Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both for religious reasons. It is in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity. Celibacy has existed in one form or another throughout history, in all the major religions of the world, views on it have varied; the Romans viewed it as an aberration and legislated fiscal penalties against it, with the sole exception granted to the Vestal Virgins. The Islamic attitudes toward celibacy have been complex as well; some Hadiths claim that Muhammad denounced celibacy. Classical Hindu culture encouraged asceticism and celibacy in the stages of life, after one has met his societal obligations. Jainism, on the other hand, preached complete celibacy for young monks and considered celibacy to be an essential behavior to attain moksha.
Buddhism has been influenced by Jainism in this respect. There were, significant cultural differences in the various areas where Buddhism spread, which affected the local attitudes toward celibacy, it was not well received in China, for example, where other religions movements such as Daoism were opposed to it. A somewhat similar situation existed in Japan, where the Shinto tradition opposed celibacy. In most native African and American Indian religious traditions, celibacy has been viewed negatively as well, although there were exceptions like periodic celibacy practiced by some Mesoamerican warriors; the English word celibacy derives from the Latin caelibatus, "state of being unmarried", from Latin caelebs, meaning "unmarried". This word derives from two Proto-Indo-European stems, *kaiwelo- "alone" and *libs- "living"; the words abstinence and celibacy are used interchangeably, but are not the same thing. Sexual abstinence known as continence, is abstaining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for some limited period of time, while celibacy may be defined as a voluntary religious vow not to marry or engage in sexual activity.
Asexuality is conflated with celibacy and sexual abstinence, but it is considered distinct from the two, as celibacy and sexual abstinence are behavioral and those who use those terms for themselves are motivated by factors such as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. A. W. Richard Sipe, while focusing on the topic of celibacy in Catholicism, states that "the most assumed definition of celibate is an unmarried or single person, celibacy is perceived as synonymous with sexual abstinence or restraint." Sipe adds that in the uniform milieu of Catholic priests in the United States "there is no clear operational definition of celibacy". Elizabeth Abbott commented on the terminology in her A History of Celibacy: "I drafted a definition that discarded the rigidly pedantic and unhelpful distinctions between celibacy and virginity"; the concept of "new celibacy" was introduced by Gabrielle Brown in her 1980 book The New Celibacy. In a revised version of her book, she claims that "abstinence is a response on the outside to what's going on, celibacy is a response from the inside".
According to her definition, celibacy is much more than not having sex. It is more intentional than abstinence, its goal is personal growth and empowerment; this new perspective on celibacy is echoed by several authors including Elizabeth Abbott, Wendy Keller, Wendy Shalit. The rule of celibacy in the Buddhist religion, whether Theravada, has a long history. Celibacy was advocated as an ideal rule of life for all monks and nuns by Gautama Buddha, except for Japan where it is not followed due to historical and political developments following the Meiji Restoration. In Japan, celibacy was an ideal among Buddhist clerics for hundreds of years, but violations of clerical celibacy were so common for so long that in 1872, state laws made marriage legal for Buddhist clerics. Subsequently, ninety percent of Buddhist monks/clerics married. An example is Higashifushimi Kunihide, a prominent Buddhist priest of Japanese royal ancestry, married and a father whilst serving as a monk for most of his lifetime.
Gautama known as the Buddha, is known for his renunciation of his wife, Princess Yasodharā, son, Rahula. In order to pursue an ascetic life, he needed to renounce aspects of the impermanent world, including his wife and son. On both his wife and son joined the ascetic community and are mentioned in the Buddhist texts to have become enlightened. In another sense, a buddhavacana recorded the zen patriarch Vimalakirti as being an advocate of marital continence instead of monastic renunciation, the sutra became somewhat popular due to its brash humour as well as integrating the role of women in laity as well as spiritual life. In the religious movement of Brahma Kumaris, celibacy is promoted for peace and to defeat power of lust and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind for householders to like holy brother and sister. In this belief system, celibacy is given the utmost importance, it is said that, as per the direction of the Supreme God those lead a pure and celibate life will be able to conquer the surging vices.
The power of celibacy creates an unseen environment of divinity bringing peace, purity and fortune. Those with the powe
Nāgārjuna is considered one of the most important Buddhist philosophers. Along with his disciple Āryadeva, he is considered to be the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Nāgārjuna is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras and, in some sources, with having revealed these scriptures in the world, having recovered them from the nāgas. Furthermore, he is traditionally supposed to have written several treatises on rasayana as well as serving a term as the head of Nālandā. Little is reliably known of the life of Nāgārjuna, since the surviving accounts were written in Chinese and Tibetan centuries after his death. According to some accounts, Nāgārjuna was from South India; some scholars believe. Archaeological evidence at Amarāvatī indicates that if this is true, the king may have been Yajña Śrī Śātakarṇi, who ruled between 167 and 196 CE. On the basis of this association, Nāgārjuna is conventionally placed at around 150–250 CE. According to a 4th/5th-century biography translated by Kumārajīva, Nāgārjuna was born into a Brahmin family in Vidarbha and became a Buddhist.
