Sydney rock engravings
Sydney rock engravings, or Sydney rock art, are a form of Australian Aboriginal rock art in the sandstone around Sydney, New South Wales, that consist of drawn images of people, animals, or symbols. Many thousands of such engravings are known to exist in the Sydney region, although the locations of most are not publicised to prevent damage by vandalism, to retain their sanctity, as they are still regarded as sacred sites by Indigenous Australians. There are two art environments in rock shelters and engraving sites. There are 1,500 pieces of Aboriginal art in Sydney, more than half of which contain rock art, around 1,500 caves or shelters which contain cultural deposit, they are comparable with the petroglyphs of Native Americans and the rock art found elsewhere in Australia, but have their own distinctive style, quite unlike rock art found anywhere else in Australia. Dating to around 5,000 years, with some as old as 7,000 years, Sydney rock art is predominantly found in Ku-ring-gai Council, Sydney Harbour and the Blue Mountains.
The engravings were made by the Aboriginal Australians who have lived in the Sydney region from about 30,000 years ago until the present day. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the engravings cannot be dated straightforwardly with contemporary archaeological methods, necessitating the use of indirect dating. The Sydney engravings are of a style known as "simple figurative", which formulaic archaeology dates to around 3,000 BC and 4,000 BC, contemporaneous to the neolithic period in Eurasia. Other engravings show European sailing ships, so those cannot be more than about 200 years old, it is that some of the freshest engravings represent the part of that time range, whilst the most worn represent the earliest part.
However, the situation is complicated by the fact that the engravings were sometimes "re-grooved" during ceremonies. Some engravings appear to show thylacines and other mammals which have been extinct in the Sydney region for many thousands of years, thus can be that old. In support of this, it is true that rock art elsewhere does show extinct animals, so must be tens of thousands of years old. However, at the moment there is no hard evidence to support these claims for Sydney rock art. Examination of the grooves shows that they were made in several stages as follows: Presumably, a sketched outline was scratched on to the surface of the rock. A series of holes was drilled along the line, using a pointed stone or shell, possible because the Sydney Basin sandstone is soft; the holes were joined by rubbing a sharp stone along the line. This results in a U-shaped groove, about 2 centimetres deep and 2 centimetres wide, it is distinguished from natural grooves in the sandstone, which are V-shaped, modern grooves made with steel tools, which are narrower and deeper, or those made by bulldozers, which have a square section.
The grooves were maintained by "re-grooving" during ceremonies, which complicates attempts at dating them. While their purpose is not known definitively, some educated guesses may be made by analogy with the culture of other indigenous groups who survived into modern times, as follows; some sites may have been "increase sites", where a ceremony would be held to increase the availability of a food source such as kangaroos or fish. It is thought. Another group of sites may have been where initiation ceremonies were held, to celebrate and facilitate the transition of a young boy into manhood. In other parts of Australia, we know that an initiation ceremony involves a ceremonial path from childhood into manhood, so the lines of steps, or mundoes, may indicate initiation sites. Other sites show "Culture Heroes" or "Ancestral Beings" such as Baiame, who has a striped head-dress and a striped body, Daramulan who has a large club foot and may have been part-emu; some sites show evidence of Aboriginal Astronomy, as the rock's patterns resemble the Milky Way and this may have been purposed as an astrological guide.
It should be recognised that increase sites, initiation sites, culture-hero sites, astronomical sites are not distinct, one site may fall into any or all of these categories. The aboriginal rock engraving sites contain images of sacred spiritual beings, mythical ancestral hero figures, various endemic animals and many footprints. Surrounding the rock engravings, there are art sites, burial sites, marriage areas, men’s areas, women’s areas, birthing areas, midden sites, stone arrangement sites and tool manufacturing locations. Les McLeod, a local indigenous guide in Hawkesbury stated, “A lot of Aboriginal people believe they were created from animals – there are engravings here of wallabies and emus”. "Sydney sandstone is easy to fade. The Guringai people would have visited a couple of times a year to re-engrave it.” In some small cave on the water’s edge, there are ochre hand stencils from a group of Guringai men. The stencils would have been a way of letting other members of the clan know that this cave or ledge is a safe place to dwell in.
