Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
The Ngarigo people are some of the Indigenous inhabitants living in South East Australia, and whose traditional lands extended from Canberra to Cooma, on the Monaro and Limestone Plains. However, as stated by the South Australia Museum where his maps are archived, further south various dialects of Ngarigu are spoken by other tribes. However, as concluded in the 2013 ACT Government report Our Kin Our Country, the Ngarigo/Ngarmal are an Aboriginal group whose traditional lands lie in the Monaro and Australian Alpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria, and the Canberra and Queanbeayan area. With their hunting areas being taken over by European settlers running sheep, the population decreased due to the spread of diseases introduced by the Europeans, such as smallpox, influenza and tuberculosis. Thus, all that was left were mixed race people working either as labourers or domestic servants, many people were moved to New South Wales government settlements, such as at Yass. By 1880 there were no full blood Aboriginal people living in the Canberra area, according to some scholars, the language of the Wolgalu is a form of Ngarigu, others that it is the other way round.
A southern dialect, of Ngarigu was used as far south as Goongerah in Victoria, the last two both spoke dialects of Ngarigu. The present dispute originated when Tindall in his 1940 and 1974 maps incorrectly drew its boundaries with that of Ngarigo/Nguramal, the report confirmed that the language spoken in the Canberra region was a dialect of Ngarigu, related to but distinguishable from the dialects spoken at Tumut and Monaro. The evidence that the language spoken in the Canberra Based on known disputes between the two tribes, the boundary ran from north of Sutton on the Yass River to Wee Jasper on the Murrumbidee. However, the claim of the status is disputed by some Aboriginal people who say that the Ngambri are a small family clan of the Wiradjuri nation. However latest research shows, Walegulu were the south of Cooma in the Australian Alps. In 2013, an ACT Government anthropological report was released concluding that the struggle between various groups for the mantle of Canberras first people is likely to remain uncertain.
The report concluded that evidence gathered from the mid-1700s onward was too scant to support any familys claims and European Encounter in the Canberra Region Aboriginals on the Monaro
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Putty, New South Wales
Putty is a village in New South Wales, Australia in Singleton Shire. It is north west of Sydney on the Putty Road between Windsor and Singleton, the village lies in a wide valley. The knee-deep Putty Creek, or the Tupa, rises in north at the foot of Mt Kindarun, and runs the length of the valley before joining with the Wollemi Creek which feeds into the Colo River. Land holdings in the area extend to the boundaries of the Wollemi National Park in the west and south, the Putty State Forest in the north and the Yengo National Park in the East. While the number of land holdings in Putty are diminishing to make way for smaller hobby farms. A saw mill, located on the side of the Putty Road produces sawn timber from locally cut raw materials. Local trades and services include a moving business, a building/construction business. Town water and sewerage are not available at Putty, a 22,000 volt electrical distribution line runs into the valley, but many residents in outlying dwellings rely on solar power and generators due to the distance back to the main line.
The telephone system is serviced by an automatic exchange. In September 2006 Telstra commissioned a 3G/CDMA mobile tower near the Putty Road adjacent to the Putty Valley Road turnoff, only one terrestrial television signal is of a usable quality in some parts of the valley. Residents must rely on satellite services for more variety, the closest retail outlet was the Garland Valley Roadhouse,12 km north of Putty, although the roadhouse really only catered for travellers. It was destroyed by fire on 1 August 2009, residents of Putty must travel to Windsor or Singleton for food and agricultural supplies. A recent addition to the Putty scene has been the Saint Shenouda Coptic Orthodox Monastery situated on the Putty Road, another addition in 2011 is the Grey Gum Cafe on the Singleton/Putty Road,6 km south of the Putty turnoff. Coffee, hot meals, toilets and a block for travellers are available. Community groups include, New South Wales Rural Fire Service Putty brigade, the Putty Community Association which currently operates the Putty Community Hall.
The hall has undergone a continual restoration over the last 20 years, using volunteer labour and funds donated or raised during social events. The PCA hosts several events at the hall, including an Anzac day service, a Christmas gathering, a Christmas in July. The major social event is the Putty Spring Fair, held at the hall usually on a weekend-day in September, various information and training sessions are held at the Community Hall from time to time
The Muthi Muthi people are an Aboriginal group of the Kulin Nation whose traditional lands are located in the Northern Riverina and Far West regions of New South Wales. Clans of the Muthi Muthi include the Yita Yita, Kunji Kunji, Tati Tati, the Muthi Muthi are the traditional owners of Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee as well as the Willandra Lakes, Lake Mungo and the Lake Mungo remains. The Muthi Muthi are associated with the lands of the far western region of New South Wales, the Mutthi Mutthi tribal lands were a meeting place of many tribes for ceremonies and marriages. The Muthi Muthi lands are referred to as the Five Rivers Region of Australia. The rivers are the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee, the Nari Nari/Wathi Wathi boundary to the east has not been formally marked out but the Nari Nari Tribal Council refer to Dry Lake as being the western most reach of their lands. Archaeological investigation has confirmed a tribal boundary in this location as this is the last known location of Muthi Muthi burial mounds.
Muthi Muthi lands include the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area, Mungo National Park, Yanga National Park, Booligal National Park, Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee Conservation Area. Tindale notes that the Muthimuthi traditional lands were On Murrumbidgee River at Balranald, southwest to Murray River, west to near Lake Benanee, at Reedy Lake, north to west of Carrawathal. There are 64 variations of the spelling of the tribal name Mutthi Mutthi in common literature so far in that describes the people, the tribal names may be double-barrelled, hyphenated or singular depending on the reference document. The most common spellings being Muthi Muthi or Mutti Mutti in archaeological references, Mathimathi in linguistical reference, other common spelling variations in historical literature include Maadi, Madhi Madhi, Muttu Muttu and Mataua. Within the native title claim group there is a preference for the spelling Muthi Muthi or Mutthi Mutthi, there are references to Matuara and Maruara. In 1997 a claim for native title was made for an area in the south of New South Wales, as of 2016 a native title claim is before the Federal Court of Australia.
Kutcha Edwards, musician Mungo Man and Mungo Lady
Wollombi, New South Wales
Wollombi is a small village in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is within the Cessnock City Council LGA, situated 29 kilometres southwest of Cessnock and 128 km north of Sydney, to the south is the village of Laguna, to the east, the village of Millfield and to the north, the village of Broke. To the east lie Watagans National Park along with Corrabare and Olney State Forests, wollombis modest modern size is offset by its 19th-century sandstone buildings and timber slab constructed cottages and sheds in a narrow valley junction containing Wollombi Brook and Congewai Creek. Narone and Yango Creeks join these waterways near the village, the area is home to an abundance of native birds and other animals including kangaroos, wallabies and wombats and is surrounded by imposing tree-lined mountains. The traditional custodians of the locality are believed to be the Darkinjung people, though the Awabakal, the towns name is an Aboriginal term said to mean meeting place of the waters or simply meeting place.
It was apparently pronounced Wu-lum-bee, though today it is pronounced Wo - lum - bi, the establishment and significance of the township of Wollombi was directly connected with the construction and importance of the Great Northern Road in the early 19th century. The Howes Valley Rd was completed in 1823, but travel along it was thought to be too difficult to be a success commercially, major Thomas Mitchell - Surveyor-General - formulated the idea of an inland route to open up transport to regions in northern NSW. Heneage Finch, who settled in Laguna, surveyed the route for the Great Northern Road via Castle Hill, Wisemans Ferry, St Albans, Laguna. At Wollombi, the road diverged toward Singleton and Muswellbrook to the north, hundreds of convicts began building the road from Castle Hill to Wollombi. One group was headquartered at Castle Hill where over 380 men were organised in seven road parties and they began work on the section of road south of the Hawkesbury. A second group, of 119 men, worked from Newcastle in two parties, one between Newcastle and Wallis Plains and the other between Wallis Plains and Wollombi.
Road construction commenced in 1826 and was completed in 1831, remnants such as stone culverts and retaining walls remain, particularly in the area between Wisemans Ferry and Wollombi, and are catalogued and cared for by the The Convict Trail Project. Richard Wiseman received 640 acres near Wollombi, after 1830 the holdings in the Wollombi Valley were about 100 acres. Surveyor GB White surveyed the village reserve at Wollombi into sections, a horseman who travelled from Sydney to Patricks Plains in 1827 along the line of road in progress took three days for the journey – the first day to Wisemans Ferry -49 miles. The second day to the head of the Wollombi -40 mi, the settlement developed as a centre for the farming community and for travellers on the Great North Road. Then, on 12 June 1831, the steamship Sophie Jane sailed from Sydney to the port of Morpeth on the Hunter River in eleven and a half hours. With the speed and carrying capacity of the ship far surpassing that of transport to the Hunter region.
The foundation stone of Saint Michaels Catholic Church was laid near the Congewai Creek crossing in 1840, St Johns Anglican Church was built in 1846
The Colo River, a perennial stream that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. Colo River flows eastwards and south through a gorge in the northern section of the Blue Mountains. The majority of the lies in Wollemi National Park. The middle Colo is inaccessible and remote, the wilderness was saved from development and damming in the late 1970s by the Colo Wilderness Preservation Society and other environmentalists. Emerging from the region, the lower part of the Colo River flows through a scenic, narrow agricultural valley. Tributaries of the Colo include the Wollangambe River and Wollemi Creek, the river descends 214 metres over its 86-kilometre course. The Colo River gorge contains many boulder-rapids that alternate with deep pools, even though this area is relatively close to the Sydney metropolitan area, the Colo River flows through the largest wilderness area in New South Wales. Local volunteer bush regeneration groups such as the Friends of the Colo have been helping eradicate invasive exotic weeds in the surrounding the river.
The traditional custodians of the surrounding the Colo River are the Australian Aboriginal peoples of the Darug nation. The Colo River was an important transport corridor in the period before motor vehicles, with produce and goods transported down the Hawkesbury River to Sydney. Some of the beautiful and inaccessible gorges of the Colo River can be viewed by floating down the river on inflatable lilos, canoeing, viewing natural flora and fauna, and relaxing accommodation retreats are all popular recreation activities along various parts of the Colo River. List of rivers of Australia List of rivers in New South Wales Rivers of New South Wales Camping at Upper Colo Reserve, Friends of the Colo Colo River Subcatchment at the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment Management Authority website Colo River Subcatchment Corlis, Brian
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays