A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Rue de l'Université (Paris)
The rue de l’Université is a street located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. The 2,785 m long street of variable width, between 10.5 m and 15 m, is flat and parallel to the Seine from which it is only a few hundred metres away. It begins, in the east, at the crossroads with the rue des Saints-Pères and goes west-northwest, crosses the boulevard Saint-Germain and resumes due west at the level of the Palais Bourbon, crosses the Esplanade des Invalides, the boulevard de la Tour-Maubourg the avenue Bosquet and the avenue Rapp. In the 12th century, the former university of Paris acquired a territory located along the Seine, west of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés to which it belonged; this territory was called "Pré-aux-Clercs": either because students came to relax during their rest periods, or because the "watch" or review of the subjects of the king of the Basoche took place there every year. Le Pré-aux-Clercs was the scene of many duels. In 1639, the University sold the Pré-aux-Clercs and it was subdivided into a new district of Paris whose main street took the name "rue de l'Université".
With the successive extensions of the city, this street was extended to the Champ-de-Mars, crossing the Esplanade des Invalides. The street ran along an arm of the Seine until the connection of the former île des Cygnes at the end of the 18th century; until 1838, the rue de l'Université was composed of two distinct parts: the first, between the rue des Saints-Pères and rue d'Iéna, bore the name "rue de l'Université". A prefectoral decree of 31 August 1838 prescribes the reunion of these two parties under the same name of "rue de l'Université". Jacques Hillairet, Dictionnaire historique des rues de Paris. Félix et Louis Lazare, Dictionnaire administratif et historique des rues de Paris et de ses monuments. Jean de La Tynna, Dictionnaire topographique, étymologique et historique des rues de Paris
Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry
Autodrome de Montlhéry is a motor racing circuit called L’autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located south-west of the small town of Montlhéry about thirty kilometres south of Paris. Industrialist Alexandre Lamblin hired René Jamin to design the 2,548.24 metres oval shaped track for up to 1,000 kg vehicles at 220 km/h. It was called Autodrome parisien, had high banking. A road circuit was added in 1925; the first race there, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by The Automobile Club de France Grand Prix. It was a race; the Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927 and each year between 1931 and 1937. In 1939 the track was sold to the government, deprived of maintenance, again sold to Union technique de l’automobile et du cycle in December 1946; the "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems. Fatal accidents at Autodrome de Montlhéry include Benoît Nicolas Musy, the one in which Peter Lindner, Franco Patria and three flag marshals died in 1964.
The last certification for racing was gained in 2001. The first race, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by the Automobile Club de France. Robert Benoist in a Delage won. In July 1926 Violette Cordery lead a team that averaged 113.8 km/h for 8,047 km driving an Invicta, became the first woman to be awarded the Dewar Trophy by the Royal Automobile Club. The Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927. In 1929, Hellé Nice drove an Oméga-Six to victory in the all-female Grand Prix of the third Journée Feminine at the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry and set a new world land speed record for women; the Grand Prix revisited the track each year between 1931 and 1937. The "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems; the Grand Prix de France was organized in Linas-Montlhéry in 1925, 1931, 1935 and 1937 with the best worldwide racers. A competitor Grand Prix de France was organized from 1924 to 1937 with the best French and British racers.
The Bol d'or, the well-known French motorcycle endurance race of 24 hours, was held in Linas-Montlhéry before the Second War from 1937 to 1939, after the Second War in 1949, in 1950, from 1952 to 1960, in 1969 and in 1970. British motorcycles were victorious from 1931 to 1959,. A legendary French racer, Gustave Lefèvre is always the record holder with 7 victories despite riding alone during 24 hours: his average speed was 107 kilometres per hour in 1953; the year after, two riders were allowed. In 1969, a Japanese bike, Honda Four, wins for the first time. In 1970, a British one, Triumph Trident, wins for the last time. Another race open the year in France, the Côte Lapize, climbing around the hill of Saint-Eutrope: the new engines confidentially prepared during the winter months were shown. In early 1950s, Pierre Monneret riding the famous Gilera Four, 500 cc, sent by the official Italian team, was one of them; some races were open to production motorcycles like the Coupes Eugène Mauve. In 1933 the circuit hosted the UCI Road World Championships for cycling.
