Dari or Dari Persian or synonymously Farsi, is a variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan. Dari is the term recognized and promoted since 1964 by the Afghan government for the Persian language, hence, it is known as Afghan Persian in many Western sources; this has resulted in a naming dispute. Many Persian speakers in Afghanistan prefer and use the name "Farsi" and say the term Dari has been forced on them by the dominant Pashtun ethnic group as an attempt to distance Afghans from their cultural and historical ties to the Persian-speaking nations, which includes Iran and Tajikistan; as defined in the Constitution of Afghanistan, it is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. Dari is the most spoken language in Afghanistan and the native language of 27–50% of the population; however Dari Persian serves as the lingua franca of the country and is understood by up to 80% of the population. Iranian Persian and Dari Persian are mutually intelligible, with differences found in the vocabulary and phonology.
By way of Early New Persian, Dari Persian, like Iranian Persian and Tajik, is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sassanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. In historical usage, Dari refers to the Middle Persian court language of the Sassanids. Dari is a name given to the New Persian language since the 10th century used in Arabic and Persian texts. Since 1964, it has been the official name in Afghanistan for the Persian spoken there. In Afghanistan, Dari refers to a modern dialect form of Persian, the standard language used in administration, radio and print media; because of a preponderance of Dari native speakers, who refer to the language as Farsi, it is known as "Afghan Persian" in some Western sources. There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari; the majority of scholars believes that Dari refers to the Persian word dar or darbār, meaning "Court", as it was the formal language of the Sassanids.
The original meaning of the word dari is given in a notice attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ. According to him, "Pārsī was the language spoken by priests and the like; this language refers to the Middle Persian. As for Dari, he says, "it is the language of the cities of Madā'en. Is connected with presence at court. Among the languages of the people of Khorasan and the east, the language of the people of Balkh is predominant."The Dari language spoken in Afghanistan is not to be confused with the language of Iran called Dari or Gabri, a language of the Central Iranian subgroup spoken in some Zoroastrian communities. Note: according to the CIA Fact Book, the percentage of Persian/Dari speakers in Afghanistan is 80%. 1a The CIA Fact Book writes: Afghan Persian or Dari 80%, Pashto 47%.... Dari comes from Middle Persian, spoken during the rule of the Sassanid dynasty. In general, Iranian languages are known from three periods referred to as Old and New periods; these correspond to three eras in Iranian history, the old era being the period from some time before and after the Achaemenid period, the Middle Era being the next period, the Sassanid period and part of the post-Sassanid period, the New era being the period afterwards down to the present day.
But it is thought that the first person in Europe to use the term Deri for Dari was Thomas Hyde, at Oxford, in his chief work, Historia religionis veterum Persarum. Dari or Deri has two meanings: language of the court"the Zebani Deri, or the language of the court, the Zebani Farsi, the dialect of Persia at large"Dari, sometimes Araki-Methods, is a form of poetry used from Rudaki to Jami. In 1500 AD it appeared in Herat in the Persian-speaking Timurid dynasty, the Persian poems of the Indian poets of the Mughal Empire who used the Indian verse methods or rhyme methods like Bedil and Muhammad Iqbal, became familiar with the Araki methods. Iqbal loved both styles of literature and poetry, when he wrote: گرچہ هندی در عذوبت شکر است 1Garče Hendī dar uzūbat2 šakkar ast طرز گفتار دری شیرین تر است tarz-e goftār-e Darī šīrīn tar ast Translation according to literature and poetry: Even though in euphonious Hindi* is sugar – Rhyme method in Dari is sweeter * Qandi Parsi or is a metaphor for the Persian language and poetry.
