Electoral district of Gippsland East
The electoral district of Gippsland East is an electoral district of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers most of eastern Victoria and includes the towns of Bairnsdale, Lakes Entrance, Omeo and Heyfield. Gippsland East covers 27,531 square kilometres; the National Party held the seat without interruption from 1920 to 1999. However at the 1999 election independent candidate Craig Ingram unexpectedly won the seat after receiving preferences from the independent, One Nation and Labor candidates. Ingram's victory affected state politics—Ingram and fellow Independents Susan Davies and Russell Savage contributed to the end of the Kennett era by agreeing to back Labor to form government after the 1999 election. Ingram was returned in the 2002 and 2006 elections, he was defeated in 2010 by National candidate Tim Bull. Bairnsdale, Briagolong, Buchan, Cann River, Ensay, Lakes Entrance, Maffra, Metung, Omeo, Paynesville, Raymond Island, Swan Reach, Swifts Creek and Wy Yung. Electorate profile: Gippsland East District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Victorian gold rush
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia between 1851 and the late 1860s. It led to a period of extreme prosperity for the Australian colony, an influx of population growth and financial capital for Melbourne, dubbed "Marvellous Melbourne" as a result of the procurement of wealth; the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854: The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame. For a number of years the gold output from Victoria was greater than in any other country in the world with the exception of the more extensive fields of California. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 troy ounces of gold were extracted from the diggings. From 1851 to 1896 the Victorian Mines Department reported that a total of 61,034,682 oz of gold was mined in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst.
The find was considered unimportant at the time, was not pursued for policy reasons. In the 1850s gold discoveries in Victoria, in Beechworth, Daylesford and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed into the Treasury Building in Melbourne; the gold exported to Britain in the 1850s paid all her foreign debts and helped lay the foundation of her enormous commercial expansion in the latter half of the century. Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush; the city became the centre of the colony with rail networks radiating to the regional towns and ports. Politically, Victoria's goldminers sped up the introduction of greater parliamentary democracy in Victoria, based on British Chartist principles adopted to some extent by the miners' activist bodies such as Bendigo's Anti-Gold Licence Association and the Ballarat Reform League; as the alluvial gold dwindled, pressures for land reform and political reform generated social struggles.
And a Land Convention in Melbourne during 1857 recorded demands for land reform. By 1854 Chinese people were contributing to the gold rushes, their presence on the goldfields of Bendigo and the Bright district resulted in riots, entry taxes and segregation in the short term, became the foundations of the White Australia policy. In short, the gold rush was reshaped Victoria, its society and politics. There were rumours abroad about the presence of gold in Australia, but Government officials kept all findings secret for fear of disorganising the young colony; however the Colonial Secretary, Edward Deas Thomson, saw a great future for the country when Edward Hargraves proved his theory that Australia was a vast storehouse of gold. Hargraves had been in the California gold rush and knew gold country, when he first saw it, round Bathurst; the news spread like wildfire, soon the race was on from coast to gold fields. Flocks were left untended, drovers deserted their teams and lawyers rushed from their desks and entire ships' crews, captains included, marched off to seek their fortunes.
In March 1850, Mr. W. Campbell of Strath Loddon found on the station of Mr. Donald Cameron, of Clunes several minute pieces of native gold in quartz; this was concealed at the time but on 10 January 1851, Campbell disclosed it. Others had found indications of gold. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, whose services as an analyst were in great demand, had been shown specimens of gold from what afterwards became the Clunes diggings. In spite of these and other discoveries, however, it was impracticable to market the gold, James Esmond's "find", made on Creswick's Creek, a tributary of the Loddon River, at Clunes on 1 July 1851, was the first marketable gold field. A party formed by Mr. Louis John Michel, consisting of himself, Mr. William Haberlin, James Furnival, James Melville, James Headon, B. Groenig, discovered the existence of gold in the quartz rocks of the Yarra ranges, at Andersons Creek, near Warrandyte, in the latter part of June, showed it on the spot to Dr. Webb Richmond, on behalf of the Gold Discovery Committee on 5 July.
The third discovery was by a resident at Buninyong. Clarke, by the discovery of Brentani's nugget in the Pyrenees district two years before, he had kept a constant lookout for gold in his neighbourhood, he discovered an auriferous deposit in the gully of the Buninyong ranges now bearing his name, on 8 August 1851, he communicated the fact, with its precise locality, to the editor of the Geelong Advertiser on the 10th of that month. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, in the month of January, 1851, started from Melbourne to explore "the mineral resources of this colony'. During his lengthened tour, he found, in April, indications of gold in quartz about two miles from Mr. Barker's station, on arriving at Mr. Cameron's station was shown by that gentleman specimens of gold at what are now called the Clunes diggings; this information he made known through the country in the course of his journey, communicated to Mr. James Esmond, at that time engaged in erecting a building at Mr. James Hodgkinson's station.