In 2010 the Speed Ring played host to Ken Block's Gymkhana Three video, an advertisement for his company, DC Shoes. William Boddy, Montlhéry, the story of the Paris autodrome ISBN 1-84584-052-6 Montlhery.com Website about Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry on Stades Mythiques Paris Autodrome News Association pour le soutien de l'autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Historic Purpose Built Grand Prix Circuits on Google Maps
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency"; the event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which contains a mix of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track, in which racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. Of the 60 cars which qualified for the 2018 race, 41 cars ran the full duration. Since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship; because of the decision to run a World Endurance Championship super-season in the period May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be run twice in the same season: it will be both the second and the last round of the season.
In 2011 it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, it formed a part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. Over time, Le Mans has influenced events that have sprung up all around the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at locations such as Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Bathurst; the American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years' past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race, held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race, a truck race, a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons; the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held on June 15–16 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test.
Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24 Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible. At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability; the oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of fuel each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduce time spent during pit stops.
Such technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop faster road cars in order to develop them into faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have been changed to their benefit and to further push efficiency; the race is held in June, leading at times to hot conditions for drivers in closed vehicles with poor ventilation. The race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors cover distances well over 5,000 km; the record is 2010's 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding mechanical damage, as well as managing the cars' consumables fuel and braking materials, it tests endurance, with drivers racing for over two hours before a relief driver can take over during a pit stop while they eat and rest.
Current regulations mandate. Competing teams race in groups called "classes", or cars of similar specification, while competing for outright placing amongst all classes; the race showcased cars as they were sold to the general public called "Sports Cars", in contrast with the specialised racing cars used in Grand Prix motor racing. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away from their publicly available road car roots, today the race is made of two overall classes: prototypes, Grand Touring cars; these are further broken down into 2 sub-classes each, constructors' prototypes, privateer prototypes and 2 subclasses of GT cars. Competing teams have had a wide variety of organization, ranging from competition departments of road car manufacturers to professional motor racing teams to amateur teams; the race has spent long periods as a round of the World S
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL
The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL was produced from 1954 to 1963. It was first produced as a coupe from 1954 to 1957 with gullwing doors and from 1957 to 1963 as a roadster; the direct fuel injected production version was based on the company's less powerful carbureted overhead camshaft straight-6 engine 1952 racer, the W194. Mercedes-Benz introduced the 300 SL in February 1954 at the International Motor Sports Show in New York instead of in Europe and was the marketing creation of Max Hoffman, it was voted the "sports car of the century" in 1999. The 300 refers to its engine displacement of 300 centiliter or more 2,996 cc. SL is the short form for "super-light" in German and refers to the light tubular frame construction; the 300 SL goes back to the racing sports car, Mercedes-Benz W194, which had had the name "300 SL". In 1951, Daimler-Benz had decided to take part in races again in 1952 and to build a sports car for this purpose. To achieve a sufficient performance for racing, the existing engine of the Coupe 300 S had to be further developed.
In 1952, the W 194 took part in the most important races of the year. The new SL achieved second place, it won the top three places at the Bern Sports Car Prize 131.04 kilometres. At the 24-hour race at Le Mans the 300 SL gained the top two places. First place went to Hermann Lang and Fritz Riess with an overall average 155.575 kilometres per hour, they achieved a new record in Le Mans history. Second place went to Helmut Niedermayr. A race at the Nürburgring ended with a four-fold success. At the Carrera Panamericana in Mexico, the 300 SL again won with Karl Kling and Hans Klenk – despite a vulture flying through the windscreen; these successes those on the high speed open road races, were rather surprising as the W194 engine was fitted only with carburetors, producing 175 hp, not only less than the competing cars by Ferrari and Jaguar, but less than the 300 SL road car developed from it and introduced 1954. Low weight and low aerodynamic drag made the W194 fast enough to be competitive in endurance races.
Mercedes-Benz developed a new version for the 1953 racing season. Chassis number 0011/52 was called the "Hobel", or carpenter's plane because of its distinctive front end, added fuel injection and 16-inch wheels; the gearbox was installed on the rear axle. Its body was made of a magnesium alloy, to reduce the weight by 85 kg. However, the car was not used because Mercedes-Benz decided to take part in Formula One from 1954 onwards. Versions revised the body for lower air resistance and did not adopt the transmission arrangement. Mass production of the 300 SL was not planned; the idea of a toned-down Grand Prix car tailored to affluent performance enthusiasts in the booming post-war American market was suggested by Max Hoffman at a director's meeting in Stuttgart, in 1953. Mercedes' new General Director Fritz Konecke agreed when Hoffman put an order in for 1000 carsand the new 300 SL was introduced at the 1954 New York Auto Show rather than the Frankfurt or Geneva gatherings company models made their usual debuts.
In addition, the production of a smaller roadster, the Mercedes-Benz 190 SL was announced after Hoffman put another order in for 1000 of the 190SL's The two sports cars premiered at the "International Motor Sports Show" in New York, which took place from 6 to 14 February 1954. Mercedes-Benz experienced a positive visitor response to the 300 SL and the 190 SL at the Motor Show. Serial production began in August 1954 at the Sindelfingen plant. Shortly after the start of production or from the 51st car, the long shift lever, which meshed directly with the transmission, was replaced by a shorter one with a shift linkage; the first W 198 was first sold in Europe in 1954 and in August 1954, the first vehicle was exported to the USA and sold to Briggs Cunningham. Of the 1400 Coupes built in total, the largest part, about 1100, reached the US. More than 80% of the vehicle's total production of 1400 units were sold in the US, making the coupe the first Mercedes-Benz successful outside its home market and validating Hoffman's prediction.
The 300 SL is credited with changing the company's image in America from a manufacturer of solid but staid luxury automobiles to one capable of rendering high-performance sports cars. The 300 SL's main body was steel, with aluminum hood, doors and trunk lid, it could be ordered with an 80 kg saving all-aluminium body but only 29 were made.. With the upward opening doors, the 300 SL had an unusually high sill, making entry and exit from the car's cockpit problematic. A steering wheel with a tilt-away column was added to improve driver access. Initial sales were sluggish due to several things. While initial prices were about $6,800 a new Chevrolet Bel-Air could be purchased for $1,700 in the same year. There were few mechanics at the dealers, who understood the fuel injection system enough to do repairs. A 1955 Coupe was removed from the showroom to a warehouse as unsellable and was sold at dealer cost; the price of the 300 SL was set at 29,000 DM while a 1953 Mercedes 170 Vb cost 7900 DM. The 300 SL in 1954, was not the most expensive car in the Mercedes program as the W 188 cost 5500 DM more.
Mercedes-Benz did not announce. Leicht is either "easy" as an adverb or "light" as an adjective in German. Defining a car it has to mean "light", it is assumed that the letters stand for Sport Leicht. One car magazine in 2012, declared that the abbreviation "SL" - "securitized and signed by Rudo
The Peugeot 302 is a mid-weight saloon introduced at the 1936 Paris Motor Show by Peugeot and listed, for just 18 months, until April 1938. The 302 was a shortened version of the Peugeot 402 with a smaller engine, it was launched a year after the 402. The aerodynamic 402 was enthusiastically received by the market, but it was half a class larger than the Citroën Traction Avant which had in many ways rewritten the rule book when launched in 1934, which during the 1930s acquired a range of different engine sizes and wheelbase lengths; the 302 could compete more directly with the Citroën as a modest return to stability after the economic crisis of 1929 hinted at future growth in market demand for mid-sized saloons. By the time the car was launched the country was in a state of industrial turmoil and heightened political uncertainty. Peugeot had ended production of their popular 201 model in September 1937, its replacement, the smaller Peugeot 202 would appear only in February 1938. At the time of Motor Show in October 1937 the Peugeot 302 was still listed in order to help clear remaining stocks after what had been a precarious year for French industry, both economically and politically, but the car itself was absent from the Peugeot show-stand.
Through the autumn and winter of 1937/38 the 302 was the smallest and least expensive car on offer at Peugeot dealers. The 302 faithfully followed the style of the longer 402, complete with a sloping front grill behind which lurked the head lights. An eye catching detail was the hole for the starter handle on lower part of the front grill, which passed through the middle digit of the vertically inscribed name "302", coloured in patriotic blue and red. In addition to the saloon and the manufacturer's own two-door four-seater cabriolet, a small number of special bodied versions were produced including a Darl'mat built 302 roadster and a cabriolet incorporating the automatic fold-away steel roof design patented by Georges Paulin back in 1931; the four cylinder water cooled 1758 cc engine was in most respects similar to the larger engine fitted to the 402. Tax horsepower was 10 CV, rather than the 11 CV of the 402. Maximum actual output of 43 PS was claimed, along with a maximum speed of 105 km/h.
Power was delivered from the front-mounted engine to the rear wheels via a traditional three-speed gear box. A couple of years earlier, Peugeot had scored a first among the volume automakers when they introduced an upgraded 201 featuring independent front suspension, with competitors such as Renault reluctant to invest in keeping up on the technical front, subsequent Peugeot models such as the 302 featuring independent front suspension, Peugeot were able to win plaudits for a technical advance which provided for superior road holding and comfort when the car was driven briskly on poor roads. At the back the 302 used a rigid axle suspended using cantilever-spring combinations