Original bey Iqbal: Hindi. This poem is a poetic statement of the poet Iqbal with respect to the poetry of the 14th century Persian poet Hafez: شکرشکن شوند همه طوطیان هند Šakkar-šakan šavand hama tūtīyān-e Hend زین قند پارسی که به بنگاله میرود zīn qand-e Pārsī ke ba Bangāla mē-ravad English translation: All the parrots of India will crack sugar Through this Persian Candy, going to Bengal Persian replaced the Central Asian languages of the Eastern Iranics. Ferghana and Bukhara were starting to be linguistically Darified in Khorezmian and Soghdian areas during Samanid rule. Dari Persian spread around the Oxus River region, Af
The Marone Family is a family in the CBS Daytime soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful. They are and have been involved in running the fashion house Forrester Creations but the core of their business interests is the ownership and management of the international shipping company Marone Industries. Massimo Marone IV Patriarch of the Marone family. Founder and former Chairman and CEO of Marone Industries, an international shipping company. Father of Ridge Forrester, Dominick Marone and Diana Carter. Ridge Forrester Son of Massimo and Stephanie Forrester but raised by his mother's husband Eric Forrester. Father to Thomas, Phoebe and Ridge Forrester Jr.. Former Vice Chairman of Marone Industries, he is co-owner and co-CEO of Forrester Creations. Dominick "Nick" Marone Son of Massimo Marone and Jackie Marone, he is the father of Jack Marone. Former sea captain and partner in Jackie M Designs, former owner and CEO of Forrester Creations, former CEO of Marone Industries. Diana Carter Daughter of Massimo Marone and Sheila Carter.
Thomas Forrester Son of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Brother to Steffy Forrester and Phoebe Forrester, half-brother to Ridge Forrester Jr. CEO of Forrester Creations and working at Forrester International. Father of Douglas Forrester. Steffy Forrester Daughter of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Twin sister of Phoebe Forrester. Sister to Thomas Forrester and half-sister to Ridge Forrester Jr.. Mother of Kelly Spencer, she is a co-CEO of Forrester Creations. Phoebe Forrester Daughter of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Twin sister of Steffy Forrester, she was stalked by Shane McGrath and pursued a relationship with Rick Forrester. She died in December 2008 in a terrible car wreck driven by Rick. Ridge "RJ" Forrester Jr. Son of Ridge and Brooke Logan. Thought to be Nick's son, which set off a war between brothers Ridge and Nick. Jack Marone Son of Nick and Brooke Logan. Carried by Taylor Hamilton via in vitro fertilization. Nicole MaroneDaughter of Nick and Bridget Forrester, stillborn in 2006. Douglas Forrester Son of Thomas and Caroline Spencer.
Caroline was married to Ridge. They kept up the pretense. Caroline didn't want to reveal Douglas' paternity, but Ridge gave Douglas to Thomas, letting them be a family. Kelly Spencer Daughter of Steffy and Liam Spencer, born June 4, 2018. Jacqueline Payne Marone - Massimo's wife. Caroline Spencer Sr. - Ridge's wife. Taylor Hayes - Ridge's wife. Brooke Logan - Ridge's wife. Bridget Forrester - Nick's wife. Gabriela Moreno - Thomas' wife. Liam Spencer - Steffy's husband. Caroline Spencer - Ridge's wife. Wyatt Spencer - Steffy's husband. Hope Logan - Thomas's wife. Marone Industries is an international shipping company, founded by Massimo Marone who ran it with an iron fist for decades and Marone Industries became known as a conservative company; when it was revealed that Ridge Forrester was Massimo's son Ridge became Vice Chairman of the Marone Industries and added fashion house Spectra Fashions as a subsidiary but Massimo sold it back to Sally Spectra. Ridge returned to Forrester Creations but remained on the Marone board until Massimo's other son Dominick Marone became more involved with the company.
Nick double crossed his father and forced the Marone board to remove Massimo as CEO and make him the new CEO. Nick used Marone Industries to buy Forrester Creations but after it was revealed that Nick's mother and Massimo's ex-wife Jacqueline Payne Marone was a prostitute the Marone board fired Nick as CEO but did sell him Forrester Creations. Nick sold his stock in Marone Industries to board member George Septolino, who took over as CEO. Marone Industries has interests in industries other than shipping, it was revealed that this includes banking and real estate when Massimo was able to check the bank account records of Mark Maclaine to prove that Stephanie bribed him to help her fake a heart attack in order to break up Ridge's marriage to Brooke. Mark Maclaine revealed. Massimo is still a major shareholder in Marone Industries, it is not known to what extent Ridge has in the company but as Massimo's eldest son, chosen heir in Massimo's will, former Vice Chairman Ridge is thought to have some association with Marone Industries.
