- "Dariusz Kozubek" (in Polish). 90 Minut. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
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Polonia Warsaw, founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball and field and swimming teams. Polonia Warsaw was formed in the autumn of 1911 as a union of two school teams; the founder of the club was captain Wacław Denhoff-Czarnocki, who came up with the name of the club. Polonia is Latin for "Poland" and is used by Polish ex-patriates in reference to their communities in other countries; the choice of such a name was a brave decision at the time, since Poland was not an independent country, Warsaw was a part of Russian partition. The players played in black-and-white striped shirts, but in the spring of 1912, they switched to their now traditional design of all black shirts; the legendary patriotic explanation for this color scheme was that it was a sign of mourning for the occupied and divided motherland of Poland. This lasting devotion to tradition resulted in the club's popular name: The Black Shirts; the uniform's white shorts and red socks come from the colors of the Polish flag.
The club's first match on 19 November 1911 was against a strong local rival and ended 3–4 in favor of Korona. Two years in February 1913, The Black Shirts defeated Korona 4–0. During the first world war, German occupants were more liberal in their ways than the previous Russian counterparts, allowed the official registration of sports clubs on Polish territory, on 15 October 1915 Polonia official became a football club, despite existing for four years; the first match between Polonia and Legia Warsaw was played on 29 April 1917. It was the first historic "Great Derby of Warsaw" – the clash of these two rival teams. A month there was a second match between the teams, ending with the same score. Hatred divided their supporters early in the clubs' history and continues to this day, driving strong emotions during the matches and sometimes greater emotions between matches. In 1921, the Black Shirts came second in the first season of the Polish football championship. In 1926, they finished the season as joint-champions.
Polonia was Warsaw's favorite club – the great majority of the city's inhabitants were devoted Black Shirt supporters. In the late 1930s, Polonia became one of powerhouses of Polish football, with players, such as Jerzy Bulanow, Wladyslaw Szczepaniak, Erwin Nyc and Henryk Jaznicki capping for the national team; the friendship between Polonia and KS Cracovia – the prewar Polish football legend and the first champions of Poland – dates back to those days. In 1946, Polonia won the Polish Championship title, it was burned capital. The final match was played on "Wojska Polskiego" Stadium on Lazienkowska Street, because Polonia's stadium on 6 Konwiktorska Street had been ruined during the war; the Black Shirts defeated AKS Chorzów in the final. In 1952, Polonia Warsaw won their first Polish Cup. In the final, Polonia managed to outscore local rivals Legia Warsaw 1-0, much to the delight of Warsaw's fans, who supported the Black Shirts. During the Stalinist period, Polonia's name and colors were changed – Warsaw's oldest club was renamed Kolejarz, as the team was now tied to the Polish National Railroad company.
The Black Shirts were banned, as the Stalinist regime was trying to erase everything, associated with Warsaw from before the war. Every Polish football club got a ` sponsor', such as militia or mining industry. At the time, the railroad was one of the poorest sponsors choosing another club, as the main club they were investing in. Polonia's management struggled to face the problems that the club came across, which contributed to its eventual relegation to the Polish second division. Fifteen years there were still thousands of fans on Konwiktorska Street. Nobody thought it would take 40 years for Polonia to come back to top-flight football. One of the reasons behind this, was that all the young men, promising footballers to be – from all over Poland, the Warsaw youth academies, were called up for compulsory army training, which under the communist rule lasted about 5 years, or sometimes longer. Many of the players received an offer to play for the army sponsored Legia Warsaw, which led to some of Polonia's bitter rivals biggest successes, in the 1960s.
Till the modern day Polonia's fans attribute Legia's current popularity in Warsaw to the communist regime, the'stealing' of talented players. Polonia's ultras fans put up a flag with an anti-communist symbol, in the center of'Kammienna' sector every game. In the 1992–93 season, after 40 years playing in the lower leagues, Polonia Warsaw was promoted to the first division; the organization of the club was insufficient to compete with the strongest clubs in Polish football - the biggest problems being lack of money and a sound training base. After one season, the team was relegated yet again, but only for a year as in the 1995–96 season Polonia Warszawa won promotion again. In 1996, Janusz Romanowski took over as chairman of Polonia, having just backed out from sponsoring local rivals Legia Warszawa. In 1998'The Black Shirts' finished runner-up in the top flight and in 1999 reached the semi-finals of the Intertoto Cup. In the 1999/2000 season, Polonia were not considered challengers for the title.
