Winger (ice hockey)
Winger, in the game of ice hockey, is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area. They work by flanking the centre forward; the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink. Nowadays, there are different types of wingers in the game — out-and-out goal scorers, checkers who disrupt the opponents, forwards who work along the boards and in the corners, they tend to be smaller than defenseman. This position is referred to by the side of the rink that the winger takes, i.e. "left wing" or "right wing." The wingers' responsibilities in the defensive zone include the following: getting open for a pass from their teammates intercepting a pass to the opposing defenceman attacking the opposing defencemen when they have the puckWingers should not: play deep in their defensive zone help out their teammates along the boards Wingers should be playing high in the zone, always be vigilant for a breakout pass or a chance to chip the puck past the blue line.
When wingers receive a pass along the boards, they can exercise a number of options: Bank the puck off the boards or glass to get it out of the zone Redirect or pass the puck to a rushing forward Shoot the puck out to the centre line to another forward who can either set up an attack, or dump the puck into the offensive zone to summon a line change Carry the puck themselves into the offensive zone to attempt a breakaway or an odd man rush Wingers are the last players to backcheck out of the offensive zone. On the backcheck, it is essential. Once the puck is controlled by the opposing team in the defensive zone, wingers are responsible for covering the defenceman on their side of the ice. Prior to the puck being dropped for a face-off, players other than those taking the face-off must not make any physical contact with players on the opposite team, nor enter the face-off circle. After the puck is dropped, it is essential for wingers to engage the opposing players to prevent them from obtaining possession of the puck.
Once a team has established control of the puck, wingers can set themselves up into an appropriate position. Some wingers are employed to handle faceoffs. Rover Centre Defenceman Forward Goaltender Power forward List of NHL players
2010–11 NHL season
The 2010–11 NHL season was the 94th season of operation of the National Hockey League. The Boston Bruins defeated the Vancouver Canucks in the Stanley Cup Final 4–3 to win the Stanley Cup, it was the sixth Cup win in Bruins' franchise history. For the fourth consecutive season, the season started with games in Europe; the 58th All-Star Game was held at the RBC Center in Raleigh, North Carolina, home arena of the Carolina Hurricanes, on January 30, 2011. This was the final season of operation for the Atlanta Thrashers, who were sold to True North Sports and Entertainment out of Winnipeg and moved from Atlanta to Winnipeg to become the "new" Winnipeg Jets. Winnipeg had lost its previous NHL team called the Winnipeg Jets, after the 1995–96 NHL season to Phoenix and were renamed "Phoenix Coyotes." This was the second time the city of Atlanta lost an NHL franchise, having lost the Atlanta Flames to Calgary, Alberta after the 1979–80 season. On June 23, 2010, the NHL announced; as a result, the new salary cap ceiling is set at $59.4 million, while the salary cap floor is $43.4 million.
In April 2011, the NHL reached a new television deal with NBCUniversal, acquired by Comcast earlier in the year. The 10-year, US$2 billion deal extended and unified the broadcast and cable television rights to the league, held by NBC and Versus respectively. Notable changes under the new deal included an increase in nationally televised games on Versus, a new Thanksgiving Friday game on NBC, holding exclusive rights to all playoff games beginning with the second round, plans to broadcast all playoff games nationally on NBCUniversal channels; the 2010 NHL Entry Draft took place on June 25–26, 2010, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, home arena of the Los Angeles Kings. Taylor Hall was selected first overall in the draft by the Edmonton Oilers, Tyler Seguin was picked second by the Boston Bruins and Erik Gudbranson was chosen third by the Florida Panthers. Tom Golisano, Larry Quinn and Daniel DiPofi, owners of the Buffalo Sabres, sold their franchise to Terrence Pegula during the course of the 2010–11 season.
The league approved the sale February 18, 2011. Prior to the 2010–11 season, the first tie-breaker to separate teams with equal number of points in a conference was the number of games won, no matter how the wins were obtained. For the 2010–11 season, the league made a modification to this rule; the new rule states that the team with the greater number of games won, excluding wins obtained in the shootout, will be ranked higher. The change was made to reward in-play team victories instead of a win obtained via an individual skill contest; this figure will be tracked in an additional column in the official league standings called ROW. In its first year, the tie-breaker would prove critical, giving the 106-point, 47-win Philadelphia Flyers the Atlantic Division title over the 106-point, 49-win Pittsburgh Penguins, who were seeded fourth rather than second based on the new rule. Prior to the 2010–11 season, the Board of Governors, General Managers and the Competition Committee unanimously agreed to implement a new penalty.
An illegal hit to the head is a lateral or blind side hit to an opponent where the head is targeted and/or is the principal point of contact is not permitted. Any player who incurs a total of two game misconducts under this rule shall be suspended automatically for the next game his team plays. For each subsequent game misconduct penalty, the automatic suspension shall be increased by one game; the commissioner of the league can increase the suspension longer due to his discretion. The Pittsburgh Penguins moved to the newly constructed Consol Energy Center; the arena replaced Mellon Arena known as "The Igloo", where the Penguins had played since their inception in 1967. The Vancouver Canucks' General Motors Place was renamed Rogers Arena under a 10-year naming rights agreement with Rogers Communications; the Calgary Flames' Pengrowth Saddledome was renamed Scotiabank Saddledome. Several teams announced plans to change their uniforms in the 2010–11 season; the Buffalo Sabres, as part of their 40th anniversary season, reverted to the classic crossed swords insignia and a updated uniform based upon the style they wore from 1970 through 1996, when they left Buffalo Memorial Auditorium and moved down the street to the HSBC Arena with blue and gold trim.
The blue version was their third jersey for the past three seasons. A new third jersey in blue, featured the city's name in white script on the chest, along with "quilted" numbers on the back and a gold nameplate with blue lettering fashioning the look of the AHL's former Buffalo Bisons; the Columbus Blue Jackets unveiled a third jersey November 24 as part of their 10th season celebration. The new jersey made its debut on November 26; the Philadelphia Flyers adopted their 2010 NHL Winter Classic white uniforms as their new road uniform and dropped the black third jersey they wore since changing to Reebok's "NHL Edge" template. The New York Islanders reverted to the uniforms they made their debut back in 1972–73; the road white uniforms are from the 1972–73 season. The New York Rangers inaugurated a new third jersey; the jersey resembled the one worn by the team in its early years, notably during their Stanley Cup championship years of 1928 and 1933, but with
Anterior cruciate ligament
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments in the human knee. The two ligaments are called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint, based on its anatomical position, it is referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament; the term cruciate translates to cross. This name is fitting because the ACL crosses the posterior cruciate ligament to form an “X”, it assists in controlling excessive motion. This is done by limiting mobility of the joint; the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL is the most injured ligament of the four located in the knee; the ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur. Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. There are two bundles of the ACL: the anteromedial and the posterolateral, named according to where the bundles insert into the tibial plateau.
The tibia plateau is a critical weight-bearing region on the upper extremity of the tibia. The ACL attaches in front of the intercondyloid eminence of the tibia, where it blends with the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus; the purpose of the ACL is to resist the motions of anterior tibial translation and internal tibial rotation. This function prevents anterior tibial subluxation of the lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints, important for the pivot-shift phenomena; the ACL has been proven to have mechanoreceptors that detect changes in direction of movement, position of the knee joint, changes in acceleration and tension. A key factor in instability after ACL injuries is having altered neuromuscular function secondary to diminished somatosensory information. For athletes who participate in sports involving cutting and rapid deceleration it is important for the knee to be stable in terminal extension, the screw-home mechanism. An ACL tear is one of the most common knee injuries, with over 100,000 tears occurring annually in the US.
Most ACL tears are a result of a non-contact mechanism such as a sudden change in a direction causing the knee to rotate inward. As the knee rotates inward additional strain is placed on the ACL, since the femur and tibia, which are the two bones that articulate together forming the knee joint, move in opposite directions causing the ACL to tear. Most athletes will require reconstructive surgery on the ACL, in which the torn or ruptured ACL is removed and replaced with a piece of tendon or ligament tissue from the patient or from a donor. Conservative treatment has poor outcomes in ACL injury since the ACL is unable to form a fibrous clot as it receives most of its nutrients from the synovial fluid which washes away the reparative cells making it difficult for new fibrous tissue to form; the two most common sources for tissue are the hamstrings tendon. The patellar ligament is used, since bone plugs on each end of the graft are extracted which helps integrate the graft into the bone tunnels, during reconstruction.