Tony Blake is an Irish former Gaelic footballer who played for Naomh Adhamhnáin and the Donegal county team. He attended St Eunan's College. Donegal manager Brian McEniff called Blake onto his panel in 1991, though Blake soon departed for a career in association football, he was reserve goalkeeper for Sligo Rovers. Blake made his championship debut for Donegal after Paul Callaghan sustained a groin injury during Donegal's championship win over Antrim in 1998. Blake won a Railway Cup in 2000, he played throughout the 2002 Ulster Senior Football Championship. He featured in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship quarter-final against Dublin, it was his best campaign and he credits the assistance of former Donegal goalkeeper Gary Walsh for his part in this. A persistent knee injury forced him to retire from inter-county football in May 2004. Donegal's manager at the time, McEniff, said of Blake's meeting with a surgeon: "when the test results came back it showed a lot of wear and tear behind the knee cap".
Blake had worn a bandage on his knee before Donegal's 2004 Dr McKenna Cup final defeat to Tyrone. McEniff said: "I noticed it that day and it became apparent that he had a problem". Paul Durcan had been deputising for Blake in the 2004 National Football League. Since retiring, Blake has coached with Naomh Colmcille. Railway Cup: 2000 Ulster Senior Football Championship runner-up: 2002
Mark Edward Gardner, was a murderer executed at the age of 43 by lethal injection by the State of Arkansas. He was convicted of the December 12, 1985 murders of Joe and Martha Joyce, as well as the rape and murder of their daughter, Sara Joyce McCurdy, in Sebastian County, Arkansas. Alan Willett was executed on the same day for the unrelated murders of Eric Willett and Roger Willett. Mark Gardner was 29 when he killed Joe Joyce, his wife Martha and raped and murdered their adult daughter, Sara Joyce McCurdy. Joe Joyce had just returned home from a funeral and Sara McCurdy had gone to her parents' home for lunch while her husband was away on Air National Guard duty; the family was tied up and they were suffocated with tape, placed over their mouths and noses. Martha was found with a wire coat hanger around her neck, their house was ransacked and jewelry and a car was stolen. Gardner was on parole for an armed robbery conviction and was under an arrest warrant out of Illinois for another armed robbery.
Some of the family's jewelry was found on Gardner when he was arrested and he told police that he had killed a man in New York State. At his trial he claimed. Mark Gardner was accused of raping and beating a fellow Death Row inmate, released from prison, Damien Echols, convicted for the West Memphis Three murders. Gardner's last meal was fried shrimp, grilled salmon, garden salad, chocolate cake with a Coke. Gardner was executed first; the injection of a lethal drug was administered at 8:02 p.m. CDT, he was pronounced dead at 8:15. Gardner's last words were "Blessed. A never-ending feast awaits me. I love the Melanie Alberson family and I thank them much." Gardner was the 3rd condemned inmate to be put to death in 1999 in Arkansas and the 20th person executed by the state of Arkansas since Furman v. Georgia, 408 U. S. 238, after new capital punishment laws were passed in Arkansas and that came into force on March 23, 1973. He was the 569th person executed overall since America resumed executions on January 17, 1977.
Capital punishment in Arkansas Capital punishment in the United States List of people executed in Arkansas Papal Appeal for Men on Death Row Sent to Arkansas Governor from the United States conference of Catholic Bishops September 1999 Executions from prodeathpenalty.com The Morning news of Arkansas: “Gardner, Willett are put to death” page A1 The Morning news of Arkansas: Executions page A2 2007 Facts Brochure. Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on 2007-11-13
The Centaur of Vulci is a statue of the Etruscan Orientalising period, discovered in Vulci near Etruscan Viterbo, now in the collection of the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia in Rome. The statue was discovered in a private tomb in the necropolis of Poggio Maremma in Vulci Archaeological Park; this nenfro statue dates from 590-580 BC. It represents a character from Greek mythology with a human torso and a horse's body; the head, with an incised beard and hair falling into three braids on the upper legs, gives way to a brief chest and an equine body which lacks a tail. The arms are missing and the legs below the knees.
The Korean Women Workers Association is an organization in South Korea dedicated to advancing the human rights for working women and promoting gender equality. KWWA monitors the effects of government policies on women workers, it was the first national women workers association in Korea. KWWA is one of the founding members of the umbrella organization of the Korean Women's Associations United. After the end of the Korean War, South Korea tried to rebuild the nation. Besides the dictatorial characteristics of Syngman Rhee and Park Chung Hee's administrations, women highly educated women, started to work towards establishing gender equality in South Korea, they created women's organizations, such as the Korean National Council of Women in 1959. After the Park regime established its position in power, it allowed some conservative organizations to exist, as long as they did not show hostility to the government's policies and aimed to support the state. Starting from 1963, Park's regime promoted the industrialization of Korean society.
They were low-wage workers working under severe conditions, which caused many health issues. Though Park's regime regulated anti-governmental organizations, women factory workers began to raise their voices in the 1970s in order to improve their working conditions and establish labor rights; the women workers' movements caught the attention of the South Korean public and led to the progressive and grassroots democratization movement in the 1980s. The movement gathered different types of people in terms of gender, age, marital status, religion. Women activists in the 1980s thought that social reconstruction was necessary in order to liberate women; the democratization of South Korea was achieved in 1987. Labor protection laws, such as the Equal Employment Act, were enacted as well; the law was meant to respond to demands from inside the country as well as to pressure from the international community. However, male workers started to show their presence as a dominant group of workers after the late 1980s.
As a result, the Korean Women Workers Association was founded in 1987 to unite women workers and establish their rights. The founding members included both intellectuals and working-class women who participated in the resistance movement in the 1970s and 1980s. In South Korea, before labor reforms, women who got married or who had children were forced to retire. In order to organize women into established trade unions, the KWWA was founded in 1987. KWWA addressed issues that were being ignored by male-dominated unions which many women had joined. In addition to organizing blue collar workers, KWWA organized those who were unemployed, domestic workers and other informal jobs. Shortly after their formation, KWWA played a large role in supporting the passage of the Equal Employment Act in 1987. In 1989, The KWWA staged a protest by living there. In the 1980s, KWWA were responsible for Nike partner factories raising the wages of workers in their facilities. In 1990, they helped get the Infant Care Act passed.
By 1993 KWWA affected the workplace with daycare centers being built near workplaces. In 1996, a former worker from the Committee of Asian Women, Maria Chol-Soon Rhie, became the chair of the organization. KWWA has been a standard for other Asian countries to look to for best practices in improving equality in the workplace. In 2007, the organization celebrated its 20th year anniversary. After the democratization movement in the 1980s, South Korean society shifted to focus on the simin ideal and moved away from militant and anti-governmental ideals. Correspondingly, women's associations changed their attitude to work with the government and expanded their targets and goals. After the 1990s, the KWWA tried to work for the rights of women workers, as well as against the structural subordination of women that persisted in the society; the KWWA created the Korean Women Workers Association United in 1992 to organize its regional branches in Seoul, Pusan, Sungnam and Machang. The KWWA's successes included the prohibition of sexual violence and indirect gender discrimination during the employment process under the Equal Employment Act in 1999.
It expanded the duration of maternity leave from 60 to 90 days in 2001. The KWWA continuously monitors government policies in order to reflect the demands of marginalized women workers in the political sphere; the KWWA and its affiliated organization Korean Women's Association United registered their names and were acknowledged by the government in 1995. When the Korean economy experienced a crisis in 1997-1998, women workers became victims of job dismissals and tended to become irregular and temporary workers; the Korean government supported the layoffs of workers in order to overcome the recession and keep the country's competitiveness in the global economy. Women were considered to be responsible and suitable for taking care of the children and family, instead of working outside their homes; the patriarchal stereotype in South Korean society encouraged women workers to engage in unstable jobs. Under these circumstances, the KWWA established Korean Women's Trade Union in 1999 to unite and work on the issues of irregularly employed women workers.
The KWWA worked with the KWTU and provided vocational training, child-care support, counseling systems to help women workers. At the same time, The KWWA provided political education to allow the workers to learn about the necessity of collective union activism and to develop their leadership in labor orga