At the end of the autumn round, the Black Shirts were for the first time in club's history leading the league. That team had two managers – Jerzy Engel (who became the coach of the Polish national team, which qualified for the World C
Korona Kielce, Polish pronunciation:, is a Polish football club playing in the Ekstraklasa. In the years 2002–08 Club belonged to Polish holding company Kolporter Holding and achieved its greatest success – in 2005, winning promotion to the first division. Since Korona has spent 5 seasons in Polish soccer top level. In 2006–07 season Korona played in the final of the Polish Cup; as a result of alleged corruption after 2007–08 season Club was relegated to I liga. After a one-year banishment Korona returned to the Ekstraklasa. Ekstraklasa: 5th place: 2006, 2012, 2017 Polish Cup: Finalist: 2007 Semi-finalist: 2006, 2018 Polish League Cup: Quarterfinal: 2007 Youth Teams: Polish U-19 Champion: 2008 Polish U-19 Runner Up: 1997 The club was founded in 1973 after the union of two clubs from Kielce – Iskra Kielce and SHL; the new club got its first promotion to the Polish 2nd league in 1975. The team did not play well and was soon relegated; the next promotion was in 1982. Korona played in the 2nd league until 1990.
1996 brought several changes. Nida Gips from Gacki became the new sponsor and the club's name changed to Miejski Klub Sportowy Sekcja Futbolowa Korona. During the 1998–99 season Korona again played in the 2nd league but dropped down at the end of the season. In 2000 Korona merged with another club from Kielce – Błękitni Kielce and was renamed to Kielecki Klub Piłkarski Korona. In 2002, the golden era for Korona had begun. Kolporter became the new sponsor, Krzysztof Klicki the new chairman, the club's name changed to Kielecki Klub Piłkarski Kolporter Korona. In 2003, the team was again renamed, this time to Sportowa Spólka Akcyjna Kolporter Korona; the goal was simple – to be the best Polish football team. The dream started to become reality in 2005 when Korona won the 2nd league and for the first time in the club's history was promoted to the Polish premier league. Korona's first match in the Ekstraklasa was against Cracovia and the final score was 0–0. Korona ended the 2005–06 season fifth in the league table.
Prior to the 2006–07 season, at a meeting with supporters, the chairman announced that club would revert to its historical coat of arms. Korona's second season in the Ekstraklasa started off with an away win against Arka Gdynia. 20 September 2006 was a significant one in Korona's history. After an away victory against Odra Wodzisław Śląski, the club climbed to the top of the league table for the first time in its history although it ended the 2006–07 season in 7th place, its third and final season in the top division was 2007–08, placing 6th but being relegated as a result of alleged corruption. In August 2008 Klicki sold the club to the city of Kielce for a nominal fee. On 14 July 2009, Korona Kielce was promoted to the Ekstraklasa. In response to Korona's successes and the club owner, Krzysztof Klicki's, affirmation that the club would play in the premier league and battle for European cups, Kielce municipal authorities approved the construction of a new stadium; the stadium turned out to be much too small.
Because of this the club played its first round in the highest division at its old stadium to permit further work on the new facility. Only eighteen months after the start of the building project, the keys of the new stadium were handed to the club; the first premier league match was played on 1 April 2006 against Zagłębie Lubin. The Korona stadium, although it stands on the same site as an earlier stadium, is an new facility, built according to UEFA recommendations and modern design ideas. In this way it differs from most other football stadiums in Poland which were built during the communist era or earlier and only modernized to meet basic UEFA standards. Kielce stadium can seat 15,550 fans, due to Polish regulations, which require a buffer zone between local fans and the visitors section, league matches can only accommodate 13,823 Korona fans and 777 visiting fans. However, on one occasion the stadium was full to capacity during a league match; this occurred during the 2006–07 season when fans of visiting club Legia Warszawa were prohibited from entering due to the vast number of their'red brigade' supporters who made the trip down to watch their club in Kielce.
Pitch dimensions are 105 x 68 m, the entire surface is heated. Automatic sprinklers water the pitch in between match days. Kielce stadium has a complete system of monitoring, which could serve as a model for other Polish stadiums. Korona's stadium is considered by the Polish Football Association for international games. Since 2006, when the club moved to the most modern stadium in Poland, it had among the best attendance statistics in the Polish league, although these numbers have declined since the club's relegation at the end of the 2007–08 season. A new club crest was introduced in 2002. However, many fans were disappointed by the removal of the beloved black crown from the emblem. Before season 2006–07 in a team meeting with supporters the chairmans announced that the club returns to the historical coat of arms. Thanks to the fans and good will of the chairman Korona again has the crown in her coat of arms. Supporters of Korona are some of the most enthusiastic in the Ekstraklasa and have received many awards for their artistic match'frames'.
In the spring round of 2006–07, Korona Kielce fans were awarded 5 times in 8 matches for their superb'frames'. Korona supporters' tireless cheering for their team helps their team to victories; the most faithful fans are seated in the "Młyn" – "the Mill" – which contains 500 – 2
Zagłębie Sosnowiec is a football club based in Sosnowiec, Poland. The club was established in 1906, it won Polish Cup four times, was four times Polish runner up. Apart from football, the organization of Zagłębie has other departments, such as ice-hockey and men's volleyball; the history of Zaglebie Sosnowiec dates back to 1906, when the city of Sosnowiec belonged to Congress Poland, Russian Empire. In that year, a group of young workers of the Milowice Steelworks formed a sports organization, their activities were concentrated on playing football at suburban meadows. In 1908, local activist Aleksander Rene was arrested by the Okhrana, accused of forming an illegal Polish sports organization. Imprisoned in Łódź, he sent a letter to a Russian Governor, who resided in Piotrków Trybunalski, asking for permission to form a Sosnowiec branch of the Union Sports Club from Sankt Petersburg, he was denied, so he wrote again, to the Union headquarters. With the permission of the Sankt Petersburg club, after leaving prison, formed the team of Union Sosnowiec, which in the first half of the 1910s played several friendly games against local teams.
During World War I, sports activities were cancelled in Sosnowiec. In 1918, Sports Association Victoria was formed. Among its players was famous singer Jan Kiepura. In 1919, Sports Association Sosnowiec was formed by Aleksander Reine. After 12 years, in 1931, both clubs merged to create the team called Unia Sosnowiec; the new team was among the best sides in the region of Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, which in the 1930s had its own regional league, the Zaglebie A-Class. In 1933, Unia Sosnowiec won the league, qualifying to the Ekstraklasa playoffs, where it lost to Naprzód Lipiny. In 1934, Unia again turned out to be the regional winner, again it lost the playoffs, this time to Śląsk Świętochłowice. Third attempt at the Ekstraklasa promotion came in 1939. Again Unia, the regional champion, lost the playoffs to both Śląsk Świętochłowice and Fablok Chrzanów. Among the players of Unia's youth teams was Wieslaw Ociepka, who became chairman of the Polish Football Association. During World War II, Unia played conspirational games against local rivals.
In 1945, officials and players of Unia formed a team called RKS Sosnowiec, soon renamed into RKU Sosnowiec. Its chairman was military commandant of the city. First postwar manager was Jozef Slonecki. In 1946, RKU qualified to the Ekstraklasa playoffs. In the 1/8 finals, it beat Gedania Gdańsk 6-2. During the game, which took place in Chorzów, clashes erupted between supporters of both teams, the game was cancelled. In 1947, RKU was in Group Two of the Ekstraklasa qualifiers; this group was won by AKS Chorzów, RKU was the fourth team, behind Cracovia and Rymer Radlin. In 1949, after changing its name into Stal Sosnowiec, the team qualified to the Second Division, remaining there until 1954, when it was promoted to the Ekstraklasa. In the 1955 Ekstraklasa, Stal Sosnowiec was a sensation, as it was the runner up, finishing the season in the second spot, only behind CWKS Warszawa. Stal had 27 points. In 1956, Stal was the 10th team, in 1957, 7th, in 1958, was relegated, to return to the Ekstraklasa in 1960.
Stal remained in the top league until 1974, three times winning the runner up position. Meanwhile, in 1962, Stal changed name into GKS Zaglebie. In the mid-1960s, the team from Sosnowiec was among best Polish sides, as it once won Polish silver, three times bronze, two times the Polish Cup: in 1962, after beating 2-1 Gornik Zabrze, in 1963, after beating 2-0 Ruch Chorzów. In 1964, Jozef Galeczka was Ekstraklasa's top scorer. Among other notable players of that time was Andrzej Jarosik, twice Polish top scorer. Furthermore, Wlodzimierz Mazur was the top scorer in 1977. In 1977 and 1978, Zaglebie twice won the Cup of Poland, in 1979, Wojciech Rudy was named Best Polish Player of the Year. In 1986, after 11 years, was relegated to the Second Division, it remained there until June 1989. Among its top players were Marek Beben, Ryszard Czerwiec, Maciej Mizia. After promotion, the games of Zaglebie were attended by thousands of people, with the record, 28 000, watching the match vs. Gornik Zabrze. After the 1991 season, Zaglebie avoided relegation in the playoffs, in which it beat Jagiellonia Białystok 0-2, 2-0, 4-2 in the penalty shootout.
In 1992, Zaglebie was relegated though among its players was Marek Koniarek. Due to financial problems, the team was soon relegated to the third level; the club was dissolved. In 1995, Zaglebie returned in the 5th division, soon qualified to the fourth, third division. In 2000, Zaglebie won promotion to the second level. In 2001, with a new Italian sponsor ERGOM, Zaglebie planned to win promotion back to the top league. Instead, the team was relegated. In 2004, Zaglebie won promotion to the Second Division. After the 2006/2007 season, Zaglebie returned to the Ekstraklasa. Among its top players were Jacek Berensztajn, Jakub Wierzchowski and Adrian Mierzejewski; the 2007/2008 Ekstraklasa season was a failure, as Zaglebie had only 16 points, was relegated. Among its players at that time was Patryk Malecki; as of 11 January 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Polish championship runner-up: 41955, 1964, 1
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Ekstraklasa, named Lotto Ekstraklasa since the 2016–17 season due to its sponsorship by Lotto, is the top Polish professional league for men's association football teams. The winner of the Ekstraklasa claims the Polish national championship. Contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the I liga, seasons start in July, end in May or June the following year. Teams play. Games are played on Fridays, Saturdays and Mondays; the winner of the Ekstraklasa qualifies for the Polish SuperCup. The Ekstraklasa is now operated by the Ekstraklasa SA; the Ekstraklasa was formed as Liga Polska on 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, since 1 March 1927 as Liga Piłki Nożnej, but the Polish Football Association had been in existence since 20 December 1919, a year after the independence of Poland in 1918. The first games of the freshly created league took place on 3 April 1927, while first national non-league football championship took place in 1920. A total of 81 teams have played in the top division of Polish football since the founding of the league, of which 16 clubs have won the title.
The current champions are Legia Warsaw. On 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, representatives from several Polish clubs met for the purpose of discussing the creation of a league, it is unknown where the idea of a Polish league originated from, however a national league was thought to be a much more practical solution than hitherto practiced two-stage system of regional matches followed by a national match. To dismay of clubs' officials, the PZPN was not receptive to the idea of a national league and therefore sought to thwart it. However, it turned out that all but one of the Polish clubs supported the idea; the decision to create it was made regardless. In late February 1927, at the PZPN's meeting in Warsaw, its officials opposed the formation of a league, but the clubs egged on by some generals from the Polish Army, proceeded anyway; the creation of the League was announced on 1 March 1927. The only opponent of the league's formation was Cracovia – a influential and strong organization in Polish football of the 1920s.
Cracovia's boycott was because its chairman, Dr. Edward Cetnarowski, at the same time held the post of the director of the PZPN. Cetnarowski was a personality known not only in Poland, but in other countries, it was due to his efforts that in September 1923, Cracovia toured Spain, drawing 1–1 with Barcelona and losing 0–1 to Real Madrid. In October thanks to Cetnarowski, Sevilla travelled to Kraków, losing 2–3 to Cracovia. Games of the first championships started on 3 April 1927. All major teams took part in it; this is the list of the teams: In this first season of the league, fight for championship was decided between two powerful teams – Wisła Kraków and 1. FC Katowice; this rivalry was treated seriously, not only by the two sides involved, but by the whole nation. 1. FC was regarded as the team supported by German minority, while Wisła, at the end of this historic season, represented ambitions of all Poles; some time in the fall of 1927 in Katowice, an ill-fated game between 1. FC and Wisła took place.
Stakes were high – the winner would become the champion. Kraków's side became the champion. 1. FC finished second, third was Warta Poznań. In 1928 Cracovia decided to enter the league, gladly accepted by all fans of football. However, championships were once again won by Wisła, with such excellent players as Henryk Reyman, Mieczyslaw Balcer and Jan Kotlarczyk. Warta Poznań was second and Legia Warsaw third; this was the last year of 1. FC's glory; the team finished fifth. In 1929 yet another team was added to the list of champions of Poland; this time it was Warta Poznań. However, after the last game, on 1 December 1929, it was Garbarnia Kraków, celebrating the championship. Two weeks in mid-December, PZPN's officials changed the result of the Warta – Klub Turystow Łódź game. Warta lost 1–2, but due to walk-over, this was changed to 3–0 in favor of Poznań's side; as a result of the decision, Warta became the champion, Garbarnia finished second with 32 points and Klub Turystow was relegated. In 1930, Cracovia regained the championship, a year another Kraków's side, won the league.
It is clear. During this time, only once the championship was won by a side from a different city; the 1931 champion, was unique as this was the first time that the league had been won by a side whose all players had been bought from other teams. As has been said, the early 1930s marked a decline of the dominance of Kraków and Lwów as centers of Polish football; the point of gravity moved towards west – to Polish part of Upper Silesia, which had belonged to Poland since 1921. In 1932 the champion was Cracovia, but starting in 1933, Ruch Chorzów dominated the league, being