Rock paintings of a fish just above the water line signaled to others that fish could be found at this area. The majority of the etched motifs are outline only; the only systematically infilled en
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Crux is a constellation located in the southern sky in a bright portion of the Milky Way. It is among the most distinguished constellations, as all of its four main stars have an apparent visual magnitude brighter than +2.8 though it is the smallest of all 88 modern constellations. Its name is Latin for cross, it is dominated by a cross-shaped or kite-like asterism, known as the Southern Cross. Predominating is the first-magnitude blue-white star of Alpha Crucis or Acrux, being the constellation's brightest and most southerly member. Crux is followed by four dominant stars, descending in clockwise order by magnitude: Beta, Gamma and Epsilon Crucis. Many of these brighter stars are members of the Scorpius–Centaurus Association, a large but loose group of hot blue-white stars that appear to share common origins and motion across the southern Milky Way; the constellation contains four Cepheid variables that are each visible to the naked eye under optimum conditions. Crux contains the bright and colourful open cluster known as the Jewel Box and, to the southwest includes the extensive dark nebula, known as the Coalsack Nebula.
The stars within Crux were known to the Ancient Greeks, where Ptolemy regarded them as part of the constellation Centaurus. They were visible as far north as Britain in the fourth millennium BC. However, the precession of the equinoxes lowered the stars below the European horizon, they were forgotten by the inhabitants of northern latitudes. By 400 AD, most of the stars in the constellation we now call Crux never rose above the horizon of Athens; the 15th century Venetian navigator Alvise Cadamosto made note of what was the Southern Cross on exiting the Gambia River in 1455, calling it the carro dell'ostro. However, Cadamosto's accompanying diagram was inaccurate. Historians credit João Faras for being the first European to depict it correctly. Faras sketched and described the constellation in a letter written on the beaches of Brazil on 1 May 1500 to the Portuguese monarch. Explorer Amerigo Vespucci seems to have observed not only the Southern Cross but the neighboring Coalsack Nebula on his second voyage in 1501–1502.
Another early modern description describing Crux as a separate constellation is attributed to Andreas Corsali, an Italian navigator who from 1515–1517 sailed to China and the East Indies in an expedition sponsored by King Manuel I. In 1516, Corsali wrote a letter to the monarch describing his observations of the southern sky, which included a rather crude map of the stars around the south celestial pole including the Southern Cross and the two Magellanic Clouds seen in an external orientation, as on a globe. Emery Molyneux and Petrus Plancius have been cited as the first uranographers to distinguish Crux as a separate constellation. Both authors, depended on unreliable sources and placed Crux in the wrong position. Crux was first shown in its correct position on the celestial globes of Petrus Plancius and Jodocus Hondius in 1598 and 1600, its stars were first catalogued separately from Centaurus by Frederick de Houtman in 1603. The constellation was adopted by Jakob Bartsch in 1624 and Augustin Royer in 1679.
Royer is sometimes wrongly cited as distinguishing Crux. Crux is bordered by the constellations Centaurus on the east and west, Musca to the south. Covering 68 square degrees and 0.165% of the night sky, it is the smallest of the 88 constellations. The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'Cru'; the official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of four segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 11h 56.13m and 12h 57.45m, while the declination coordinates are between −55.68° and −64.70°. The whole constellation is visible to observers south of latitude 25°N. In tropical regions Crux can be seen in the sky from April to June. Crux is opposite to Cassiopeia on the celestial sphere, therefore it cannot appear in the sky with the latter at the same time. For locations south of 34°S, Crux is circumpolar and thus always visible in the night sky.
Crux is sometimes confused with the nearby False Cross by stargazers. Crux is somewhat kite-shaped, it has a fifth star; the False Cross is diamond-shaped, somewhat dimmer on average, does not have a fifth star and lacks the two prominent nearby "Pointer Stars". Crux is visible from the southern hemisphere at any time of year, it is visible near the horizon from tropical latitudes of the northern hemisphere for a few hours every night during the northern winter and spring. For instance, it is visible from Cancun or any other place at latitude 25° N or less at around 10 pm at the end of April. There are 5 main stars. Due to precession, Crux will move closer to the South Pole in the next millennia, up to 67 degrees south declination for the middle of the constellation, but in AD 18000 or BC 8000 Crux will be and was less than 30 degrees south declination making it visible in Northern Europe. By AD 14000, it will be visible for most parts of Europe and the whole United States. In the Southern Hemisphere, the Southern Cross is used for navigation in much the same way that Polaris is used in the Northern Hemisphere.
Alpha and Gamma are
In mythology and speculative fiction, shapeshifting is the ability of a being or creature to transform its physical form or shape. This is achieved through an inherent ability of a mythological creature, divine intervention or the use of magic; the idea of shapeshifting is present in the oldest forms of totemism and shamanism, as well as the oldest extant literature and epic poems, including works such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Iliad, where the shapeshifting is induced by the act of a deity. The idea persisted through the Middle Ages, where the agency causing shapeshifting is a sorcerer or witch, into the modern period, it remains children's literature and works of popular culture. The most common form of shapeshifting myths is that of therianthropy, the transformation of a human being into an animal or conversely, of an animal into human form. Legends allow for transformations into plants and objects and the assumption of another human countenance. Popular shapeshifting creatures in folklore are werewolves and vampires, the huli jing of East Asia, the gods and demons of numerous mythologies, such as the Norse Loki or the Greek Proteus.
Shapeshifting to the form of a wolf is known as lycanthropy, such creatures who undergo such change are called lycanthropes. Therianthropy is the more general term for human-animal shifts, but it is used in that capacity, it was common for deities to transform mortals into animals and plants. Other terms for shapeshifters include metamorph, the Navajo skin-walker and therianthrope; the prefix "were-," coming from the Old English word for "man", is used to designate shapeshifters. While the popular idea of a shapeshifter is of a human being who turns into something else, there are numerous stories about animals that can transform themselves as well. Examples of shapeshifting in classical literature include many examples in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Circe's transforming of Odysseus' men to pigs in Homer's The Odyssey, Apuleius's Lucius becoming a donkey in The Golden Ass. Proteus was noted among the gods for his shapeshifting. Nereus told Heracles; the Titan Metis, the first wife of Zeus and the mother of the goddess Athena, was believed to be able to change her appearance into anything she wanted.
In one story, she was so proud, that her husband, tricked her into changing into a fly. He swallowed her because he feared that he and Metis would have a son who would be more powerful than Zeus himself. Metis, was pregnant, she built armor for her daughter. The banging of her metalworking made Zeus have a headache, so Hephaestus clove his head with an axe. Athena sprang from her father's head grown, in battle armor. In Greek mythology, the transformation is a punishment from the gods to humans who crossed them. Zeus transformed King Lycaon and his children into wolves as a punishment for either killing Zeus' children or serving him the flesh of Lycaon's own murdered son Nyctimus, depending on the exact version of the myth. Demeter transformed Ascalabus into a lizard for mocking her sorrow and thirst during her search for her daughter Persephone, she turned King Lyncus into a lynx for trying to murder her prophet Triptolemus. Athena transformed Arachne into a spider for challenging her as a weaver and/or weaving a tapestry that insulted the gods.
She turned Nyctimene into an owl, though in this case it was an act of mercy, as the girl wished to hide from the daylight out of shame from being raped by her father. Artemis transformed Actaeon into a stag for spying on her bathing, he was devoured by his own hunting dogs. Galanthis was transformed into a weasel or cat after interfering in Hera's plans to hinder the birth of Heracles. Atalanta and Hippomenes were turned into lions after making love in one of Zeus' temples. Io was a priestess of Hera in Argos, a nymph, raped by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection. Hera punished young Tiresias by transforming him into a woman and, seven years back into a man. King Tereus, his wife Procne and her sister Philomela were all turned into birds, after Tereus raped Philomela and cut out her tongue, in revenge she and Procne served him the flesh of his murdered son Itys. While the Greek gods could use transformation punitively – such as Medusa, turned to a monster for having sexual intercourse with Poseidon in Athena's temple – more the tales using it are of amorous adventure.
Zeus transformed himself to approach mortals as a means of gaining access: Danaë as a shower of gold Europa as a bull Leda as a swan Ganymede, as an eagle Alcmene as her husband Amphitryon Hera as a cuckoo Leto as a quail Maia as a gopher Semele as a mortal shepherd Io, as a cloud Nemesis transformed into a goose to escape Zeus' advances, but he turned into a swan. She bore the egg in which Helen of Troy was found. Vertumnus transformed himself into an old woman to gain entry to Pomona's orchard. In other tales, the woman appealed to other gods to protect her from rape, was transformed. Unlike Zeus and
A burl or bur or burr is a tree growth in which the grain has grown in a deformed manner. It is found in the form of a rounded outgrowth on a tree trunk or branch, filled with small knots from dormant buds. A burl results from a tree undergoing some form of stress, it may be caused by an virus or fungus. Most burls grow beneath the ground, attached to the roots as a type of malignancy, not discovered until the tree dies or falls over; such burls sometimes appear as groups of bulbous protrusions connected by a system of rope-like roots. All burl wood is covered by bark if it is underground. Insect infestation and certain types of mold infestation are the most common causes of this condition. In some tree species, burls can grow to great size; the largest, at 26 ft, can encircle the entire trunk. The world's second-largest burls can be found in British Columbia. One of the largest burls known was found around 1984 in the small town of New South Wales, it stands 6.4 ft tall, with an odd shape resembling a trombone.
