti's military had become little more than an undisciplined, ill-fed, poorly paid militia that shifted its allegiances as battles were won or lost and as new leaders came to power. Between 1806 and 1879, an estimated 69 revolts against existing governments took place. During the second half of the 19th century, the army either failed to protect the central government or directly caused the government's collapse. Rural insurgent movements led by piquets and cacos limited the central government's authority in outlying areas; these groups carried on war into the 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, Haiti's political instability provoked interference of the great powers; the increasing American interest in Haiti prompted the United States Navy to deploy to the country's ports fifteen times between 1876 and 1913 in order to protect American lives and property, the United States Marines to occupy the whole country from 1915 to 1934.
The Haitian Navy was created in 1860 with the commissioning of a single gunboat. Two additional gunboats entered service in 1875 followed by a corvette ten years later. By 1900 three British and French-built gunboats had been launched. In 1902 the Haitian gunboat Crête-à-Pierrot had a brief engagement with a German warship; the Admiral of the Haitian fleet, Hammerton Killick, scuttled his ship rather than surrender. The United States Marines disbanded Haiti's army, which consisted of an estimated 9,000 men, including 308 generals. In February 1916, the Haitian Constabulary was formed. United States Marines and United States Navy officers and non-commissioned officers commanded the group; the Gendarmerie attempted to secure public safety by subduing the cacos. The United States occupation of Haiti brought order and resulted in some economic and social development. At the same time, the United States overhauled Haiti's disintegrated military infrastructure; the Gendarmerie became the Garde d'Haïti in 1928.
The United States sought to establish a apolitical military force in Haiti. On the surface, it succeeded. After the United States occupation ended, the Haitian military was given the responsibility to ensure domestic law and order; this concern with internal, rather than with external security, endured throughout the 20th century. The Haitian Coast Guard was created in the late 1930s; the Haitian Air Force was created in 1943. Haiti became a party to a number of international agreements, including the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, the Charter of the Organization of American States, the earlier Act of Chapultepec; the nation's security concerns regarding neighboring Cuba and the Dominican Republic have been viewed since World War II within the broader framework of Unite
René Garcia Préval was a Haitian politician and agronomist who twice served as President of Haiti, from February 7, 1996, to February 7, 2001, again from May 14, 2006, to May 14, 2011. He was Prime Minister from February 1991 to October 11, 1991. Préval was the first elected head of state in Haitian history to peacefully receive power from a predecessor in office, the first since independence to serve a full term in office, the first to be elected to non-successive full terms in office, the first to peacefully hand over power, the first former prime minister to be elected president. Préval promoted privatization of government companies, agrarian reform, investigations of human rights abuses, his presidencies were marked by domestic tumult and attempts at economic stabilization, with his latter term saw the destruction wrought by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Préval was born on 17 January 1943 in Port-au-Prince and was raised in his father's hometown of Marmelade, a village town in the Artibonite department.
He studied agronomy at the College of Gembloux and the University of Leuven in Belgium and studied geothermal sciences at the University of Pisa in Pisa, Italy. He left Haiti with his family in 1963. Préval's father, an agronomist had risen to the position of Minister of Agriculture in the government of Général Paul Magloire, the predecessor of Duvalier. Leaving Haiti because his political past presented him as a potential opponent, Preval's father found work with UN agencies in Africa. After spending five years in Brooklyn, New York working as a restaurant waiter, Préval returned to Haiti and obtained a position with the National Institute for Mineral Resources. In 1988, he opened a bakery in Port-au-Prince with some business partners. While operating his company, he continued to be active in political circles and charity work, such as providing bread to the orphanage of Salesian Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, with whom he developed a close relationship. After the election of Aristide as president in 1990, Préval served as his Prime Minister from February 13 to October 11, 1991, going into exile following the September 30, 1991 military coup.