Some sources claim that in his years, Nāgārjuna lived on the mountain of Śrīparvata near the city that would be called Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. The ruins of Nāgārjunakoṇḍa are located in Andhra Pradesh; the Caitika and Bahuśrutīya nikāyas are known to have had monasteries in Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. The archaeological finds at Nagarjunakonda have not resulted in any evidence that the site was associated with Nagarjuna; the name "Nagarjunakonda" dates from the medieval period, the 3rd-4th century inscriptions found at the site make it clear that it was known as "Vijayapuri" in the ancient period. There exist a number of influential texts attributed to Nāgārjuna though, as there are many pseudepigrapha attributed to him, lively controversy exists over which are his authentic works; the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā is Nāgārjuna's best-known work. It is "not only a grand commentary on the Buddha's discourse to Kaccayana, the only discourse cited by name, but a detailed and careful analysis of most of the important discourses included in the Nikayas and the agamas those of the Atthakavagga of the Sutta-nipata.
Utilizing the Buddha's theory of "dependent arising", Nagarjuna demonstrated the futility of metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as "middle way", it is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas. In the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, "ll experienced phenomena are empty; this did not mean that they are not experienced and, non-existent. Since these imaginary fictions are experienced, they are not mere names." According to David Seyfort Ruegg, the Madhyamakasastrastuti attributed to Candrakirti refers to eight texts by Nagarjuna:the karikas, the Yuktisastika, the Sunyatasaptati, the Vigrahavyavartani, the Vidala, the Ratnavali, the Sutrasamuccaya, Samstutis. This list covers not only much less than the grand total of works ascribed to Nagarjuna in the Chinese and Tibetan collections, but it does not include all such works that Candrakirti has himself cited in his writings. According to one view, that of Christian Lindtner, the works written by Nāgārjuna are:Mūlamadhyamaka-kārikā, available in three Sanskrit manuscripts and numerous translations.
Śūnyatāsaptati, accompanied by a prose commentary ascribed to Nagarjuna himself. Vigrahavyāvartanī Vaidalyaprakaraṇa, a prose work critiquing the categories used by Indian Nyaya philosophy. Vyavahārasiddhi Yuktiṣāṣṭika Catuḥstava: Lokātīta-stava, Niraupamya-stava, Acintya-stava, Paramārtha-stava. Ratnāvalī, subtitled, a discourse addressed to an Indian king. Pratītyasamutpādahṝdayakārika, along with a short commentary. Sūtrasamuccaya, an anthology of various sutra passages. Bodhicittavivaraṇa Suhṛllekha Bodhisaṃbhāraśāstra, a work the path of the Bodhisattva and paramitas, it is quoted by Candrakirti in his commentary on Aryadeva's four hundred. Now only extant in Chinese translation; the Tibetan historian Buston considers the first six to be the main treatises of Nāgārjuna, while according to Tāranātha only the first five are the works of Nāgārjuna. TRV Murti considers Ratnaavali, Pratitya Samutpaada Hridaya and Sutra Samuccaya to be works of Nāgārjuna as the first two are quoted profusely by Chandrakirti and the third by Shantideva.
In addition to works mentioned above, several others are attributed to Nāgārjuna. There is an lively controversy over which of those works are authentic. Contemporary research suggest that some these works belong to a later period, either to late 8th or early 9th century CE, hence can not be authentic works of Nāgārjuna. Several works considered important in esoteric Bud
Praṇāma is a form of respectful or reverential salutation before something, or another person - grandparents, elders or teachers or someone respected such as a deity. It is found in Indian Hindu traditions. Pranama is derived from ānama. Combined pranama means "bending, bowing in front" or "bending much" or "prostration". In cultural terms, it means "respectful salutation" or "reverential bowing" before another elders or teachers or someone respected such as a deity. There are six types of Pranam: Ashtanga - Uras, Dristhi, Vachana, Kara, Janu. Shastanga - touching the ground with toes, hands, chin and temple. Panchanga - touching the ground with knees, chin and forehead. Dandavat - bowing forehead down and touching the ground. Namaskar - folded hands touching the forehead; this is another more common form of salutation and greeting expressed between people. Abhinandana - bending forward with folded hands touching the chest. A form of pranama is Charanasparsha a bowing combined with the touching of the feet, as a mark of respect.