In January 2009, this burl was controversially removed from its original location, relocated to a public school in the central New South Wales city of Dubbo. Burls yield a peculiar and figured wood, prized for its beauty and rarity, it is sought after by furniture makers and wood sculptors. There are a number of well-known types of burls; the famous birdseye maple of the sugar maple superficially resembles the wood of a burl but is something else entirely. Burl wood is hard to work with hand tools or on a lathe because its grain is twisted and interlocked, causing it to chip and shatter unpredictably; this "wild grain" makes burl wood dense and resistant to splitting, which made it valued for bowls, mauls and "beetles" or "beadles" for hammering chisels and driving wooden pegs. Burls are harvested with saws or axes for smaller specimens and timber felling chainsaws and tractors for massive ones; because of the value of burls, ancient redwoods in National Parks in Western United States have been poached by thieves for their burls, including at Redwood National and State Parks.
Poachers cut off the burls from the sides of the trunks using chainsaws, which exposes the tree to infection and disease, or fell the entire tree to steal burls higher up. Because of risk of poaching, Jeff Denny, the state park’s redwood coast sector supervisor, encourages those buying burl to inquire where it came from and to ensure it was obtained legally. Legal acquisition methods for burl include trees from private land cleared for new development and from lumber companies with salvage permits. Amboyna burl is a expensive type of burl, much more than bigleaf maple burl, for example, it comes from padauk trees of Southeast Asia. Padauk trees are quite common but burl wood is rare; the amboyna is a deep red, although the more rare moudui burl is the same species but the color is from golden yellow to yellow-orange. The sapwood is creamy white with brown streaks; the common use for amboyna is interiors for luxury vehicles, cabinets and furniture. Canker Forest pathology Gall Corbett, Stephen; the Illustrated Professional Woodworker.
London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 978-0-681-22891-7. Powers, Steven S.. North American Burl Treen: Colonial & Native American. Brooklyn: S. Scott Powers Antiques. ISBN 978-0-9760635-0-6. James, Susanne. "Lignotubers and Burls: Their Structure and Ecological Significance in Mediterranean Ecosystems". Botanical Review. 50: 225–66. Doi:10.1007/BF02862633. JSTOR 4354037. Rankin, William Howard. "Mistletoe Burl and Witches'-Broom". Manual of Tree Diseases. Pp. 214–5. OCLC 1652501. White PR. "A Tree Tumor of Unknown Origin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 44: 339–44. Bibcode:1958PNAS...44..339W. Doi:10.1073/pnas.44.4.339. JSTOR 89803. PMC 335423. PMID 16590202. Zalasky, Harry. "Low-temperature-induced cankers and burls in test conifers and hardwoods". Canadian Journal of Botany. 53: 2526–35. Doi:10.1139/b75-277. Funk, A.. "Therrya canker of spruce in British Columbia". Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 4: 357–61. Doi:10.1080/07060668209501277. White PR, Millington WF. "The distribution and possible importance of a woody tumor on trees of the white spruce, Picea glauca".
Cancer Research. 14: 128–34. PMID 13126948. Video footage of tree burrs
In Australian Aboriginal mythology Baiame was the Creator God and Sky Father in the dreaming of several language groups, of Indigenous Australians of south-east Australia. The Baiame myth tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, created rivers and forests, he gave the people their laws of life, traditions and culture. He created the first initiation site; this is known as a bora. When he had finished, he returned to the sky, people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father, he is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, identified as an emu, with whom he has a son Daramulum. In other stories Daramulum is said to be brother to Baiame, it was forbidden to talk about the name of Baiame publicly. Women were not allowed to see drawings of Baiame nor approach Baiame sites—which are male initiation sites. In rock paintings Baiame is depicted as a human figure with a large head-dress or hairstyle, with lines of footsteps nearby, he is always painted in front view. Baiame is shown with internal decorations such as waistbands, vertical lines running down the body and dots.
The missionary William Ridley adopted the name of Baiame for the Christian God when translating into Gamilaraay. It is sometimes suggested that Baiame was a construct of early Christian missionaries, but K Langloh Parker dated belief in Baiame to 1830, prior to missionary activity in the region. In the area surrounding Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, he was believed to have created all of the mountains, lakes and caves in the area. After he finished creating, he jumped back up to the spirit world from Mount Yengo, which he flattened, its flat top can still be seen near Wollombi Valley. A cave near Milbrodale contains many Wonnarua Aboriginal paintings, including a large figure of a man who may be Baiame, it is popularly known as the Baiame Cave and is part of a series of rock shelters on an area of 80 hectares. The site is listed on the Register of the National Estate, it depicts him with enormous, long and large staring eyes. Aboriginal mythology Aboriginal sites of New South Wales Media related to Hunter Valley at Wikimedia Commons