On December 6, 2009, Preval married Elisabeth Débrosse Delatour — one of his economic advisors and widow of Leslie Delatour, the former governor of Haiti's central bank. Preval's first and second marriages, to Guerda Benoit and Solange Lafontant both ended in divorce. In 1996, Préval was elected as president with 88 % of the popular vote. Upon his 1996 inauguration, Préval became the second democratically elected head of state in the country's 191-year history as an independent nation. In 2001, he became the first elected President of Haiti to leave office as a result of the natural expiration of an uninterrupted term; as president, Préval instituted a number of economic reforms, most notably the privatization of various government companies. By the end of Préval's term, unemployment rates had fallen. Préval instituted a program of agrarian reform in Haiti's countryside, his presidency, was marked by fierce political clashes with a parliament dominated by opposition party members and an vocal Fanmi Lavalas which opposed the structural adjustment and privatization program of Préval's government.
Préval was a strong supporter of investigations and trials related to human rights violations committed by military and police personnel. He dissolved the parliament in 1999 and ruled by decree for the duration of the final year of his presidency. Préval ran again as the Lespwa candidate in the presidential election of 2006; the election took place after two years of international peacekeeping. Partial election results, released on February 9, indicated that he had won with about 60% of the vote, but as further results were released, his share of the vote slipped just below the 50% required majority to be elected outright – thus making a run-off necessary. Several days of popular demonstrations in favour of Préval followed in Port-au-Prince and other cities in Haiti. Préval claimed that there had been fraud among the vote counts, demanded that he be declared the winner outright of the first round. Protesters paralyzed the capital with burning barricades and stormed a luxury hotel — Hotel Montana, located in the affluent suburb of Pétion-Ville — to demand results from Haiti's nearly week-old election as the ex-President Préval fell further below the 50% needed to win the presidency.
On February 16, 2006, Préval was declared the winner of the presidential election by the Provisional Electoral Council with 51.15% of the vote, after the exclusion of "blank" ballots from the count. Préval was sworn in following Haiti's legislative run-off vote in April; when he was sworn in, Préval emphasized the importance of unity, saying that division was Haiti's "main problem" and that Haitians had to "work together". On May 17, he nominated Jacques-Édouard Alexis, who had served as Prime Minister during Préval's first term, as Prime Minister again. After taking office, Préval signed an oil deal with Venezuela and traveled to the United States and France. Préval drew much of his support from Haiti's poorest people. However, many of the poor demanded that the former President Aristide be allowed to return and that civil enterprise workers fired by the Latortue government be reinstated; this caused increasing tension in the slums of Port-au-Prince. Préval promised to build a massive road system which would boost trade and transportation around the country.
Haiti under Préval cooperated dipl
Evans Paul known as Compère Plume. He was elected mayor of Port-au-Prince in the 1990 elections that brought Jean-Bertrand Aristide's National Front for Change and Democracy party to power, he made an unsuccessful run for President of Haiti in the 2006 elections under the Democratic Alliance Party banner. He was leader of the Convergence Démocratique prior to the 2004 Haitian coup d'état which overthrew Aristide. On December 25, 2014, President Michel Martelly announced Evans Paul as Haiti's new prime minister. On February 2, 2016, he resigned, he remained in his position due to an agreement signed on 6 February, until a prime minister could be reached by consensus and an interim president could be elected by Parliament for a 120-day term. He used to host the program "Plume" on Radio Caraïbes from 1974 to 1976, hence where he had gotten his nickname
Jean-Bertrand Aristide is a former Haitian priest and politician who became Haiti's first democratically elected president. A proponent of liberation theology, Aristide was appointed to a Roman Catholic parish in Port-au-Prince in 1982 after completing his studies to become a priest of the Salesian order, he became a focal point for the pro-democracy movement first under Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier and under the military transition regime which followed. He won the Haitian general election between 1990 and 1991, with 67% of the vote and was president of Haiti, until a September 1991 military coup; the coup regime collapsed in 1994 under U. S. pressure and threat of force. Aristide was president again from 1994 to 1996 and from 2001 to 2004. However, Aristide was ousted in the 2004 coup d'état after right-wing ex-army paramilitaries invaded the country from across the Dominican border; as he claimed, the United States helped orchestrate the coup against him. Aristide was forced into exile in the Central African Republic and South Africa.