Dr. Bruhn forwarded specimens, which were received by the Gold Discovery Committe
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Rosedale is a pastoral and agricultural town 184 kilometres east of Melbourne via the Princes Highway. It is situated on the southern side of the LaTrobe River. Once a staging post on the Port Albert to Sale and Port Albert to Walhalla coach runs, it was the administrative centre of the Shire of Rosedale which extended to the east and included the Ninety Mile Beach, it is now part of the Wellington Shire centred in Sale. At the 2006 census, Rosedale had a population of 1,077; the town is in the area of Gippsland explored separately by the Scotsman, Angus McMillan, the Polish aristocrat, Count Paul von Strzelecki, in 1840. A memorial to McMillan is located in Rosedale, one to Strzelecki near Traralgon to the west. McMillan named the region Gippsland after Governor Gipps; the earliest European inhabitant in the district is thought to have been a man named Blind Joe who lived in a hut on the Latrobe River and the first sale of'town lots' in Rosedale, on 20 May 1855, took place there. The town is named after and built upon the site of a station owned by David Parry-Okedon, who, in 1843, called his run Rosedale after his wife, Rosalie.
The earliest known plan of the township is dated March 27, 1855. It remains the central layout of the township. For two decades, Gippsland was sparsely populated, relying on the supply of livestock to Tasmania for its prosperity. With discovery of gold at Stringer's Creek in 1863, the region was to change. Within a decade, the Long Tunnel mine at Walhalla had become one of the richest in the world, as prospectors and miners converged on the mountain. Transport hubs like Rosedale and Port Albert expanded as farmers found a ready market for their produce; the first brick construction was the Rosedale Hotel in 1858, built by William Allen, who emigrated from London in 1854. He was responsible for the construction of the Mechanic's Institute, the original school house, the Exchange Hotel, the three churches and Nambrok Homestead; the Rosedale Post Office opened on 8 February 1859. A Police Station followed in 1862; the first bridge over the LaTrobe River was constructed in 1862. Following disastrous floods in 1934 and 1935, two raised concrete bridges, joined by a central causeway, were constructed over the flood plain in 1937–38.
This structure was duplicated as part of the subsequent upgrade of the Princes Highway. The first school was opened in 1863 and became a Common School in 1865. During the school centenary year, Dr H. C Disher, of'Strathfieldsaye', born at Rosedale and attended the school from 1901–1904, established an annual secondary scholarship for a deserving boy and girl; the school was moved to a new location on the western side of the town 1989. St Mark's Anglican Church was built in 1866, followed by St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in 1869. St Rose of Lima Catholic Church was constructed in 1875. In 1866, a site was selected for a Mechanic's Institute; the building was opened in 1875. Rosedale was proclaimed a Road District in February 1869. Two years it became the Rosedale Shire Council, it had four areas – Rosedale, Toongabbie and Traralgon. In 1879, Traralgon became a separate shire; the Rosedale Railway Station was opened on June 1877, as part of the Morwell to Sale line. It was not until 1879; the area was once part of the Holey Plain grazing run, owned by the Curlewis brothers.
Edward Crooke, who emigrated to Australia in 1837 and purchased a station at Omeo in the early 1840s, used the run as a holding station for the livestock which he drove to Port Albert for shipment to Van Diemen's Land. He leased the property and his son built an impressive homestead with a four-tiered tower on the site in 1889. Crooke's descendants still live in the district. Other notable homesteads are Snake's Ridge on the northern bank of the LaTrobe River, Nambrok about eight kilometres to the east along the Princes Highway. A pyneboard factory was opened in 1964 by the Premier of Mr Henry Bolte, it operated for some 15 years. The plant was used subsequently; the town has a football club in the North Gippsland Football Netball League the North Gippsland Football League. The Club won the Firsts Premiership in 1965, 2001 and 2015; the club played the Sale Cowwarr Football League, where the Firsts were Premiers in 1958, 1961 and 1962. The Rosedale Recreation Reserve comprises two netball courts.
It is the home of the Rosedale Football Club, the Rosedale Netball Club, the Rosedale Kilmany Cricket Club, the Rosedale Junior Football Club and the Rosedale Badminton Club. The town has a bowls club, a golf club, a tennis club and a rifle range. Thoroughbred horse racing was conducted at Rosedale for over a century, with the first-known event held on April 13, 1868. A Rosedale Turf Club was established in 1878, it became the Rosedale Racing Club, which conducted races until 1969. Patrobas, the three-year-old winner of the 1915 Caulfield Guineas, Victoria Derby and Melbourne Cup finished second in his first race at Rosedale. Patrobus was raced by the owner of the nearby Nambrok station, she was the first woman to own a Melbourne Cup winner. Patrobus is the only Gippsland horse to win the Melbourne Cup. A statue of the horse is located in the main street. Following the closure of the Rosedale Racing Club, the racecourse was developed as a golf course and a speedway; the first speedway meeting was conducted in 1972.