It may be seen in temples during darshan. This related type of pranama is most common in Indian culture, it is done in order to show respect towards elderly people like parents, elderly relatives and saints. Añjali Mudrā Culture of India Guru-shishya tradition Indian honorifics Mudras Namaste Puja Pādodaka Touching Feet in India - Indian Tradition of Touching Feet, Concept of Touching Elders' Feet in India
Jharokha Darshan was a daily practice of addressing the public audience at the balcony at the forts and palaces of medieval kings in India. It was an essential and direct way of communicating face-to-face with the public, was a practice, adopted by the Mughal emperors; the balcony appearance in the name of Jharokha Darshan spelled jharokha-i darshan was adopted by the 16th-century Mughal Emperor Akbar though it was contrary to Islamic injunctions. Earlier, Akbar's father Emperor Humayun had adopted this Hindu practice of appearing before his subjects at the jharokha to hear their public grievances. Darshan is a Sanskrit word which means "sight" and "beholding", adopted by Mughals for their daily appearance before their subjects; this showed a Hindu influence, It was first practiced by Humayun before Akbar adopted it as a practice at sunrise. Jharokha is an easterly facing "ornate bay-window", throne-balcony, the "balcony for viewing" provided in every palace or fort where the kings or emperors resided during their reign.
Its architecture served not only the basic need for lighting and ventilation but attained a divine concept during the reign of Mughals. The jharokha appearances by the Mughals have been depicted by many paintings. Giving Jharokha Darshan from this jharokha was a daily feature; this tradition was continued by rulers who followed Akbar. Jahangir and Shah Jahan appeared before their subjects punctiliously. However, this ancient practice was discontinued by Aurangzeb during his 11th year of reign as he considered it a non-Islamic practice, a form of idol worship. In Agra Fort and Red Fort, the jharokha faces the Yamuna and the emperor would stand alone on the jharokha to greet his subjects. Mughal emperors during their visits outside their capital used to give Jharokha Darshan from their portable wooden house known as Do-Ashiayana Manzil. During the Delhi Durbar held in Delhi on 12 December 1911, King George V and his consort, Queen Mary, made a grand appearance at the jharokha of the Red Fort to give a "darshan" to 500,000 common people.
The Hindu practice of appearing before the people at the jharokha was started by Humayun, though the practice is credited to Akbar. Humayun had fixed a drum beneath the wall so that the petitioners assembled below the jharokha could beat it to draw his attention. Akbar's daily practice of worshiping the sun in the early morning at his residence in Agra Fort led him to initiate the Jharokha Darshan. Hindus, who used to bathe in the river at that hour greeted Akbar when he appeared on the jharokha window for sun worship, it was the period when Akbar was promoting his liberal religious policy, in pursuance of this liberal approach he started the Jharokha Darshan. Thereafter, Akbar would religiously start his morning with prayers and attend the Jharokha Darshan and greet the large audience gathered every day below the jharokha, he would spend about an hour at the jharokha "seeking acceptance of imperial authority as part of popular faith", after this he would attend the court at the Diwan-i-Aam for two hours attending to administrative duties.
The crowd of people assembled below the balcony consisted of soldiers, craft persons, peasants and sick children. As the balcony was set high, the king would stand on a platform so that people gathered below could reassure themselves that he was alive and that the empire was stable, he felt that it was necessary to see them publicly at least once a day in order to maintain his control, guard against immediate anarchy. It had a symbolic purpose. During this time people might make personal requests directly to Akbar, or present him with petitions for some cause. Akbar, began appearing at the jharokha twice a day and would hear the complaints of the people who wished to speak to him. Sometimes, while the emperor gave his Jharokha Darshan, he would let out a thread down the jharokha so that people could tie their complaints and petitions seeking his attention and justice, it was an effective way of communication and information exchange process, which Badauni, a contemporary of Akbar noted Jharokha Darshan worked under Akbar who spent about four and half hours in such darshan.
Akbar's paintings giving Jharokha Darshan are popular. Akbar's son, Emperor Jahangir continued the practice of Jharokha Darshan. In Agra Fort, the jharokha window is part of the structure which represents the Shah Burj, the Royal Tower; the tower has a white marble pavilion. During Jahangir's time and more under Shah Jahan's rule this jharokha was used for giving darshan. During Jahangir's Jharokha Darshan, hanging a string to tie petitions, was practiced; this was a Persian system under naushrwan. Jahangir elaborated on this system by adopting a golden chain to tie the petitions but Aurangzeb stopped it. Nur Jahan, Jahangir's wife, was known to have sat for the Jharokha Darshan and conducted administrative duty with the common people and hearing their pleas. Jahangir was dedicated to the practice and made it a point to conduct the Jharokha Darshan if he was sick. Emperor Shah Jahan maintained a rigorous schedule during his entire thirty years rule and used to