The surgery is arthroscopic, meaning. The camera sends video to a large monitor. In the event of an autograft, the surgeon will make a larger cut to get the needed tissue. In the event of an allograft, in which material is donated, this is not necessary since no tissue is taken directly from the patient's own body; the surgeon will drill a hole forming the tibial bone tunnel and femoral bone tunnel, allowing for the patient's new ACL graft to be guided through. Once the graft is pulled through the bone tunnels, two screws are placed into the tibial and femoral bone tunnel. Recovery time ranges between one and two years or longer, depending if the patient chose an autograft or allograft. A week or so after the occurrence of the injury, the athlete is deceived by the fact that he/she is walking and not feeling much pain; this is dangerous as some athletes start resuming some of their activities such as jogging which, with a wrong move or twist, could damage the bones as the graft has not become integrated into the bone tunnels.
It is important for the injured athlete to understand the significance of each step of an ACL injury to avoid complications and ensure a proper recovery. ACL reconstruction is the most common treatment for an ACL tear, however it is not the only treatment available for individuals; some individuals may find it more beneficial to complete a non-operative rehab program. Both individuals who are going to continue with physical activity that involves cutting and pivoting, individuals who are no longer participating in those specific activities are candidates for the non-operative route. A study was completed comparing operative and non-operative approaches to ACL tears and there were few differences noted by both surgical and nonsurgical groups. However, there was no significant differences in regard to knee function or muscle strength reported by the patient; the main goals to achieve during rehabilitation of an ACL tear is to regain sufficient functional stability, maximize full muscle strength, decrease risk of re-injury.
There are three phases involved in non-operative treatment. These phases include the Acute Phase, the Neuromuscular Training Phase, the Return to Sport Phase. During the acute phase, the rehab is focusing on the acute symptoms that occur right after the injury and is causing an impairment; the use
Shayne Paul Corson is a Canadian former professional hockey player who played in the National Hockey League for the Montreal Canadiens, Edmonton Oilers, St. Louis Blues, Toronto Maple Leafs, Dallas Stars. During his NHL career, Corson battled both ulcerative colitis and, as detailed in the October 22, 2001, issue of Sports Illustrated, panic attacks, he last played in the 2003–04 season. Despite some speculation to the contrary, Corson did not return to the NHL after the 2004–05 lockout and is now retired. Corson was born in Ontario; as a youth, he played in the 1979 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from Barrie. He played in the Ontario Hockey League for the Brantford Alexanders and Hamilton Steelhawks; the Montreal Canadiens drafted him in the first round, eighth overall, of the 1984 NHL Entry Draft. He played with the Canadiens in the 1985–86 season joined the team full-time the following year. Corson was a regular contributor for the Canadiens from 1986 until 1992, when he was traded to the Edmonton Oilers in exchange for Vincent Damphousse.
He played with Edmonton for three full seasons before joining the St. Louis Blues, his time in Edmonton was marred by some controversy, as head coach George Burnett chose him as the team's captain during the 1994–95 season. Burnett would strip Corson of the captaincy, he was signed by the Blues as a free agent in 1995, the Oilers received the rights to Curtis Joseph as compensation. During the 1996–97 season, the Blues traded him back to Montreal, where he played until 2000; the Toronto Maple Leafs signed him as a free agent, he spent three full seasons in Toronto before "resigning" in the middle of the post-season because of his ulcerative colitis. In a fierce 2002 Stanley Cup playoffs' series against the New York Islanders, Corson was involved in a fight with Eric Cairns, with Cairns being the undisputed winner of the bout. During the official's attempt to separate Cairns and Corson after the bout, Corson attempted to kick Cairns after losing a fight against him; the NHL subsequently suspended Corson for the deciding Game 7 of the series.
The Dallas Stars signed him during the last part of the 2003–04 season in order to add some grit and leadership for their playoff run, but the team was unsuccessful, Corson retired afterwards. Shayne Corson captained two NHL clubs during his 19-season professional career, he has played for Canada at the Canada Cup, World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, World Cup of Hockey and 1998 Winter Olympics. Corson was known as a gritty player, with good instincts both offensively and defensively, a good leader. Corson represented his teams three times at the NHL All-Star Game, he scored 693 points and earned 2357 penalty minutes during his 1,156-game regular season NHL career. In addition, he earned 291 penalty minutes in 140 playoff games. Corson suffers from ulcerative colitis, a chronic digestive disorder that can cause severe pain and significant weight loss. During the stages of his career, Corson began to suffer from panic attacks, a condition he has not attributed to any single event, but which may have been precipitated by his battles with colitis and the premature death of his father, Paul Corson, from throat cancer in 1993.
Corson's sister Shannon is married to former Toronto Maple Leaf teammate Darcy Tucker. In retirement, Corson has been a prominent proponent of building a cancer care facility, the Simcoe-Muskoka Regional Cancer Centre, as part of Barrie's Royal Victoria Hospital. Corson opened his first restaurant in 2007 with partner Armando Russo in the Distillery District of Toronto, called Tappo Wine Bar & Restaurant, they opened a second restaurant in Barrie, named Corson's, which began as a family restaurant but was converted to a sports bar and grill which displays his jerseys and other hockey memorabilia but has since closed. All-Star selection, forward, 1986 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships 3× NHL All-Star Game: 1990, 1994 and 1998 List of NHL players with 1000 games played List of NHL players with 2000 career penalty minutes List of people diagnosed with ulcerative colitis Shayne Corson career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Profile at hockeydraftcentral.com Shayne Corson Official Website
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitutes the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada. Teams play for the Ed Chynoweth Cup, with the winner moving on to play for the Memorial Cup, Canada's national junior championship. WHL teams have won the Memorial Cup 19 times since the league became eligible to compete for the trophy. Many players have been drafted from WHL teams, have found success at various levels of professional hockey, including the National Hockey League; the league was founded in 1966, as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League, with seven western Canadian teams in Saskatchewan and Alberta. From 1967, the league was renamed the Western Canada Hockey League, before the admission of American based teams in the league and renaming as the Western Hockey League commencing in 1978, up to present day; the league was the brainchild of Bill Hunter, who intended to build a western league capable of competing with the top leagues in Ontario and Quebec.
Considered an "outlaw league" by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, the WCHL was sanctioned as the top junior league in Western Canada when junior hockey was reorganized in 1970. Today, the WHL comprises 22 teams, divided into two conferences of two divisions; the Eastern Conference comprises 12 teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, while the Western Conference comprises ten teams from British Columbia, the US states of Washington and Oregon. Despite winning the 1966 Memorial Cup, the Edmonton Oil Kings' owner, Bill Hunter, was growing concerned about the state of junior hockey in western Canada; each of the West's four provinces had its own junior league, Hunter felt that this put them at a disadvantage when competing nationally against the powerful leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Desiring stronger competition, Hunter's Oil Kings competed in the Alberta Senior Hockey League rather than the Alberta Junior Hockey League; the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association informed the Oil Kings that they were required to play in a junior hockey league for the 1966–67 season or would be held ineligible to compete for the Memorial Cup.
This led Hunter to form a new league with five former members of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League, the Estevan Bruins, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades, Moose Jaw Canucks, Weyburn Red Wings, to leave the SJHL and join the Oil Kings and the Calgary Buffaloes in a new league known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. Despite concerns that this new league would see the demise of the Alberta and Saskatchewan leagues, the governing bodies in both provinces sanctioned the new league; the CAHA did not, declaring the CMJHL to be an "outlaw league" and suspending all teams and players from participation in CAHA sanctioned events. The new league accused the CAHA of overstepping its boundaries and with the support of the players and their families, chose to play the season regardless; the new league deliberately avoided including the term "Western" in its moniker, as some of its founders wanted to keep open the possibility of inviting top Eastern junior clubs to join in a national elite junior league in case negotiations with the CAHA reached a complete impasse.
The CMJHL renamed itself the Western Canada Hockey League in 1967, adding four new teams to total 11 as the league stretched east into Manitoba. Concerns over the WCHL's relationship with the CAHA led the Pats and Red Wings to withdraw before the 1968–69 season, returning to the SJHL; when the CAHA reorganized junior hockey in 1971, it named the WCHL one of three Tier I Major-Junior leagues, along with the Ontario Hockey Association's Tier I division and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The first decade of the WCHL saw constant expansion and franchise movement as the league spread throughout the West; the Flin Flon Bombers became the league's first powerhouse team, led by future NHL stars Bobby Clarke and Reggie Leach. The Brandon Wheat Kings and Swift Current Broncos joined in 1967, the Medicine Hat Tigers in 1970; the WCHL became a western league in 1971 when Estevan moved to B. C. to become the New Westminster Bruins, joined by expansion franchises the Victoria Cougars and Vancouver Nats.