In February 1973, the speedway attracted some of the best drivers throughout Australia to the inaugural Coca-Cola Bottlers 2000 meeting. The race was won by the reigning Australian champion, David House, from Canberra, driving a Torana GTR XU1. Neil Cordy, Graeme Cordy an
Division of Gippsland
The Division of Gippsland is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. The division was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election, it is named for the Gippsland region of eastern Victoria, which in turn is named for Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales 1838–46. It includes the towns of Bairnsdale, Morwell and Traralgon, it is one of two original divisions in Victoria to have never elected a Labor-endorsed member, the other being Kooyong. It has been held by the National Party and its predecessor, the Country Party, since 1922: it is the only seat the party has held continuously since its creation. On its new boundaries, however, it takes in most of the industrial Latrobe Valley. Prominent former members include Allan McLean, a former Premier of Victoria who served as a minister under George Reid. Then-sitting MP Peter McGauran announced his resignation in April 2008, sparking a June 2008 by-election, with the three major parties all contesting the election.
The Nationals retained the seat on an increased margin. Division of Gippsland – Australian Electoral Commission
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
Maffra is a town in Victoria, Australia, 220 kilometres east of Melbourne. It is in the Shire of Wellington local government area, it relies on dairy farming and other agriculture, is the site of one of Murray-Goulburn Cooperative's eight processing plants in Victoria. Maffra is a detour off the Princes Highway and is near Sale, Newry, Tinamba and Rosedale. At the 2016 census, Maffra had a population of 4,316; the town began as an outstation of the region's first cattle run, named by pioneer grazier Lachlan Macalister after a village on the island of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. The town appears to have taken its name from a group of squatters from Maffra, a village in the Monaro region of NSW, with its location between current Maffra and Newry being written on an early map; the squatters moved on. The Monaro Maffra was connected to Mafra, a town in Portugal; the township was settled in the 1860s, the Post Office opening on 20 July 1864. Maffra railway station on the Maffra railway line opened in 1887.
The last regular passenger service ran in 1977. The station precinct is now an industrial precinct and the former station building is used for community purposes. Maffra was long the beef cattle capital of West Gippsland and, for many years, the only beet sugar processing centre in the country; the Beet Museum, set in the Port of Maffra Park, has relics from the defunct sugar beet industry. The building is a relocated historic weighbridge building, is lined with pine boards from the home of Charles and Grace Quirk, one of Maffra's first cottages. Maffra hosts a Mardi Gras every March, the Maffra and District Agricultural and Horticultural Show in October and a tennis tournament at Easter. Maffra is considered to have one of the prettiest main streets in Victoria; the Wellington Shire Council removed the 100+ year old trees that line it because of disease, but has since replaced them with young oaks. Maffra has the Maffra Primary School and St Mary's Primary School. Maffra has a public secondary school, Maffra Secondary College, which has a student enrolment of around 700.
Maffra Secondary has a strong academic program and is involved in a number of community service programs. The Gippsland Vehicle Collection Motor Museum is for lovers of old cars, it is housed in a huge old sugar beet building which the Car Club has given new life. In recent years Maffra has become a hub for backpackers seeking to complete Regional work requirements to achieve a second year visa. With growing salad and vegetable farming industries in the surrounding area it is considered a great town for working travelers. Maffra Lodge provides accommodation all year round to cater for backpackers. A local group is working at Bellbird Corner, restoring the area to the popular picnic area it was in the 1900s; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Gippsland Football League. Maffra is home to a field hockey club, fielding junior, women's and men's teams in the East Gippsland Hockey Association playing at Cameron Sports Complex, Morison Street. At this complex, is Maffra's Amateur Basketball Association.
This hosts old teams, as well as Men and Women's CBL teams. Golfers play at the course of the Maffra Golf Club on Fulton Road. Bill Bennett, AFL Player, member of Carlton's 1968 premiership side with 16 premierships John Hipwell, Australian architect John Butcher, AFL Player with Port Adelaide Football Club Shane Watts former world champion off-road motorcycle racer Andrew'Fat Guts' Phelan self proclaimed'King of Maffra', jack of all trades. Full time "accountant" - part time Uber driver. Famous sayings "Ill be your boss on day Mag" Media related to Maffra, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons