John Richard Schlesinger, CBE was an English film and stage director, and actor. He won an Academy Award for Best Director for Midnight Cowboy, Schlesinger was born in London, into a middle class Jewish family, the son of Winifred Henrietta and Bernard Edward Schlesinger, a physician. After St Edmunds School, Uppingham School and Balliol College, Schlesingers acting career began in the 1950s and consisted of supporting roles in British films such as The Divided Heart and Oh. Rosalinda. and British television productions such as BBC Sunday Night Theatre, The Adventures of Robin Hood and he began his directorial career in 1956 with the short documentary Sunday in the Park about Londons Hyde Park. In 1959, Schlesinger was credited as exterior or second unit director on 23 episodes of the TV series The Four Just Men and his first two fiction films, A Kind of Loving and Billy Liar were set in the North of England. A Kind of Loving won the Golden Bear award at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival in 1962 and his third feature film, tartly described the modern, urban way of life in London and was one of the first films about swinging London.
Schlesingers next film was the period drama Far from the Madding Crowd, both films featured Julie Christie as the female lead. Schlesingers next film, Midnight Cowboy, was internationally acclaimed, a story of two hustlers living on the fringe in the bad side of New York City, it was Schlesingers first film shot in the US, and it won Oscars for Best Director and Best Picture. During the 1970s, he made an array of films that were mainly about loners and people outside the world, such as Sunday Bloody Sunday, The Day of the Locust, Marathon Man. In Britain, he did better with films like Madame Sousatzka, other works include An Englishman Abroad, the TV play A Question of Attribution, The Innocent and The Next Best Thing. Schlesinger directed Timon of Athens for the Royal Shakespeare Company, from 1973, he was an associate director of the Royal National Theatre, where he produced George Bernard Shaws Heartbreak House. He directed operas, beginning with Les contes dHoffmann and Der Rosenkavalier.
Schlesinger admitted to having voted for all three political parties in the UK at one time or another. Schlesinger was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his services to film in 1970, in 2003, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California Walk of Stars was dedicated to him. Schlesinger underwent a heart bypass in 1998, before suffering a stroke in December 2000. He was taken off life support at Desert Regional Medical Center in Palm Springs on 24 July 2003 and he was survived by his partner of over 30 years, photographer Michael Childers. A memorial service was held on 30 September 2003
Julie Frances Christie is an English actress. An icon of the swinging London era of the 1960s, she has won the Academy, Golden Globe, BAFTA, and Screen Actors Guild Awards, Christies breakthrough film role was in Billy Liar. From the early 1980s her appearances in mainstream films reduced, though she held roles as Thetis in Wolfgang Petersens historical epic Troy and in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. She has continued to receive significant critical recognition for her work, including Oscar nominations for the independent films Afterglow and Away from Her. Christie was born on 14 April 1940 at Singlijan Tea Estate, Assam, British India, the child of Rosemary, a Welsh painter. Her father ran the tea plantation where she was raised and she has a younger brother, and an older half-sister, from her fathers relationship with an Indian woman, who worked as a tea picker on his plantation. Frank and Rosemary Christie separated when Julie was a child, after her parents divorce, Christie spent time with her mother in rural Wales.
As a teenager at the all-girls Wycombe Court School, she played the Dauphin in a production of Shaws Saint Joan and she studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama. Christie made her stage debut in 1957, and her first screen roles were on British television. Her big break came in the 1961 BBC serial A for Andromeda and she was a contender for the role of Honey Rider in the first James Bond film, Dr. No, but producer Albert R. Broccoli reportedly thought her breasts were too small. In 1962, Christie appeared in films with co-starring roles in a pair of comedies for Independent Artists, Crooks Anonymous. Her breakthrough role, was as Liz, the friend and would-be lover of the character played by Tom Courtenay in Billy Liar. The director, John Schlesinger, had cast Christie only after another actress dropped out of the film, who had obtained the lead role after the casting of Shirley MacLaine fell through, won numerous accolades for her performance, including the Academy Award for Best Actress.
Christie starred in two films released in 1965, first appearing as Daisy Battles in Young Cassidy, a biopic of Irish playwright Seán OCasey, co-directed by Jack Cardiff. Her last film of the year was David Leans Doctor Zhivago, the film was a box office smash, and Christies role as Lara Antipova became her most famous. As of 2016, Doctor Zhivago is the 8th highest-grossing film of all time, in 1966, Christie played a dual role in François Truffauts adaptation of the Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451, where she starred opposite Oskar Werner. Later, she played Thomas Hardys heroine Bathsheba Everdene in Schlesingers Far from the Madding Crowd, Christies persona as the swinging 60s British bird she had embodied in Billy Liar and Darling was further cemented by her appearance in the documentary Tonite Lets All Make Love in London. In 1967, Time magazine said of her, What Julie Christie wears has more impact on fashion than all the clothes of the ten best-dressed women combined
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS, winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year, the Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been very closely linked throughout their history. Of the 89 films that have been awarded Best Picture,63 have been awarded Best Director, since its inception, the award has been given to 69 directors or directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four, william Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual.
As of the 2017 ceremony, Damien Chazelle is the most recent winner in category for his work on La La Land. Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, two directing teams have shared the award, Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins for West Side Story in 1961 and Joel and Ethan Coen for No Country for Old Men in 2007. The Coen brothers are the siblings to have won the award. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31, for the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1,1932 to December 31,1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full calendar year from January 1 to December 31. org The Academy Awards Database Oscar. com
Laurence Harvey was a Lithuanian-born South African actor. In a career spanned a quarter of a century, Harvey appeared in stage and television productions primarily in the United Kingdom. His performance in Room at the Top resulted in an Academy Award nomination and that success was followed by the role of the ill-fated Texan commander William Barret Travis in The Alamo, produced by John Wayne, and as the brainwashed Raymond Shaw in The Manchurian Candidate. Harveys civil birth name was Laruschka Mischa Skikne and his Hebrew names were Zvi Mosheh. He was born in Joniškis, the youngest of three sons of Ella and Ber Skikne, Lithuanian Jewish parents, Harvey grew up in Johannesburg, and was in his teens when he served with the entertainment unit of the South African Army during the Second World War. After moving to London, he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Harvey made his cinema debut in the British film House of Darkness, but its distributor British Lion thought someone named Larry Skikne was not commercially viable.
Accounts vary as to how the actor acquired his name of Laurence Harvey. One version has it that it was the idea of talent agent Gordon Harbord who decided Laurence would be an appropriate first name, in choosing a British-sounding last name, Harbord thought of two British retail institutions, Harvey Nichols and Harrods. Another is that Skikne was travelling on a London bus with Sid James who exclaimed during their journey, Harveys own account differed over time. Associated British Picture Corporation quickly offered him a contract, which Harvey accepted. He appeared in supporting roles in several of their films such as Man on the Run, Landfall. For International Motion Pictures he was in The Man from Yesterday, Harvey stayed in leading roles for two movies with Lewis Gilbert, Scarlet Thread and There Is Another Sun. For Ealing he made I Believe in You, he starred in a low budget thriller, Harveys career gained a boost when he appeared in Women of Twilight, this was made by Romulus Films run by Jimmy and James Woolf, who signed Harvey to a long-term contract.
James Woolf in particular was a big admirer of Harvey and he had an uncredited role in the comedy Innocents in Paris, and in a Hollywood film, Knights of the Round Table. Romulus have him a part in a thriller directed by Gilbert. He was given the male lead in another Hollywood spectacular, King Richard. It was a box office disappointment and that year he played Romeo in Renato Castellanis adaptation of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, narrated by John Gielgud. He was now established as an emerging British star, according to a contemporary interview, he turned down an offer to appear in Helen of Troy to act at Stratford-upon-Avon
Poggio a Caiano
Poggio a Caiano is a town and comune in the province of Prato, Tuscany region Italy. The town lies 9 kilometres south of the capital of Prato. A large central hall gave access to rooms with windows overlooking the countryside, at the time. On Lorenzo’s death in 1492, the villa was still unfinished, work resumed under Lorenzo’s second son, Giovanni. The central hall is named after this first Medici pope, in the following century, the villa was used by successive Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the architects Giuseppe and Giovan Battista Ruggeri, major improvements to the gardens were carried out after it came into the ownership of Maria Luisa of Spain, Queen of Etruria. Following the Risorgimento, the villa was refurbished and used by Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy, the villa was donated to the Italian state in 1919. After a long period of neglect it became a museum in 1984. It is now open to the public, the main attractions of the villa are the Pontormo frescoes depicting Vertumnus and Pomona in the main salon.
Most of the interior has lost its original furnishings, but these are being recreated to return the villa to the state described in a 1911 inventory, the formal gardens, now somewhat wild, slope down to the River Ombrone at the rear of the villa. The villa features in the 1965 John Schlesinger film Darling. com Museums in Florence - The Medici Villa of Poggio A Caiano
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. In 2016, it handled a record 75.7 million passengers, Heathrow lies 14 miles west of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres. London Heathrow is the hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. In September 2012, the UK government established the Airports Commission, in July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow and the government approved a third runway in October 2016. Heathrow is 14 mi west of central London, near the end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway, Heathrow falls entirely under the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, for a chronicled history of Heathrow Airport, see History of Heathrow Airport. Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as an airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there, there was a Heathrow Farm about where Terminal 1 is now, a Heathrow Hall and a Heathrow House. This hamlet was largely along a lane which ran roughly along the east. Development of the whole Heathrow area as a much larger airport began in 1944. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended, the government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport, it opened as London Airport in 1946 and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries, the airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four terminals and a cargo terminal.
Of Heathrows 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers, the busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram, from the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways
Sir John Phillip William Dankworth, CBE, known as Johnny Dankworth, was an English jazz composer and clarinetist, and writer of film scores. With his wife, jazz singer Dame Cleo Laine, he was a music educator and he had violin and piano lessons before settling eventually on the clarinet at the age of 16, after hearing a record of the Benny Goodman Quartet. Soon afterwards, inspired by Johnny Hodges, he learned to play the alto saxophone, after studying at Londons Royal Academy of Music and national service in the army, he began a career on the British jazz scene. He attended the Paris Jazz Festival in 1949 and played with Charlie Parker, parkers comments about Dankworth led to the engagement of the young British jazz musician for a short tour of Sweden with the soprano-saxophonist Sidney Bechet. Dankworth was voted Musician of the Year in 1949, vocalist and percussionist Frank Holder sang and recorded with this ensemble. After three successful years, the group was wound up, although it re-formed for several reunions over the years, Dankworth formed his big band in 1953.
The band was soon earning plaudits from the critics and was invited to the 1959 Newport Jazz Festival, the New York Times critic said of this appearance Mr. Dankworths group. This English group has a flowing, rhythmic drive that has disappeared from American bands. The band performed at the Birdland jazz club in New York City, Dankworths band performed at a jazz event at New Yorks Lewisohn stadium where Louis Armstrong joined them for a set. By now, Cleo Laines singing was a feature of Dankworths recordings. After her divorce from George Langridge became final, in 1957, the only witnesses at the wedding were Johnnys friend, pianist Ken Moule, and arranger David Lindup. In 1959, Dankworth became chair of the Stars Campaign for Inter-Racial Friendship, in 1961, Dankworths recording of Galt MacDermots African Waltz reached the UK Singles Chart, peaked at No. 9, and remained in the chart for 21 weeks, American altoist Cannonball Adderley sought and received Dankworths permission to record the arrangement and had a minor hit in the US as a result.
The piece was covered by many other groups. Other Dankworth recordings during this period featured many other respected jazz names, Dankworth began a second career as a composer of film and television scores. Among his best-known credits are the themes for two British TV programmes, The Avengers and Tomorrows World. He wrote the scores for the films Darling and Modesty Blaise and Morgan and he appeared in the film All Night Long alongside Dave Brubeck and Charles Mingus – playing himself - and played on the theme to the satirical BBC show The Frost Report in 1966. Dankworths friendship with Duke Ellington continued until the death in 1974
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Sir Derek Jules Gaspard Ulric Niven van den Bogaerde, known as Dirk Bogarde, was an English actor and writer. Initially a matinée idol in films such as Doctor in the House for the Rank Organisation, in a second career, he wrote seven best-selling volumes of memoirs, six novels and a volume of collected journalism, mainly from articles in The Daily Telegraph. Bogarde came to prominence in films including The Blue Lamp in the early 1950s and he twice won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, for The Servant and Darling. His other notable roles included Victim, The Damned, Death in Venice, The Night Porter, A Bridge Too Far. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters in 1990, Bogarde was the elder of two sons born to Ulric van den Bogaerde and Margaret Niven. He had a sister, Elizabeth. Ulric was born in Perry Barr, Birmingham, of Flemish ancestry and he was Art Editor of The Times. Margaret Niven was Scottish, from Glasgow and was a former actress, Dirk Bogarde was born in a nursing home at 12 Hemstal Road, West Hampstead, London.
He was baptised on 30 October 1921 at St. Marys Church and his brother, Gareth Ulric Van Den Bogaerde, an advertising film producer, was born in July 1933, in Hendon. Conditions in the home in North London became cramped and Bogarde was moved to Glasgow to stay with relatives of his mother. He stayed there for three years, returning at the end of 1937. He attended University College School, and the former Allan Glens Technical School in Glasgow, from 1937 to 1938 he studied at the Chelsea School of Art. He served in both the European and Pacific theatres, principally as an intelligence officer.8 airfield at Sommervieu, near Bayeux. In a 1986 Yorkshire Television interview with Russell Harty Bogarde said, I went to see quite a lot of them, I mean I went back to the villages, and saw what I had done. I can talk about it now at 65 because its sort of, dispassionate about it, and Ive seen worse things since, a row of kids heads that you thought were footballs and you kick one and it wasnt, and it rolled away down the rubble.
I mean nothing could be worse than that, the gates were opened and I realised that I was looking at Dantes Inferno, I mean. I still havent seen anything as dreadful, and a girl came up who spoke English, because she recognised one of the badges, and she. Her breasts were like, sort of, empty purses, she had no top on, and a pair of mans pyjamas, you know, the prison pyjamas, but I knew she was girl because of her breasts, which were empty
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze