A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Genji: Days of the Blade
Genji: Days of the Blade, known in Japan as Genji: Kamui Sōran, is an action game, released for the PlayStation 3. Genji: Days of the Blade takes place three years after the end of Genji: Dawn of the Samurai; the Heishi clan, defeated at the end of Dawn of the Samurai, has returned, its military strength bolstered by the use of unholy magic that allows its legions of soldiers to turn into hulking demons. Yoshitsune and his stalwart friend Benkei must do battle with the newly restored Heishi army. Like the previous Genji game, Days of the Blade is loosely based on the classic work The Tale of the Heike; the game's presentation at E3 2006, where the producer said that the game was "based on famous battles, which took place in ancient Japan" and battled what he described as a "giant enemy crab", sparked the "Giant Enemy Crab" meme. As with the original Genji, the gameplay bears strong similarities to that of Capcom's Onimusha series; the player controls four characters—Minamoto no Yoshitsune, a samurai and the protagonist of the previous game.
All four characters have separate lifebars. Unlike the previous game, all characters have access to a real-time weapon change feature that lets them switch between their main weapons without interrupting the flow of combat. Days of the Blade was one of the first games for the PlayStation 3 that utilize the built-in hard drive. Three years after the events of the first game, the game begins with a prologue; the scene cuts to a reunion with Yoshitsune and his older brother Yoritomo. The Heishi return, attacking the main castle of the Genji clan. Yoshitsune and Benkei return, as well as this time playing a fighting role. After much fighting and confrontation, a mysterious woman of the Heishi, along with an old lady, escape with an important item belonging to the Genji clan; the Heishi are now powered by a new force, rivaling the Amahagane, known as Mashogane. In pursuit of the Heishi, the Genji clan attacks the Heishi camp; the battle draws on, Yoritomo seems to be accepting their imminent defeat, but not before Yoshitsune and the gang finish off the main battle.
The three head up a mountain trail continuing their pursuit, only to be interrupted by Kagekiyo from the previous game. After a short battle, it is revealed that this entity is not Kagekiyo, but the God of War known as Lord Buson, it is explained that he came to aid the Genji clan in defeating the Heishi army, needed a host body to be able to do anything of use in the human world. As to why he chose Kagekiyo's body, it is because he needed the body of a strong warrior as his vessel. Kagekiyo was most suitable. Another large scale battle ensues, with the party encountering Mashogane-powered Heishi and giant enemy crabs. Continuing up the trail, the party encounters Atsumori. After the initial fight, she powers up to her stronger form. Upon her defeat, her face is disfigured due to a blow from Yoshitsune and company, she goes insane, dying shortly afterwards; the four are trapped in an enemy ambush, are sent to the Netherworld. Here, they encounter "Netherworld" versions of areas players visited in the previous game, including Gojo Bridge, the same area where Yoshitsune and Benkei first battled and met.
The party makes it deep into the Netherworld's chambers, locates not only the spirit of Master Kiichi from the previous game, but the spirit of the real Kagekiyo as well. After a short reunion, Kiichi is struck down by Kagekiyo once more, but Kiichi is not sent away retreating, it is revealed. The party winds up chasing and defeating Kagekiyo, thus freeing both Kagekiyo and Master Kiichi's souls. After escaping the Netherworld, the party find themselves at yet another battle which the Genji are losing, suffering heavy casualties since the absence of the four Genji warriors; as the battle rages of, Yoritomo is shown being persuaded by the old lady to use the power of Mashogane to gain power, as she knows he is tired of seeing their forces suffer heavy losses. After this battle is over, the party head to the Heishi forces, it is here that Noritsune is encountered, the Heishi general, endlessly trying to seduce Shizuka since the beginning of the Heishi attack. After his defeat, Yoritomo along with the rest of the Heishi forces, launch a full-scale attack on the Heishi, approaching their final base with a huge fleet of ships.
Upon their arrival, they discover a giant Heishi battleship. The Genji charge directly into the Heishi fleet. After much battling and ship jumping, the crew get inside of the battleship, it is here that the party encounters the head honcho of the Heishi thus far. After being defeated, the rest head onward. Returning to the Heart of the Battleship, Tomomori has possessed the giant Mashogane crystal which powers the ship. After defeating him once and for all, the crystal begins to explode, triggering the ship itself to sink, Benkei jumps on top of Tomomori to finish him off; the floor expectantly falls, with Benkei fal
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1
Dragon Ball: Origins 2
Dragon Ball: Origins 2, known as Dragon Ball DS 2: Charge! Red Ribbon Army in Japan, is a video game for the Nintendo DS based on the manga/anime franchise Dragon Ball created by Akira Toriyama, it is a follow up the 2008 game Dragon Ball: Origins. The game was developed by Game Republic and published by Namco Bandai throughout North America and everywhere else under the Bandai label. Released in 2010; the game allows players, through stylus and touchscreen interactivity, to take on the role of series protagonist Son Goku who must journey with his friend to find the seven mythical Dragon Balls and stop the evil organization the Red Ribbon Army from achieving their goal of world domination. The original Japanese release comes with a rom version of the 1986 Famicom video game Shenlong no Nazo included as a bonus feature; the game was first announced in the December issue of V Jump magazine. The announcement revealed the game would retain most of the mechanics from Origins, it would follow the Red Ribbon Army story arc, a Japanese release date for February 11 of the following year.
That month, it was announced that the game would include the emulated rom of the original Famicom game Shenron no Nazo. This raised the question that if and when the game was released in English speaking markets, would the rom be included with an English translated script or be left out as that game had been released throughout North America under the title Dragon Power in 1986, all evidence of the Dragon Ball license was removed. On February 18 the North American branch announced they would be distributing the game with the Origins moniker as used by Atari and would release the game sometime in the following summer, it was revealed that the game would give the players the ability to play as not only Son Goku, but Bulma and Yamcha. Each character would have their own powerups. There would include a two-player co-op mode. In early May it was announced that Origins 2 would be one of six games featured at the 2010 E3 for a hands on demonstration. On May 24, Namco Bandai North American branch released a statement announcing that the game was completed and would be released throughout North America on May 31.
It was stated that a playable demo would be available on the same day. The game was met with average to mixed reception upon release, as GameRankings gave it a score of 68.50%, while Metacritic gave it 70 out of 100. Official site
Clash of the Titans (video game)
Clash of the Titans is a 2010 video game for the BlackBerry, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 based on the film of the same title. Versions for the Wii, Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable were cancelled; the game features slash combat. Some of the fights end with quick time sequences; the player can use points to upgrade their weapons. In some sections of the game the player has to fight by hand; the player can hold buttons to release special attacks. The player can wield swords, bones and scorpion tails; the enemies have health bars with colors to show. The game's plot follows that of the movie; the game was published by Namco Bandai Games. The game was going to be published by Brash Entertainment, before it was picked up by Namco Bandai; the game received "unfavorable" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. The graphics, story, menu systems, level design were all criticized. Writing for The Guardian, Nicky Woolf gave the Xbox version a negative review, criticizing the level design, likening it to " a four-year-old with only three different crayon colours.".
Woolf criticized the combat, calling the frequent quicktime finishers "Annoying". Reviewing the PS3 version for Game Informer, Ben Reeves criticized the game, calling the menus "Labyrinthine" and equating the character model's expressions to that of "Dead fish". Reeves ended the review by calling it a "Frustrating action game with little depth". Writing for Eurogamer, Dan Whitehead called the combat "Relentless" and said that "Even at its best, Clash of the Titans succeeds on its own terms." Writing for IGN, Anthony Gallegos called the graphics "Ugly as sin" and questioned whether or not the game should have been released at retail price. Clash of the Titans on IMDb
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word