He returned to Haiti in 2011 after seven years in exile. Jean-Bertrand Aristide was born into poverty in Port-Salut, Sud on 15 July 1953, his father died three months after Aristide was born, he moved to Port-au-Prince with his mother. At age five, Aristide started school with priests of the Salesian order, he was educated at the Collège Notre-Dame in Cap-Haïtien, graduating with honors in 1974. He took a course of novitiate studies in La Vega, Dominican Republic, before returning to Haiti to study philosophy at the Grand Séminaire Notre Dame and psychology at the State University of Haiti. After completing his post-graduate studies in 1979, Aristide travelled in Europe, studying in Italy, in the Palestinian town of Beit Jala at the Cremisan Monastery, he returned to Haiti in 1982 for his ordination as a Salesian priest, was appointed curate of a small parish in Port-au-Prince. Between 1957 and 1986, Haiti was ruled by the family dictatorships of François "Papa Doc" and Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier.
The misery endured by Haiti's poor made a deep impression on Aristide himself, he became an outspoken critic of Duvalierism. Nor did he spare the hierarchy of the country's church, since a 1966 Vatican Concordat granted Duvalier one-time power to appoint Haiti's bishops. An exponent of liberation theology, Aristide denounced Duvalier's regime in one of his earliest sermons; this did not go unnoticed by the regime's top echelons. Under pressure, the provincial delegate of the Salesian Order sent Aristide into three years of exile in Montreal. By 1985, as popular opposition to Duvalier's regime grew, Aristide was back preaching in Haiti, his Easter Week sermon, "A call to holiness", delivered at the cathedral of Port-au-Prince and broadcast throughout Haiti, proclaimed: "The path of those Haitians who reject the regime is the path of righteousness and love."Aristide became a leading figure in the Ti Legliz movement, whose name means "little church" in Kreyòl. In September 1985, he was appointed to St. Jean Bosco church, in a poor neighborhood in Port-au-Prince.
Struck by the absence of young people in the church, Aristide began to organize youth, sponsoring weekly youth Masses. He founded an orphanage for urban street children in 1986 called Lafanmi Selavi, its program sought to be a model of participatory democracy for the children it served. As Aristide became a leading voice for the aspirations of Haiti's dispossessed, he became a target for attack, he survived at least four assassination attempts. The most publicized attempt, the St. Jean Bosco massacre, occurred on 11 September 1988, when over one hundred armed Tontons Macoute wearing red armbands forced their way into St. Jean Bosco as Aristide began Sunday Mass; as army troops and police stood by, the men fired machine guns at the congregation and attacked fleeing parishioners with machetes. Aristide's church was burned to the ground. Thirteen people are reported to have been killed, 77 wounded. Aristide went into hiding. Subsequently, Salesian officials ordered Aristide to leave Haiti, but tens of thousands of Haitians protested, blocking his access to the airport.
In December 1988, Aristide was expelled from his Salesian order. A statement prepared by the Salesians called the priest's political activities an "incitement to hatred and violence", out of line with his role as a clergyman. Aristide appealed the decision, saying: "The crime of which I stand accused is the crime of preaching food for all men and women." In a January 1988 interview, he said "The solution is revolution, first in the spirit of the Gospel. It is a conflict between classes and poor. My role is to preach and organize...." In 1994, Aristide left priesthood, ending years of tension with the church over his criticism of its hierarchy and his espousal of liberation theology. Aristide married Mildred Trouillot, with whom he had two daughters. Following the violence at the aborted national election of 1987, the 1990 election was approached with caution. Aristide announced his candidacy for the presidency. Following a six-week campaign, during which he dubbed his followers the "Front National pour le Changement et la Démocratie", Aristide was elected president in 1990 with 67% of the vote in what is recognized as the first honest election in Haitian history.