In the mid 1970s, the New Westminster Bruins became the WCHL's first true dynasty, capturing four consecutive championships between 1975 and 1978. The Bruins won back-to-back Memorial Cups in 1977 and 1978. In 1976, the Oil Kings succumbed to the competing Edmonton Oilers of the World Hockey Association and relocated to Portland to become the Winter Hawks, the WCHL's first American franchise. With the addition of American teams in Seattle and Billings a year the WCHL shortened its name to the Western Hockey League; the 1980s were marked by several brawls that involved police intervention, one of the most bizarre trades in hockey history, the tragic deaths of four players in a bus crash. Early in the 1980–81 WHL season, Medicine Hat Tigers GM/Coach Pat Ginnell traded blows with a linesman during a bench clearing brawl against the Lethbridge Broncos. Ginnell was found guilty of assault, fined $360, suspended for 36 games by the WHL. In March 1982 a violent brawl between the Regina Pats and Calgary Wranglers saw the two teams collectively fined $2250 and players suspended for 73 games combined.
Pats coach Bill LaForge would end up in a courtroom that season when he got into an altercation with a fan. LaForge was acquitted when the judge noted that it was hard to convict a man for assault when faced with "an obnoxious person trying to get into the coach's area." LaForge resigned following the sea
The Kamloops Blazers are a junior ice hockey team in the Western Hockey League. The team plays in the B. C. Division of the western conference, is based out of Kamloops, British Columbia, play home games at the Sandman Centre; the Blazers originated as the Estevan Bruins in 1966, became the New Westminster Bruins in 1971, relocated to Kamloops in 1981 as the Kamloops Junior Oilers. The Blazers have won the Memorial Cup three times in 1992, 1994, 1995, the Ed Chynoweth Cup six times, their franchise was granted in 1966 as the Estevan Bruins in Saskatchewan. In 1971, it moved to New Westminster, British Columbia, was known as the New Westminster Bruins, it moved to Kamloops in 1981 and was known as the Junior Oilers until 1984, when they were given their present name, the Kamloops Blazers. The team moved from the Kamloops Memorial Arena to the new Riverside Coliseum renamed to the Interior Savings Centre, in 1992, changed to the Sandman Centre in 2015, due to co-owner Tom Gaglardi owning the Sandman hotels brand.
The team has won the most Memorial Cups of any team in the WHL with five, two as New Westminster and three as Kamloops. The Canadian Hockey League record is seven, held by the Ontario Hockey League's Toronto Marlboros, now known the Guelph Storm; the franchise began in 1946 as the Humboldt Indians of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League and moved to Estevan to become the Bruins in 1957. The franchise has won the President's Cup a record 11 times, once in Estevan, four times in a row in New Westminster and six times since relocating to Kamloops; the Blazers hosted the 1995 Memorial Cup, although they went in the "front door" by winning the WHL championship that year. The team was featured. 1983–84: Win, 4–3 vs. Regina 1984–85: Loss, 0–4 vs. Prince Albert 1985–86: Win, 4–1 vs. Medicine Hat 1987–88: Loss, 2–4 vs. Medicine Hat 1989–90: Win, 4–1 vs. Lethbridge 1991–92: Win, 4–3 vs. Saskatoon 1993–94: Win, 4–3 vs. Saskatoon 1994–95: Win, 4–2 vs. Brandon 1998–99: Loss, 1–4 vs. Calgary 1992 Memorial Cup – Win, 5–4 vs. Sault Ste.
Marie 1994 Memorial Cup – Win, 5–3 vs. Laval 1995 Memorial Cup – Win, 8–2 vs. Detroit Notable head coaches in the history of the Kamloops Blazers include Ken Hitchcock, Tom Renney, Don Hay, Marc Habscheid and Dean Evason. Updated January 21, 2019. Totals include those who played for the franchise as the Kamloops Junior Oilers. Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime losses, SOL = Shootout losses, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against List of ice hockey teams in British Columbia Kamloops Blazers official website
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t