However, just eight months into his presidency he was overthrown by a bloody military coup. He broke from FNCD and created the Struggling People's Organization – "the flood" or "torrent" in Kréyòl. A coup attempt against Aristide had ta
Haitian National Police
The Haitian National Police, is the law enforcement and de facto police force of Haiti. It was created in 1995 to bring public security under civilian control as mandated in Haiti's constitution. More than 8,500 police officers have completed training in modern law enforcement; the police force has divided itself into different divisions to tackle the many problems facing Haiti. Many of these divisions are specialised to address particular chronic crimes that affect the nation including kidnapping and gangs; the force has a Coast Guard, paramilitary units. The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti has implemented a series of plans to increase the size of the police force to 14,000; the National Police of Haiti provides the public safety, the Judicial Police and law enforcement throughout the territory of the Republic of Haiti. As of early 2012, the police force is composed of 10,700 police officers, employs 2,500 support staff; the UN hopes to increase those numbers to 12,000 in 2012. According to a report by U.
N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, between 2012 and 2013, Haiti saw a 21 percent drop in homicides—reversing a five year trend. There was a plummet of kidnappings by 53 percent. During this time frame, the force increased to 11,228. Under Duvalier, the Haitian police was part of the Haitian Army and had 14,000 members organized into the Port-au-Prince Police and the Rural Security Companies. Since 1987, successive governments attempted to reform it as stated by the constitution it was created to maintain peace, enforce law and order in accordance with the rule of law, to protect its citizens and to arrest those that violate the law; however the police, being plagued by militarism and corruption, is viewed by citizens as being repressive. The 1987 Constitution proposed the establishment of a separate police corps and a new police academy under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice. Political developments in Haiti since 1987, have precluded implementation of these changes; the mission of the police corps was indistinguishable from the mission spelled out for the FAd'H.
The characterization of the police as a corps armée reinforced this similarity in missions. The only identifiable police force in Haiti operated in Port-au-Prince as part of the armed forces; this 1,000-member force had few operational or technical capabilities though it was responsible for narcotics and immigration control and criminal investigations. In the late 1980s, the Narcotics Bureau, commanded by an army major, had acquired some visibility and resources of its own, with a reported staff of about twenty-five people. There was no true rural police. Small garrisons, operating under military department command, with some cooperation from the lowest central government administrative head, section chief, were responsible for rural security. In effect, the heads of these 562 rural communal sections functioned as police chiefs, as adjuncts of the nation's military infrastructure; this fusion of civil and military administration continued to be possible because of the broad range of responsibilities assigned to the Ministry of Interior and National Defense.
After 1986 the armed forces failed to reestablish a nationwide police force and to subdue the MVSN and other vigilante groups. Some observers have argued that links between the senior army command and remnants of the MVSN have paralyzed reforms in Haiti's judicial system. An illustration of their point was the reported incorporation of some MVSN personnel into FAd'H units and some members of the VSN, as plainclothes paramilitary agents, in the Dessalines Battalion. Other MVSN members found their way into cadres of the Port-au-Prince police force in the Criminal Investigation Unit, traditionally based at the Dessalines barracks; the demise of the Dessalines Battalion and the Leopards, the latter of which had served as Haiti's special weapons and tactics unit, raised questions in the spring of 1989 about the future of a national police force. The Avril government reported some success in cracking down on abuses within the security services, but violence continued to be a serious problem. Insecurity rose after 1986 with the formation of ad hoc paramilitary groups that had direct links to the VSN and indirect links to the military.
Many of these paramilitary groups engaged in banditry with no political motivation. The security situation in rural regions and at the section chief level remained unclear in 1989; the human-rights record of post-Duvalier governments was negative. A major problem was the inability, or the unwillingness, of the FAd'H to contain domestic political violence. Government and military personnel sanctioned and participated in attacks on politicians and other activists during the second Namphy government; the Avril government boasted an improved record in this area, but as of mid-1989, it had proved incapable of restoring order. Haitian military and police brutally interrogated detainees. Rural section chiefs, who wielded considerable power within their limited jurisdictions, arbitrarily harassed and physically abused citizens, according to some reports. In an effort to address this problem, Avril dismissed a number of section chiefs, issued a decree in December 1988 that ended appointments of section chiefs and proposed putting the posts up for election.
Harsh conditions prevailed in the prison system. Hygiene and health care were inadequate, prison staff mistreated inmates; the Avril gove